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GeolOEj, TopoEraply, Moitaiis, Valleys M Streanis; 


A Full and Particular Record of the Spanish Grants; Its Early History and- 
Settlement, Compiled from the Most Authentic Sources; the Names of 
Original Spanish and American Pioneers; a full Political His- 
tory, Comprising' the Tabular Statements of Elections and 
Office-holders since the Formation of the County; 
Separate Histories of each Township, Show- 
ing the Advancement of Grape and 
Grain Growing Interests, 
and Pisciculture ; 

Also, Incidents of Pioneer Lite ; The Raising of the Bear Flag ; and Biographical 
Sketches op Early and Prominent Settlers and Representative Men ; 

-AND OF rrs- 

Cities, Towns, Churches, Schools, Secret Societies, Etc., Etc. 




Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1879, by Alley, Bowen & Co., in the office 
of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington, D. C. 


Oakland, Cal. 
Printers, Steieotj'pers and Binders. 



In presenting this work to our patrons we disclaim all literary merit. 
We offer no apology for the want of those elaborate dissertations, thrilling 
incidents, or poetic descriptions to be found in the pages of Macaulay, 
Prescott or Irving. 

From the outset of our labors we have given the public to understand 
that our volume should contain naught but a pure and unvarnished record, 
as far as it was within our power to obtain, of the chief doings in Sonoma, 
which have been instrumental in placing her in that proud position among 
the other counties of California which she holds to-day. 

To do even this has been no easy task, yet, if the task has been laborious, 
it still has been a toil in which we have received much kind assistance. 

To the old settler, to the pioneer citizen, the events recorded in these 
pages, many of them in which he has figured, and which have been gradually 
and surely fading from the mind, will be as a revival of by -gone associations. 
The emulation of the sire will be revived^ in the son. The ground that he 
rescued from the wilderness will be made holy, while the iufant will be 
taught to look with reverence upon the book which holds the annals of his 
parents' wanderings, and the rise and progress of his native Sonoma. 

In a county of magnificent distances, every inch of which is replete with 
interest, and every township of which teems with historic lore, it may be 
said that more should have been accomplished. Should remarks of such a 
nature be made, we grant them, but reply, not in the limited space to be 
found in a volume of a little over seven hundred pages. 

More, much more, could have been effected had the county records from 
the beginning been extant ; they were not, therefore it is no fault of ours if 
this particular portion of our work would appear to have received less 
attention than others. StiU, what we hare effected we are not ashamed to 
give to our readers ; our pride is that what is told in the History of 


Sonoma County ^vill be found correct, and above all valuable, not only as 
a matter of interest to the general public, but also as a w^ork of reference. 

It may happen that some may cavil at what might appear to them the 
excessive use of quotations. To our thinking it is no evil, in a volume which 
purports to be a history, to seek the aid of those minds that have already 
given mature thought to an especial subject. 

In conclusion, Ave would here tender our best thanks to those ladies and 
gentlemen of Sonoma county who aided us with appropriate suggestions 
and valuable information, while our acknowledgments are more especially 
due to the veteran General Vallejo and to R. A. Thompson, County Clerk of 
Sonoma, from whose admirable work on the county we have received much 
excellent assistance. To Messrs. Weston & Cassiday, of the Petaluma 
Argus ; Frank W. Shattuck, of the Petaluma Courier; Thomas L. Thomp- 
son and Will Acton, of the Sonoma Democrat; Raffsdale Brothers, of the 
Santa Rosa Times; L. A. Jordan and F. C. S. Bagge, of the Russian 
River Flag; Mulgrew Brothers, of the Healdshurg Enterprise; W. S. 
Walker, of the Cloverdale Reveille, and Ben Frank, of the Sonoma Index, 
are our thanks due for many kind notices and other courtesies; while we 
owe our gratitude to L. L. Palmer, A. M., of Suisun, Solano county, for 
his very valuable chronicles of Analy, Bodega, Ocean and Salt Point 
townships. We are also deeply indebted to Doctor W. W. Carpenter, of 
Petaluma, for his interesting and instructive contribution on the Geology 
of the county; while lastly we must not forget our own staff, W. A. Slocum, 
and L. L. Bowen, who have given much zealous labor in our behalf. 


J, P. Munro-Fraser, Historian. 
San Francisco, January 1, 1880. 



Geographical Situation and Area 17 

Derivation of Name 18 

Topography 18 

Valleys 19 

Alexander Valley 19 

Bennet Valley 19 

Big Valley 20 

Dry Creek Valley 20 

Green Valley 20 

Guilicos Valley 20 

Knight's Valley 20 

Geology AND Mineralogy 21 

Climatogeaphy - 23 

Water Courses. . 26 

Timber -.. 27 

Springs and Mines 29 

The Geysers 29 

Skagg's Springs 34 

Litton Springs 35 

Mark West Springs 36 

White Sulphur Springs 35 

Alder Glen Springs 705 

The Mines 35 

Oakland Mine 36 

Cloverdale Mine 36 

Great Eastern Mine 37 

Mount Jackson Mine 38 

Early History and Settlement. 39 

Public Schools 70 

Churches 71 

Agriculture 72 

Viniculture 74 

Squatting Troubles 82 

Eailroads 85 

San Francisco and N. P. E. E. . . . 85 

North Pacific Coast E. E 85 

Sonoma Valley E. E 88 

The Bear Flag War 90 

Legislative History. 119 

Organization of the County 119 

Analy 122 

Bodega 123 

Cloverdale 123 

Mendocino 123 

Santa Eosa 124 

Sonoma 124 

Petaluma 125 

Vallejo 125 

Eussian Eiver . 126 

Washington 126 

St. Helena 126 

Salt Point 127 

Hall of Eecords 129 

County Hospital 130 

Post Offices 131 

Political History 131 

Mexican Grants.... 146 

Musalacon 146 

Cotate 147 

Guilicos 147 

Canada de Pogolome 148 

Llano de Santa Eosa 149-156 

El Molino. - 150 

Huichica 151 

Yulupa 152 

Guenoc - - - 153 

Sotoyome 153-158 

Bodega 153 

Blucher 153 

Callayome 153 

Muniz 153 

Laguna de^San Antonio 154 

Arroyo de San Antonio - 154 

Seno de Malacomes 154 

Malacomes. 154-157 

Eoblar de la Miseria - - - 154 



Canada de la Jonive . 154 

Estero Americano 155 

German 155 

Pueblo de Sonoma 155 

Petaluma 155-158 

San Miguel 155 

Tzabaco - - 155 

La Laguna de los Gentiles 156 

Lac... --- 156 

Cabeza de Santa Kosa - 156-157 

Agua Caliente. 157-158 

Mission Grants 158-159 

Homicides 160 

People vs. Christian Brunner 160 

People vs. Winslow Hall 160 

People vs. Thos. Stewart 160 

Killing of Mrs. Charles Aldrich. . . 161 
Stabbing of Hugh McLaughlin... 161 

Shooting of David Campbell 162 

People vs. Jose Sorano 162 

People IS. John Sharon . . 162 

People vs. Thos. B. Berger 163 

People vs. Wm. N. Thompson 163 

People vs. Jonathan Davis 164 

People vs. Russell J. Smither 164 

People t'5. Bird Brumfield 164 

Shooting of Cameron 164 

People fa. C. Sweitzer 164 

People vs. Michael Ryan 165 

People vs. Penito 165 

People vs. Lodie Brown et al 165 

People vs. James F. Renfro. 165 

Killing of Wenton . . . 166 

People vs. Benj. Edwards 166 

People vs. Pedro Soto 166 

People vs. Joseph R. Gibbons 166 

Murder of Mrs. Lee . 166 

Killing of George Andrado ... 167 

People vs. James K. Brownlee 167 

People vs. T. A. Hetiin 167 

People rs. H. S. Epperlee 167 

People vs. Osman Fairbanks 167 

People vs. Thos. Reed 167 

People vs. Jose Maria Floris 167 

People vs. Jackson L. Epperson . . . 168 
Killing of J. G. Hill 168 


Analy ] 70 

Bloomfield 173 

Bloomfield Flour Mill 173 

Valley Ford Lodge, No. 191, I. O. 

O. F 174 

Bloomfield Encampment, No. 61, 

LO. O.F 174 

Vitruvious Lodge, No. 145, F. & 

A.M 174 

Bloomfield Lodge, No. 256, 1. 0. G. T. 174 

Bloomfield School 175 

Churches 175 

Sebastopol 175 

LaFayette Lodge, No. 126, F. & 

A.M 176 

Evergreen Lodge, No. 161, 1.O.O.F. 177 
Sebastopol Rebecca Degree Lodge, 

No. 44 177 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 177 

Methodist Episcopal Church 177 

Sebastopol Lodge, No. 167, I. O. 

G. T 178 

Forrestville 178 

Carp Ponds of Levi Davis 178 

Carp Ponds of J. R. H. Oliver. . . . 179 

Bodega 180 

Bodega Port 186 

Bodega Corners 190 

Bodega War 196 

Bodega Lodge, No. 213, F. & A. M. . 197 
Buena Vista Lodge, No. 373, I. O. 

G. T.. 198 

No Surrender Lodge, No. 375, T. O. 

G. T 198 

Catholic Church 198 

Tanneries 198 

Freestone 198 

Valley Ford 199 

Valley Ford Lodge, No. 156. I. O. 

G. T 200 

Presbyterian Church 200 

Occidental 201 

Methodist Episcopal Church 202 

Salmon Creek Lodge, No. 234, 1. O. 

0. F 202 

Altamont Lodge, No. 374, 1. 0. G. T. 202 

Saw Mills 203 



Cloverdale 205 

First Congregational Church 20G 

Catholic Church 207 

Curtis Lodge', No. 160, F. & A. M.. . 207 
Cloverdale Lodge, No. 193, l.O.O.F. 207 
Cloverdale Lodge, No. 32. A. 0. 

U. W - 208 

Schools 208 

Cloverdale Water Works 208 

Cloverdale Hotel 208 

United States Hotel 208 

The Cloverdale Eeveille 209 

Knight's Valley 210 

Kellogg . 211 

Fossville 211 

Mendocino - - 212 

Healdsburg 217 

First Baptist Church 238 

First Presbyterian Church 239 

Church of Christ 240 

Advent Church 240 

Protestant Episcopal Church 241 

Schools 242 

Sotoyome Lodge, No. 123, F,& A.M. 242 
Healdsburg Encampment, No. 56, 

L 0.0. F 242 

Healdsburg Lodge, No. 64, I. 0. 

O. F - 243 

Star of Hope Lodge, No. 32, I. O. 

G. T 243 

Fire Department 243 

The Bank of Healdsburg 244 

Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank 244 

Healdsburg Flouring Mill 244 

Geyser Flouring Mill 245 

Water Works 245 

Gas Company 245 

Healdsburg Brewery 245 

Eussian Eiver Flag 246 

Healdsburg Enterprise 246 

Ocean 247 

Duncan's Mill 249 

Brotherhood Lodge, No. 251, F. & 

A.M... 250 

Presbyterian Church 251 

Schools 251 

Mills 251 

Petaluma 256 

Methodist Episcopal Church 311 

First Baptist Church 312 

Methodist Church South . 316 

Sfc. John's Episcopal Church 316 

Public Schools 317 

St. Vincent's Academy ... 322 

Petaluma Chapter, No. 22, R. A. M. 323 
Arcturus Lodge, No. 180, F. & A. M. 323 
Relief Encampment, No. 29, I. O. 

O.F 323 

Petaluma Lodge, No. 30, 1. 0. 0. F. 323 
Petaluma Lodge, No. 161, 1. 0.G.T. 324 

Beneficial Associations 324 

Mutual Relief Association . 324 

Sanoma and Marin Mutual Bene- 
ficial Association 327 

Library As.sociation , 328 

Temperance Eeform Club. 328 

Washington Hall Association 330 

Cypress Hill Cemetery 330 

Sanoma and Marin Agricultural 

Society 331 

Petaluma Fire Department 336 

First National Gold Bank 337 

Bank of Sonoma County 337 

Petaluma Savings Bank 340 

Newspapers 341 

Weekly Argus 341 

Weekly Courier 342 

Water Companies 342 

Sonoma County Vv'^ater Company. . 343 

McNear & Bro.'s Warehouse 344 

McNear & Bro.'s Mill 344 

California Mills 345 

Centennial Planing Mills 345 

Carriage and Wagon Factories 345 

AVilliam Zartman & Co 345 

Hopes & Cameron 346 

D. W. C. Putnam & Co 346 

B. Harter J 346 

Gwin & Brainard's Saddle Manu- 
factory — 347 

Stair Building and Wood Turning 

Manufactory 347 

Soap Manufactory 347 

Steam Maible Works 347 

Tannery 347 

Petaluma Foundry 348 

Petaluma Brewery 348 

J. Cavanagh's Lumber Yard 348 

Hotels 349 

Washington. 349 


Cosmopolitan 319 

Union - - - - 349 

Revere 349 

City 350 

Two Rock 351 

Presbyterian Church 351 

Stony Point 351 

Redwood 352 

guerneville 352 

Methodist Episcopal Church 352 

Christian Church 352 

Redwood Lodge, No. 281, 1.O. 0. F. 353 

Saw and Planing Mill 353 

Chair Factory 353 

Russian River 354 

Windsor. 360 

Salt Point.. 362 

Fort Ross 377 

Timber Cove 378 

Stillwater Cove 379 

Salt Point 379 

Fisk's Mill 379 


Black Point 380 

Plantation Lodge, No. 32, U. A. 0. D. 380 

Wayside Inns 381 

Schools 381 

Santa Rosa 382 

Santa Rosa 386 

Christian^ Church 420 

Presbyterian Church 421 

Church of the Incarnation 425 

Methodist Episcopal Church South 706 

Brotherhood of New Life . . 427 

Pacific'Methodist College 430 

Santa Rosa Commandery of Knigli ; s 

Templar 433 

Santa Rosa Encampment, No. 53, 

LO. O. F 434 

Santa Rosa Lodge, No. 53, 1. 0.0. F. 434 
Purity Lodge, No. 33, I. O. G. T.. _ 434 
Santa .Rosa Lodge, No. 370, I. O. 

G. T... ...435 

Union Aid Society... 435 

Sonoma Democrat 436 

Daily Democrat 437 

Santa Rosa Times 437 

Santa Rosa Bank 438 

Savings Bank 438 

Gas Light Company 438 

Water Works 438 

Street-car Railroad 439 

Woolen Mills 439 

Foundry and Machine Shops 440 

Empire Mills 440 

Santa Rosa Marble Works 440 

City Marble Works 441 

Brewery 441 

Santa Rosa Winery 441 

Mark West 442 

Fulton 442 

Sonoma 443 

Sonoma 444 

Temple Lodge, No. 14, F. & A. M. 456 
Sonoma Lodge, No. 28, 1. O. 0. F.. . 456 

Locust Grove School 457 

Sonoma Valley Bank 457 

Newspapers 457 

Sonoma Bulletin 457 

Sonoma Index . 458 

Vineyards of Sonoma.. 458 

Buena Vista 459 

Col. Geo. F. Hooper 460 

Nicholas Carriger . 460 

Kohler & Frohling 461 

W. McPherson Hill 461 

Pisciculture 461 

Carp Ponds of J. A. Poppe 462 

Lenni Fish Propagating Company . 463 

St. Louis 464 

Glen Ellen 465 

Vallejo .- 466 

Donahue 466 

Lakeville 466 

Washington 467 

Geyserville 467 

Addenda 704 

b:iographic AL ske,tch:es. 


Baker, Ploomer : . 470 

Canfield, William D 470 

Cockrill, L. D. 473 

Davis, Levi 474 




Gregson,'' James - - 474 

Hall, Henry 476 

Hall, Henry M 477 

Hall, Wm. P. . 477 

Hinshaw, E. C 477 

Hudspeth, James M 478 

Le Febvre, 0. M 480 

Eoss, Losson 481 

Sharon, John 481 

Watson, James 481 

Walker, John 482 


Blume, F. G 484 

Doran, Wm. M 486 

Douglass, Eobert 487 

Fowler, Stephen C. . 488 

Fowler, James E 489 

Fowler, John H 491 

Howard, William 4^1 

McCaughey, James .. 704 

McCrea, John W 494 

Meeker, Melvin C 494 

Murray, Thomas 704 

Purrine, A. S 497 

Hoadley, James F. 

..498 I Kleiser, J. A. 


Holmes, Calvin H --.- --- 499 


Allen, ;W.T .- 500 

Bice, Cornelius 500 

Biddle, Edwin W 501 

Bishop, T. C 501 

Bledsoe, Hon. A. C 502 

Board, William 503 

Cummings, William 504 

De Wiederhold, A. E. S 504 

Ely, Doctor Elisha 504 

Ferguson, Henry O 505 

Ferguson, John N 506 

Gallaway, Andrew J 507 

Gillespie, Henry ! 507 

Grater, John F.. 507 

Gum, Isaac 507 

Haigh, John B 508 

Hassett, J. D 508 

Laughlin, M. N 508 

Laymance, Isaac C 509 

McClish, James L 509 

McClish, JohnN 509 

McClish, Thomas 510 

Miller, George 510 

Miller, James 510 

Moffet, John 511 

Moreland, W. W 512 

Mulligan, William 705 

Norton, L.A.... 512 

Phillips, D. D .--. 527 

Proctor, Ira - 528 

Samuels, Hon. James 528 

Skaggs, Alexander 528 

Truitt, Koland K 529 

Van Alen, John J 529 

Willson, H.M 530 


Duncan, Alexander 530 

Mayer, August 531 

Queen, Christopher 533 

Eule, John 531 

Wood, William B 532 




Allen, Olliver 606 

Allen, Charles D 608 

Andrews, Robert 534 

Armstrong, James - 535 

Atwater, Henry H - 536 

Barnes, Alfred N 537 

Barlow, Solomon Q - 537 

Bernhard, Isaac 538 

Brackett, Joshua S - 538 

Brooks, Sylvester 539 

Brown, Ralph - 539 

Buckius, William L. 539 

Camron, O. P.. - . . 540 

Canepa, Luigi 540 

Carothers, James H 540 

Carothers, William 0. . . - 540 

Carpenter, T. L... 541 

Carpenter, W. W., M.D 541 

Case, A. B 542 

Cassiday, Samuel 543 

Cavanagh, John 544 

Christie, Doctor John Boyd 545 

Codding, G. R 545 

Congdon,*" Joseph W. 547 

Deuman, Ezekiel.. ..., 547 

Doyil, Manville 547 

Ellsworth, LeGrand 706 

Falkner, M. H 549 

Fairbanks, Hiram T 549 

Fine, Joff 550 

Freeman, John M. 550 

Fritsch, John 551 

Fritsch, John R _.. 552 

Gale, D. 552 

Gaston, Hamilton 553 

Gaston, Hugh 553 

Gaston, Martin 553 

Gerckens, J. H. L 553 

Gibbs, Henry 554 

Gregory, Henry 554 

Hale, E.W 555 

Hale, P. C 555 

Harter, Bloomfield 555 

Harris, John W 555 

Harris. Richard 556 

Hasbrouck, H. B 556 

Haskell, William B 557 

Haskins, Thomas J / 557 

Hatch, Chester P / 557 

Hill, William 558 

Holly, S. B 559 

Howell, David 559 

Hynes, Hon. James 560 

Jacobi, John 560 

Lamoreaux, G. W 561 

Lawrence, Henry E 561 

Lippitt, Edward S 561 

Lodge, John D 564 

Lovejoy, Dr. A. P ^ 564 

McClymonds. John W. 565 

McLaughlin, Michael 565 

McLaughlin, Patrick 566 

McNear, John A 566 

Magoon, William H 567 

Matzenbach, William B 668 

Maynard, Frank T. . . .^^ 568 

Mecham, Harrison . ^/C^!^ 568 

Merritt, John. 572 

Mitchener, Jonathan 572 

Moore, Edwin 573 

Morison, S, M.° 573 

Morse, A.. 573 

Munday, B. B 574 

Nay, L. G 575 

Nay, Samuel A 576 

Naughton, Hubert 576 

Needharn, Festus 576 

Newburgh, Edward 577 

Oman, George W. 577 

Palmer, James M... 578 

Parker, Freeman 579 

Pepper, W, H 579 

Pearce, Hon. George . . 580 

Pfau, Louis 585 

Pimm, Henry 585 

Poehlmann, Conrad 585 

Poehlman, Martin 585 

Polk, Charles E.. 586 

Ross, George 587 

Sales, John 587 

Schlosser, T. C 587 

Scudder, Noah W 588 

Shepherd, James S., M. D., F.R.C.S.L. 589 

Singley, Hon. James 590 

Sloper, Willard... 590 

Snow, J 591 

Staedler, John G 591 

Stanley, John P 592 




Starke, D. Frederick 592 

Sweeny, Jeremiah 593 

Thompson, James D. 593 

Tighe, Kelly - 594 

Tapper, John B 594 

Tuttle, Hon. B.F - 595 

Van Doreu, John S 597 

Van Doren, William L 598 

Washington, Neil 599 

Wells, Thomas H , 600 

Weston, Henry L 600 

Whitney, Hon. Albion P... 602 

Wickersham, Isaac G. 603 

Wigand, Theodore 604 

Williams, George B 604 

Winans, David M _ 605 

Vestal, Lewis - 599 ] Zartman, William. 



Bell, Bradford - - - 609 | Johnson, Sanborn 610 

Florence, Marshall 609 Manning, John 611 

Heald, Thomas T 609 I Manning, Nathaniel E 612 


Barnes, E. H 613 

Bedwell, Franklin - 614 

Bell, Henry - 617 

Davis, L. T., M.D. . . - 617 

Faught, Willis 617 

Graham, J.W 618 

Hotchkiss, Benoni 619 

Jeffress, J. T 620 

Kennedy, A. E.... 620 

Kruse, James 621 

Laughlin, James H 621 

Laughlin, Lee 621 

Lindsay, J. J.... 622 

McCullough, Michael 623 

McCutchan, J. B 623 

McCutchan, William C 623 

Matson, Capt. Jacob 623 

Mitchell, R. T 624 

Van Winkle, Thomas 625 

Call, G. W 625 i Haigh, Robert 627 

Fisk, John C. 

626 I Schroyer, Aaron 627 


Acton, William 628 

Aikin, Matt 628 

Austin, James 629 

Ballou, Isaac A... 630 

Ballou, Volney James 630 

Barnes, William P 631 

Baum, John 631 

Bloomington, Louis J. ... - 632 

Brown, Major John 632 

Campbell, John Tyler - . - 634 

Chapman, La Fayette - . - 636 

Clark, David 636 

Clark, D. Curtis 637 

Clark, Samuel B 637 

Cook, Isaac F 708 

Cralle,L. J 637 


Crane, Robert 

Curry, J. L..- 

Dimmick, Rev. F, M. 
Downs, Vernon 





Farmer, C. C 641 

Farmer, E. T... 641 

Farmer, William 642 

Ferguson, Russell 642 

Fox, Charles M - 643 

Frehe, Louis 643 

Frost, C. W 643 

Fulton, James --. 644 

Gregg, George T 644 

Grosse, Guy E 645 

Harris, Jacob 645 

Heisel, Paul 646 




Holmes, Henderson P 646 

Hood, George 647 

Hudson, Martin 647 

Johnson, Hon. G. A 647 

Kerr.R. A 648 

Kessing.'Clemens 648 

Lewis, Martin 648 

McConnell, William E 649 

McGee, James H -. 649 

McMinn, John - 650 

McMinn, Joseph - 650 

Miller, Thomas B 651 

Mizer, Henry C 652 

Neblett, Edward 652 

Nickels, Thomas A 652 

Peterson, Augustus 653 

Peterson, William 653 

Pfister, Conrad 653 

Proctor, Thomas J 654 

Quackenbush, Uriah P 654 

Ragsdale, J. W 655 

Rand, William J 655 

Range, Charles 655 

Roney, J. M 656 

Ross, H.J 656 

Rue, James B 656 

Shepherd, Rev. J. Avery, S. T. D... 657 

Shively,D.C 658 

Smith, Robert Press, M. D 658 

Stanley, W. B 658 

Taft, Rev. S. A., D. D 659 

Taft,H. D 661 

Talbot, Coleman 661 

Temple, Judge Jackson. 663 

Thompson, T. L 665 

Tripp, H. L 666 

Tupper, George A 708 

Underbill, J.G.... 666 

Wall, E. T 667 

Wall,ThomasH 667 

Warner, James J 667 

Weeks, Parker E 667 

Wendt, Frederick 668 

Whitaker, G. W 668 

Wood, Ben. S, 669 


Biggins, James 669 

Burris, David 670 

Burris, William 673 

Carriger, Nicholas 673 

Craig, O.^W 676 

Cutter, Capt. E. P 676 

Domeniconi, A. 677 

Haubert, Jacob i 677 

Hooper, George F 677 

Johnson, Orrick 678 

Justi,;Charles. 679 

Leiding, C. F 679 

Mayer, Lewis W 679 

Morse, E. E 680 

Pauli, G. T. 680 

Schetter, Otto 681 

Sears, Franklin 681 

Shattuck, David 682 

Snyder, Jacob R 683 

Thompson, Peter H 685 

Tivnen, John 685 

Watt, Richard L 686 

Watt, John 686 

Weise, Christian 686 

Winkle, Henry 686 


Adamson, Jacob 687 

Barnes, Jehu 687 

Benson, Josiah H 688 

Bihler, William 688 

Bodwell, C. A 689 

Campbell, George 689 

Chapman, T. M 690 

Clark, A 690 

Gregory, John 691 

Hopper, Thomas 691 

Jackson, Lorenzo 692 

Kelsey, Richard 693 

Mock, William 693 

Ormsby, J. H 694 




Patton, Eobert 694 

Peoples, Nathan 694 

Peters, A.N 695 

Pierce, H.L 696 

Eose, James E 696 

Smalley, William H 697 

Todd, John W 698 

Wharff, David 698 


Armstrong, Porter M 699 

Bedwell, Ira 700 

Bosworth, Calvin M 700 

Bouton, Andrew 701 

Cummings, J. M. 701 

Long, Isaac 702 

McDonnell, William 702 

Stites, A, H 702 

Wisecarver, J. E 703 


Vallejo, M. G ..Frontispiece 

Temple, Judge Jackson 32 

Pearce, Hon. George 48 

Shattuck, D. O.. 64 

Bledsoe, Hon. A. C 80 

Bedwell, Franklin 96 

Kleiser, J. A 112 

Holmes, Calvin H 128 

Fowler, James E 144 

Hudspeth, James M 160 

Call,G. W 176 

Eose, James E. 192 

Hill, William ._. 208 

Farmer, E. T 216 

Hooper, George F 224 

McNear, John A 232 

Burris, D 240 

Samuels, Hon. James 248 

Wickersham, I. G 256 

Eule, John 264 

Mecham, Harrison 272 

Blume, F. G 280 

Pauli, G. T 288 

Howard, William 296 

Carpenter, W. W., M. D 304 

Car^riger, Nicholas 312 

Crane, Eobert. 320 

Fulton, James 328 

Fairbanks, H. T 336 

Walker, John 344 

Tuttle, Hon.'B. F 352 

Whitney,' Hon. A. P 360 

Austin, James 368 

Hall, Henry 376 

Hopper, Thomas 384 

Meeker, M. C 392 

Walker, Capt. Joseph 400 

Fritsch, John 408 

Cralle, J. S 416 

Doyle, M 424 

McMinn, Joseph 432 

Duncan, A 440 

Canfield, W. D.T.... 448 

McMinn, John _ 456 

Hoadley, J F 464 

Talbot, Coleman. 472 

Clark, A 480 

Benson, J. H. 488 

Grosse, Guy E 496 

Gregson, James 504 

Norton, L. A 512 

Whitaker, G. N 520 

Watson. James 528 

Ballou, V. J. 536 

Eoss, Losson 544 

Lawrence, H. C 552 

Board, William... 560 

Stites, A. H 576 

Taft, S. A., D. D 592 

Brackett, J. S 608 

Kruse, James 624 

Gaston, Hugh 640 

Allen, Olliver 656 

Hasbrouck, H. B.. 672 

Barnes, J 688 

Mitchell, E. T 704 

Weeks, P. E 720 



Sonoma County is bounded on the south by the bays of San Pablo, San 
Francisco, and Marin county ; on the west by the Pacific ocean ; on the 
north by Mendocino county ; on the east by Lake and Napa counties, and lies 
twenty-five miles north of the city of San Francisco. Its sea coast line, fol- 
lowing the indentations of the shore, is about sixty miles ; its average length 
from north to south, some fifty miles; its width, about twenty-five miles, 
and its area in round numbers, eight hundred and fifty thousand acres. 

The district of Sonoma originally comprised all that vast tract of territory 
lying west of the Sacramento river, and north to the Oregon line; at the 
first session of the Legislature, however, the State was divided into counties 
for greater facility in the transaction of business, and the northern line 
of Sonoma county was established along the fortieth parallel of latitude to 
the summit of the Mayacmas range of mountains, and thence south to the 
San Pablo bay, including all of the present Mendocino, and a portion of 
Napa. In 1859, Napa county having been already formed, Mendocino was 
set apart, and the limits of Sonoma contracted to its present boundaries. 

The immense advantages of location, which the county possesses, may be 
at once observed on reference to a map of the State. It fronts on the San 
Francisco bay, called at its most northerly end San Pablo, and at one time 
known as the bay of Sonoma. The creeks, or estuaries, of Petaluma and 
Sonoma lead from the bay a considerable distance inland, and are navigable 
at high water for steam and sailing craft of considerable tonnage and carry- 
ing capacity, while along the coast there are numbers of shipping points 
with well protected harbors, all offering great advantages for the transmis- 
sion of produce to the markets of San Francisco. 

Sonoma county is less known than other portions of the State that have 
fewer advantages in the way of climate, soil, and productions. The reason for 
this is to be found in the fact that it lies ofi" from the great central line of 
travel which follows the Sacramento valley to tide-water, thence to San 
Francisco, and from there turns southward. Mr. R. A. Thompson says: 
" It has been hidden, as it were, behind the Coast Range of mountains, which 


separates it from the great Sacramento valley. From San Francisco, through 
the Sacramento valley, you pass along the east foothills of the Coast Range; 
from the same place to Sonoma county you pass along the west face of the 
same range. The trend of the coast is northwesterly, and the county of 
Sonoma lies almost entirely west of the city of San Francisco. Lying west 
of the greater part of the State, may account for the fact that about one- 
third more rain falls here than in San Francisco, and fully one-half more 
than in the counties south and east of the bay of San Francisco. There has 
never been a season in the history of the county when there was not enough 
rain to make a crop. There have been years of drouth in other parts of the 
State, but in this section, in those seasons, the crops were better than an 

The Derivation of the Name. — The origin of the name which this 
county bears is described by General M. G. Vallejo, then a Senator, in a 
report made to the Legislature of California in the year 1850, on the deriva- 
tion and definitions of the names of the various counties in the State. In 
that report, which was unequalled in its style and in the amount of interest- 
ing information crowded into small compass, the first explanation of the 
Indian word Sonoma, signifying " Valley of the Moon," appeared. The Gen- 
eral adds : " The tribe occupying Sonoma valley was called the Chocuyens, 
but, in 1824, on the arrival of the first expedition to establish a mission, the 
name Sonoma having been given the chief by Father Jose Altimira, the 
Chocuyens then adopted the name, which they still retain. This tribe wa& 
subject to a great chief, named Marin de Licatiut, who made his headquar- 
ters near Petaluma." 

Topography. — The main Coast Range, of which Mount Diablo is the best 
known and most prominent peak, continues from the Carquinez straits in a 
northwesterly direction, and forms the water-shed between the Sacramento 
valley and the coast country. This chain of mountains traverses Napa 
county, which is one of the eastern boundaries of Sonoma, and passing 
into and through the northeastern corner of the latter, there attains an 
altitude of three thousand six hundred feet above the level of the .ocean, the 
highest mountain actually within the county limits being the Geyser peak — 
so called from its propinquity to the famous springs — which is three thou- 
sand four hundred and seventy feet high, and is a conspicuous landmark, being 
visible from nearly every part of the county, while from its summit the 
whole of Sonoma, and the Pacific ocean as well, is brought within view. 
There are located in this part of the county, the Geyser Springs, a wonder of 
California, and a number of quicksilver mines. 

From the Coast Range above described, many valleys extend south- 
westerly from the main chain, and gradually expanding, front on the shorea 


of the San Pablo bay ; these are divided from each other by spurs from the 
main range that run parallel with the valleys. On the east there is the 
Napa valley, which bounds the county on that side; running parallel to the 
west of it the beautiful Sonoma valley, which gives its name to the county; 
west of Sonoma valley, and separated from it by lofty hills is that most pop- 
ulous vale which extends from the northern part of the county to the shore 
of San Pablo bay, a distance of sixty miles, and has an average breadth of 
from ten to twelve miles. The lower end of this vast plain is known as the 
Petaluma, the central portion is called Santa Rosa, and the northern section 
the Russian River valleys. Through this immense district, which may be 
classed as one great strath, the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad 
runs, from its terminus at Donahue to Cloverdale, without a cut more than 
ten feet deep on the entire line. 

We may, therefore, consider the valleys which have just been named, as 
the chief topographical features of Sonoma county. Those hills which 
divide Sonoma valley from that which may be termed the great Central 
valley, terminate at Santa Rosa. Twenty -five miles from its frontage on 
the bay, the Sonoma valley, having gradually contracted, merges into the 
great Central valley, while west of the latter lies the immediate coast coun- 
try. "The southern section of the coast country lying just north of Marin 
county, is celebrated for its dairy products. The hills are rolling, destitute 
entirely of trees or, brush, and covered with a rich sward of grass, kept green 
most of the year by its proximity to the ocean. This dairy section extends 
nearly to Russian river ; along that river, and north of it, to the county line, 
the country is densely timbered." 

Other Valleys. — Besides the four great valleys which we have just 
mentioned — the Sonoma, Petaluma, Santa Rosa, and Russian River — there 
are others smaller in size, but equally as beautiful and fruitful. Chief 
amonof them are : — 

Alexander Vcdleij.— This is located east of Healdsburg, and is an arm of 
the great Russian River valley, extending to the eastward, and borders on 
the great bend made by that stream before turning towards the ocean. It 
was once a portion of the Sotoyome grant, and was acquired and settled in 
1845 by Cyrus Alexander, from whom it takes its name. The land is of 
unsurpassed fertility. 

Bennet Vcdley.—Here we have another of the small valleys of Sonoma. 
It lies south of the town of Santa Rosa, and east of the Santa Rosa valley, 
has a length of eight miles, and an average width of four miles, while it pos- 
sesses all the features peculiar to other parts of the county, its soil and 
climate being peculiarly adapted for the cultivation of fruits and grapes. 


Big Valley. — Otherwise known as the valley of the Estero Americano, an 
estuary leading from the sea about seven miles, Ijes along a small stream 
falling into it. The prosperous towns of Bloomfield and Valley Ford are 
situated in the valley, while it is crossed by the narrow-guage line of the 
North Pacific Coast Railroad. The principal products are potatoes, butter, 
and cheese, but cereals are also grown in considerable quantities. One 
hundred thousand sacks of potatoes are raised annually in the valley, and in 
the country north and south of it there are at least eight thousand milch- 
cows, producing during the season, a daily average of one pound of butter 

Drr/ Creek Valley. — Lies to the north of Healdsburg and west of the 
Russian River, is about sixteen miles long, and two broad, and is without a 
peer in the production of wheat, corn, and staple products, while the hill 
land on its border produces all kinds of fruit, being especially adapted to 
grape culture. 

Green Valley. — This beautiful valley is on a creek of the same name 
which jflows north into the Russian river, and lies west of the Santa Rosa 
plain. It is twelve miles long by three wide, and is adapted to the growth 
of fruit, and all the staple crops; the speciality in fruit culture being apples, 
pears, plums, prunes, peaches, cherries, table and raisin grapes. The finest 
orchards of the county are situated in Green valley. 

Guilicos Valley. — This is in fact the upper part of Sonoma valley, proper, 
and is one of the most picturesque places in the whole State of California. 
It was originally granted to the wife of Don Juan Wilson, a famous sea- 
captain on this coast during the Mexican regime. He married into one of 
the native Californian families, and though an Englishman by birth, became 
a Mexican citizen, and was granted the Guilicos valley. In 1850 it became 
the property of William Hood, a Scotchman, who subdivided it and sold the 
greater part. Mr. Hood, however, retains his charming homestead at the 
foot of the Guilicos mountain, one of the most favored farms on the coast. 

Knight's Valley. — Has a position on the extreme eastern boundary of 
Sonoma county, lying at the foot of St. Helena mountain, and includes 
about thirteen thousand acres. It is characterized by the most beautiful 
scenery, and though sparcely settled, still it contains much valuable agri- 
cultural land and hill-pasture for sheep, wheat culture and stock raising 
being its principal enterprise. 

Besides these there are the still smaller valleys of Rincon, near Santa Rosa, 
Rural and Alpine, on Mark West creek, and Blucher valley, west of the 
Santa Rosa plain, all of which possess the most splendid soil and are capable 
of producing in extreme plenty all of the staple crops. 


The following able remarks on the geology of Sonoma county have been 
most courteously supplied us by Doctor Carpenter of Petaluma, an 
accomplished scientist and eminent phj^sician of that city. 

Geology and Minerology. — The county of Sonoma has never been 
honored with a geological survey. It is pretty evenly divided between' 
valley and mountain. The valleys having formerly been submerged with 
the waters of the ocean, were left upon their subsidence with a soil of adob6, 
but have since received a coat of sedimentary deposit of alluvium. The soil 
of the eastern part of Sonoma valley rests upon a hard pan of secondary 
formation. The sandy loam comprising the country lying between Petaluma 
and the coast is modern alluvium. The redwood forests adjacent to the 
coast, belong to the second epoch of the tertiary period — the miocene of Mr. 
Lyell. The soil of the Russian River valley largely formed through glacial 
influence, belongs to the secondary period. The mountains are volcanic. 
Trap, or basalt is the leading rock, although porphyry, sienite, granite, slate, 
and especially carbonate, oi magnesian limestone are found. The mountain 
range of basalt dividing the Petaluma and Sonoma valleys was poured out 
of the crater of St. Helena and rolling onward, a mighty river of molten 
lava, cooled and hardened where we now find it. The streets of San Francisco 
are largely paved with this rock. In quarrying it small caverns are revealed 
most beautifully lined, and crystalized with carbonate of lime. Notwith- 
standing that Sonoma is classed as an agricultural county, its Uiineial 
resources are varied, and in the near future will be a source of great profit. 

Coal, of not by any means a superior quality, has been found near the 
surface on Sonoma mountain not more than five miles from Petaluma. 
Practical experience has upset many scientific theories. Science taught that 
the native deposit of gold was exclusively in quartz. The miner reveals 
some of the richest leads in slate rock. Science formerly taught that the 
coal deposit was exclusively in the carboniferous formation. The same 
authority now teaches that it may be found in any geological strata. It is 
true that all the coal thus far found belongs to the tertiary, or secondary 
formation — lignite or brown coal — yet competent observers are sanguine in 
the belief that when sufficient depth shall have been reached coal of good 
quality and in reasonable abundance will be found. 

Petroleum, a sister product, is also known to exist in this county. It is a 
question whether oil wells will ever prove as productive in California as they 
are in Pennsylvania, for the reason that the horizontal wheels of the palaeo- 
zoic age confines the oil beneath the surface in the latter State^ while the 
tertiary rocks of California, turned up on edge, allow it to be forced to 
the surface by dydrostatic pressure, and capillary attraction, and thus wasted. 
Hence large quantities of oil on the surface is an unfavorable indication for 


It is for this reason, and not because oil in quantities does not exist, that 
the oil business has not a promising out-look on the Pacific coast. 

Quicksilver. — Quicksilver, principally in the form of cinnabar, exists in this 
county in large quantities. During the quicksilver excitement of four or 
five years ago many rich deposits were developed, and worked until the im- 
mense quantities of the article found in every section of the State reduced 
its price below the cost of extraction, which necessarily compelled a discon- 
tinuance of operations. 

The composition of cinnabar being 81f grains of quicksilver and 19j 
grains of sulphur to the hundred, imj^lies the existence of an abundance of 
the latter article also in the county. When quicksilver exists where there 
is no sulphur it must needs be in its native form. In the Rattlesnake mine, 
above CJoverdale, is the only place that it is found in this county, other- 
wise than in the form of cinnabar. In that mine the pure globules are in- 
terspersed through soft tulcose rock. 

Borax. — Borate of soda has been found, but not in paying quantities. 

Kaolin. — This article is found in this county, but kaolin being decomposed 
feldspar, and the pure atmosphere of California not possessing the power of 
decomposing and disintegrating that article from its native rocks like the 
murky air of England, the quantity is correspondingly small. So rapidly does 
the atmosphere of England decompose feldspar, that granite, or sienite, exposed 
to the air, becomes honey-combed in a few years. The reader is aware that 
fine porcelain ware is made of finely pulverized quartz crystals, kaolin, and 
the ashes of ferns — the fern ashes containing enough alkali, in the form of 
bicarbonate of potassa — to produce the requisite effervescent action, in 
union with the silisic acid of the quartz, to develope the beautiful finish of 
that elegant w^are. The kaolin for the immense quantity of porcelain ware 
manufactured in England is gathered in Cornwall, where it is decomposed 
and disintegrated from the granite quarries. 

Red and Yelloiu Umher {terra de sienna), as well as other ochreous color- 
ing earths of a superior quality, and in great abundance, are found in this 
county. No better material for paints exist upon the earth. 

Petrifactions are found in this county — and, in fact, everywhere on the 
coast — under circumstances which upset the accepted theory that petrifac- 
tion can only occur by saturating the wool in thermal waters. Petrifaction 
takes place on the surface of tlie earth — necessarily beyond the reach or in- 
fluence of thermal waters. The large amount of silex in the soil may ac- 
count for this in some instances, as thei'c are many cases in which an excess 
of that element causes wood to petrify instead of carbonize, even in the car- 


boniferous formation. Still the proposition holds that petrifactions are 
found under circumstances which would seem to imply that atmospheric con- 
ditions must have something to do with their transformation. 

Argentiferous galena exists in the northern part of the county, and in the 
near future will become a paying industry. 

Copper. — Some rich deposits of copper — principally in the form of red 
oxide — have also been discovered in the northern* section of the county. 

Iron. — Iron is found nearly everywhere, but the most valuable yet 
unearthed are the chromic iron ores in the mountains near Cloverdale, where 
the rock formation is mainly serpentine. Some of these ores have been in 
the process of extraction for several years with profit to the owners. A small 
amount of hematite iron was found near Santa Rosa. Magnetic and Titanic 
iron is found in more or less abundance as is usual in all volcanic rocks. 

Pisolites, Oolites, and Obsidian are among the products found in attest- 
ation of the volcanic period. 

Boiling springs exist in several localities, the most noted, and remarkable 
of which are the Geysers. These springs are among the most wonderful 
and magnificent displays of nature in the world. Notwithstanding that the 
springs are located within close proximity of each other, the chemical proper- 
ties diflfer much. We have not at hand a chemical analysis of these waters, 
but chloride of sodium (table salt), borate of sodium (borax), carbonate of 
sodium, sulphur, iron, and sulphate of sodium predominate. There is a trace 
of silica in all of them we believe. Litton springs and Mark West are well 
known places of resort for pleasure-seekers and invalids. 

Imperfect skeletons of several mastodons have been found protruding from 
the banks of Petaluma creek ; a short distance above the town of Petaluma, 
where the floods had exposed them to view ; and one tusk founds— and now 
in a cabinet in the latter city — is ten inches in length. They were perhaps 
mired down while seeking water. Their discovery was merely accidental, 
paleontological research never having received any more attention in the 
county than its kindred sciences. 

Bloodstone and agate are the only valuable varieties of the quartz family, 
so far as we know, that have been found in this county. 

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) is found, but in comparatively small quantities 
to that of the carbonate, or magnesian lime. 

.The annexed remarks on the climate and rainfall of Sonoma county are 

reproduced from Mr. R. A. Thompson's valuable work already alluded to : — 

Climatography — " The climate of the county of Sonoma differs in many 


respects from that of other portions of the State. First, in this : the average 
rainfall is about one-quarter more than at San Francisco, fifty miles south. 
We have never, since the American settlement of the county, lost a crop 
from drouth, though other parts of the State have suffered severely. This is 
particularly due to the fact that our coast line is thirty-five miles west of a 
due north line from San Francisco. As the coast trends to the northward 
and westward, the annual rainfall increases. South of San Francisco the 
coast trends to the south and east, and the reverse rule hold.s good — the rain- 
fall is lighter until, as in Lower California, it rarely rains at all. 

" The season of rain in this section may be said to commence in October 
and end in May, though it sometimes rains in June. It is rare that it rains 
longer than two or three days at a time, and the intervals between rains 
varies from a few days to a month or six weeks. Old Californians consider 
the Winter the most pleasant part of the year. As soon as the rain com- 
mences in October, the grass grows, and by the middle of November the hills 
and pastures are green. So soon as the ground is in condition to plough, 
after the first rains, the farmers sow their grain. December is usually a 
stormy month, with now and then a fall of snow in the surrounding hills, 
but it is rare that the snow falls in the valleys, and never lies on the ground. 
The thermometer seldom goes as low as thirty-seven degrees above zero ; 
occasionally there is a thin coat of ice over the pools of standing water. 
December is usually the month of heaviest rainfall. In January we begin to 
recognize an indescribable feeling of Spring in the air ; the almond trees blos- 
som and the robins come. During this month grass and early-sown grain 
gi'ow rapidly. If the early season has not been favorable for seeding, grain 
may be sown in January, February or March, and it will produce well. In 
this county it is often sown as late as the middle of April, producing a fair 
crop. As a rule, the bulk of the planting is done either in the Fall, or in 
January, February, and the first half of March. 

"February is a growing month, and is one of the most pleasant in the 
year. It is like the month of May in the Eastern States. The peach and 
cherry trees bloom this month. March is a stormy month ; we are liable to 
have either heavy southeast storms or a dry north wind. 

" April, as in the East^ is often all smiles and tears, sunshine altei-nating 
with showers. Nature pushes her work in April, and vegetation grows aston- 
ishingly. The turning-point of the crop comes in the long, warm days of this 
month ; the rainy season is about over, and from that time until it matures 
the crop is sustained by the sea fogs, which set in about the first of May. 
In June the grain matui-es, and by the middle of July is ready for the 

" The season in Sonoma county begins a month sooner, and ends six weeks 
later than in Southern California. This is one of the greatest of its advantages 
over the other parts of the State, and has given the farmers of this section 


a good crop every year, while disastrous failures have elsewhere occurred. 
Corn is planted in April, after the rains have ceased, and a good crop is often 
raised without a drop of rain having fallen upon it; by good crop, we mean, 
on the best bottom lands, from eighty to a hundred bushels to the acre. 

" We have mentioned the fog which sets in about the first of May. This 
phenomenon, of almost daily occurrence, from May to the middle of Aagusfc, 
is an important factoi" in the growth of the crops along the sea-coast and on 
the bay of San Francisco. About the first of May the trade winds set in 
from the northwest. The Spanish galleons, bound from Manilla to Aca- 
pulco — three hundred years ago — steered for Cape Mendocino, where they 
would encounter the northwest trade, and run before it, with swelling sails 
to their beautiful harbor Acapulco. To these winds the farmers of Sonoma, 
of our own time, are indebted for their never-failing crop. After a drying 
north wind in the Spring, which has parched the earth and twisted the 
blades of the growing grain, the trade sets in, and, as if by magic, the scene 
changes, the shriveled blades unfold, and absorb life at every pore from the 
moisture-laden breeze. 

" When the trade winds set in, a fog-bank forms every day off the land, 
caused, perhaps, by the meeting of a cold and warm strata of air. In the 
afternoon this fog comes inland with the breeze, which commences about 
noon every day. It is not an unhealthful fog; on the contrary, the most 
healthful season of the year is when the trade winds prevail. The fog spreads 
through the county late in the afternoon, continues through the night, and 
disappears about sun-rise. This mild process of irrigation is repeated nearly 
every day during the season. The farmer estimates that three heavy fogs 
are equal to a light rain. 

" The growing season is from six weeks to two months longer on the coast 
than in the interior ; the grass keeps green, and this . accounts for the pro- 
ductiveness of the dairy cows on the coast, and also for the fact that the 
wool of this section is very superior in length of staple, strength of fibre.and 
in color, to that grown in the interior of the State. 

" Our crops have been more often injured by too much than by too little 
rain. In the dry years, 1863-4 and 1864-5, enormous crops were raised in 
this county, while in the greater part of the State there was an absolute 
failure of crops and grass. 

" Sonoma county is exempt from malarial disorders. There are no extremes 
of heat and cold, and nothing like Winter. It is probable that more roses 
and flowers bloom in the Santa Rosa valley, in December, than in all the hot- 
houses of New England. The climate is all that the most fastidious could 
ask. There are no troublesome insects that prey upon vegetation or human- 
ity. As an evidence of the evenness of the temperature, we will state, in con- 
clusion of this subject, that the same clothing may be worn here all the year 
round, and is not too light for Winter nor too heavy for Summer." 


The Thei-mal Belt. — There is a warm strata of air in the hills, a few hun- 
dred feet above the valleys. This semi-tropical belt varies ; in some locations 
it is very marked, and in others it is much less so. At night, during the 
frosty seasons, the cold air settles in the valleys and the warm air rises. At 
day-light a severe frost may be seen in the valleys, heaviest along the water 
courses, while in the warm belt, a few hundred feet above, — in some cases 
not more than sixty — the most delicate flowers and shrubs are untouched. 
The soil on the hills has often great depth, and is admirably adapted to fruit 
culture. Like the valleys, the lands l^-e covered only by scattered groves of 
trees, little of it too steep for easy cultivation. It is exactly suited for semi- 
tropical fruit culture ; here oranges, lemons, limes,' English walnuts, almond 
and pomegranate trees grow well, and yield a certain crop. There are 
thousands of acres of this kind of land in Sonoma county, which can be 
bought at from fifteen to twenty dollars per acre. We know orchards where 
the fruits most 'sensitive to frost have never yet been injured; where the 
geranium, the fuchsia and heliotrope will grow out of doors, and blossom in 
the Winter months. Semi-tropical fruits are grown in the valleys, but^ 
excepting the almond and English walnut, not with as much certainty as in 
the warm belt. The value of the hill lands of Sonoma county is not yet 
appreciated — least of all by those who have been longest here. 

Water Courses. — The valleys having their front on San Pablo bay have 
each an estuary leading inland and navigable for craft of considerable size, 
the one leading into the Sonoma valley is called Sonoma creek, and that into 
the great central valley is known by the name of Petaluma creek, the latter 
being navigable for eighteen miles inland. Of the other streams there are : — 

Russian River. — This is the largest stream in Sonoma, but is not navi- 
gable. It enters the, county on the north, and after taking a southeasterly 
course_^for about thirty miles, turns sharply to the west and flows into the 
Pacific ocean. 

Mark West Creek. — This rivulet rises in a lofty spur of the Mayacmas 
range between Napa and Sonoma valleys, and after flowing west across 
the plains, empties itself into Russian River. 

Santa Rosa Creek. — Has its source in the same mountain, flows across the 
Santa Rosa valley, and having run parallel with Mark West creek for four 
miles falls into a series of lakes, which, in high water, overflow into the 
Russian River, 

Sonoma Creek. — Rises in the same range of mountains, and flows southerly 

through Sonoma valley into San Pablo bay. 

j^t- -^ • 

, Sulphur Creek. — Has its birth in the Mayacmas range and passing the 


Geysers, flows in a northerly direction until it joins tlie Russian River above 

Valhalla River — Spelt on the map Gualala, has its origin in the western 
border of the county, flows due north, parallel with the coast just inside a 
range of hills which rise up from the shore of the ocean, and after a straight 
north course for nearly twenty-five miles, it turns, and forming the line on 
the coast between Mendocino and Sonoma counties, falls into the great 
Pacific. Mr. Thompson says: "There was never a stream so well named; 
great red-wood trees shade its limpid waters, the favorite haunt of the 
salmon and the trout; the hills are full of game — deer, elk, and bear — and if 
ever there was a place where the ' bear roasted every morning became whole 
at night,' it was true, figuratively speaking, of our Sonoma Valhalla, — for 
the camp on its margin was never without its haunch of venison or creel of 
trout. May the fellow who tortured the name by trying to Peruvianize it, 
never taste the joys of the real Valhalla ! " 

Timber — Redwood. — Over most of the agricultural counties of the State 
Sonoma has one marked advantage, that is the immense source of wealth in 
its timber. Commencing at Humboldt the great redwood timber-belt reaches 
down the coast for one hundred and fifty miles, terminating within the 
limits of Sonoma; froni the Valhalla to the mouth of the Russian River is one 
continuous line of timber going back from the ocean for eight miles. The 
reader will observe by reference to the county chart that Russian river 
turns around the town of Healdsburg, and flowing west, after leaving the 
valley, enters the timber region. Fed as it is by the rich alluvial soil, on 
either bank of the stream, and watered by the annual overflow of its waters, 
the trees grow to a prodigious size, and are not to be surpassed anywhere on 
the Pacific Coast. They grow, in some cases, to a height of over three 
hundred and fifty feet, have a diameter of fifteen feet ; a single tree has been 
known to produce sixty-five thousand feet of lumber worth at least one 
thousand dollars; the wood in the standing tree is valued at two dollars per 
thousand feet; one hundred and fifty thousand feet to the acre; six million 
feet on a forty-acre tract, is an average of good land. On the margin of the 
streams the finest timber would produce in the vicinity of eight hundred 
thousand feet to the acre, and the yield runs downward from that figure to 
twenty-five thousand feet to the acre- 

The redwood is a creature of the fog. As has been said above^ during the 
Summer months the trade winds set in along the northern shore of this 
county and dense fog banks arise some miles from the coast; this is driven 
inland later in the day; the great mass becomes sundered, and detached 
flakes, each chasing the other, are driven into the hollows, and among the 
trees, where they all accumulate, leaving the valley enveloped in drij^ping 
mist. The foliage of the redwood possesses the peculiar power of condensing 


this mist and converting it into rain; the roots which sustain the mighty 
bole — often one liimdred and fifty feet in height without lateral branches — 
are in this Avise nourished during the long summer months when no rain 
falls. The fog wraps these forests in its fleecy mantle during the night; in 
the morning with the rising of the sun it disappears. 

It will thus be seen that the redwood belongs essentially to the foggy coast 
regions. South of San Francisco the supply has been cut out, and as it grows 
nowhere else, neither north nor south, Sonoma,Mendocino,and Humboldt coun- 
ties may be said to have a monopoly of this wood, the first in commercial 
importance on the Pacific Coast. Oregon has it not; in Puget Sound with 
her endless forests, it is wanting; while, it is not to be found on either slope of 
the Sierra Nevada. 

Redwood is a close grained timber, splits true, and is like Eastern cedar in 
the lightness of its color. It works beautifully, and has the merit of retaining 
its shape without warp or shrinkage, while its durability is unquestioned. 

Hardwoods. — To be found among the redwoods, are the California laurel, 
a beautiful evergreen, the timber of which takes a high polish, and is exten- 
sively used as veneer ; leaves and wood have a strong aromatic odor. The 
madrona is another striking tree of the California forests. The bark, which 
is of a bright red color, peels off at regular intervals, and exposes underneath 
the new growth of a bright pea-green tint; its wood is hard and employed 
principally for the manufacture of shoe-lasts, wooden stirrups and other 

The Oahs.^The Chestnut oak is abundant in the redwood forests of 
Sonoma. The bark is rich in tannin; the trees are stripped and large quan- 
tities of the bark are shipped for tanning purposes. 

The Live oak also grows in large quantities in Sonoma but has little value 
except for fuel. 

The Black oak is found on all the hill lands in the county, and is the best 
wood obtainable for fuel. 

The Burr oak is the largest and most common of the oaks. It is this tree 
with its long, drooping, wide-spread branches that gives such a charm to 
Californian scenery. They grow in clusters and are especially graceful. 



The Springs. — The Geysers. — Of all the noted places in Sonoma county, 
indeed on the Pacific coast, the most famous is The Geysers, which are loca- 
ted in the Mayacmas i-ange of mountains which separate this from Lake and 
Napa. They are one thousand seven hundred feet above the level of the .sea, 
placed among sceneiy which absolutely defies description. It is positively 
a most " uncanny " place. 

These springs and their healing properties were long known to the Indi- 
ans, there being a jet still known as the Indian sweat-bath, where the rheu- 
matic patient was wont to be brought and laid upon a scaffold, or temporary 
grating, immediately over the spring, and steamed until cared or relieved 
by death from his sufferings. 

On one occasion, in the month of April, 1847, William B. Elliott, men- 
tioned elsewhere as having a ranch on Mark West creek, was, in company 
with a son, on a hunting expedition. Tracking a bear to the summit of the 
opposite mountains, where they lost him, they observed smoke arising in 
such volumes that they mistook it for a large Indian rancherie. - After con- 
ning it for a space and seeing no signs of human life, they descended the 
mountain, and found on arriving on a flat plot of ground their further prog- 
ress barred by a huge grizzley, which the fearless hunters soon dispatched. 
On this level clearing the first house at the Geysers was erected by M. Levy, 
and was long known as the Old Homestead, and was remarkable for having 
on its site a wild grapevine measuring twelve inches in diameter. In the 
year 1854, Major Ewing built a cloth house on the position now occupied 
by the present hotel, where he was joined by Levy, who found the situation 
more eligible than his own, and shortly after a saw-mill was constructed, a 
portion of the hotel now in use being built from lumber sawed by it. 

Colonel A. C. Godwin, now deceased, but then a merchant in Geyserville, 
a small town situated in Washington township, obtained an interest in the 
property shortly after its settlement, and from his genial manners and per- 
sonal magnetism, was the means of attracting many visitors to the spot. 

We are indebted to Mr. Robert A. Thompson's interesting work on 
Sonoma county for the following information : — 

" The first route to the springs was through Knight's valley to the foot of 
the mountain, in stages, then on horseback by a narrow trail over the moun- 
tain. William McDonald, still a resident of Knight's valley, acted as guide. 
Levy kept the hotel during Colonel Godwin's ownership ; he was succeeded 
by Major Ewing, and Major Ewing by H. Utting. After Mr. Utting the 



place changed nearly every year, and the hotel was kept successively 
by Coe c<c Baxter, Clark Foss, and F. H. Coe. In 18G6 it was rented by 
Major Shafer, who kept it until 1870 ; he was succeeded by J. C. Susenbeth, 
who remained there three years. B. S. Hollingsworth was the lessee for the 
years 1874-5-G and 7 ; he was succeeded in April of that year by W. For- 
syth, the present proprietor. The first register kept at the springs was in 
the year 18.') 4. and there are but twenty names upon it. From that time on 
the numl'tr increased every year until 1875, when three thousand five hun- 
dred names were enrolled. 

" The Hrst wagon-road made to the Geysers was from Healdsburg, over 
wliat is called the Hog's Back ridge. On the loth of May, 18G1, R. G. 
Flournoy drove a double team and buggy over the new road, and to him 
belongs the credit of taking the first wheeled vehicle of any kind to the 
Geyser springs. He was accompanied by a lady, and reached the hotel at 
eleven o'clock, P. M., without breaking a bolt. The main. trail to the Gey- 
sers was over this road until 18G1), when a toll-road was built from Knight's 
valley, and a stage line put on that route. In 1874, the toll-road from 
Cloverdale up Sulphur creek, was built, and opened the following season. 
Of all the roads to the Geysers, that from Healdsburg, over the Hog's Back, 
is the most interesting and beantiful. It follows the crest of the high ridge 
separating the waters of Big and Little Sulphur creeks, passing close unddr 
the shadow of Geyser peak, affording a view of the great Russian River val- 
ley and the sea beyond, unsurpassed anywhere in its breadth, variety, and 
beauty. There are other roads in to the springs from Lake county, and 
there is also a good trail from Geyserville." 

As has been said above, in former days the route used to be by way of 
Foss' station, situated in a small, secluded valley — the heau-ideal of seques- 
tered loveliness. Thence it lay principally up hill for four miles, whence a 
descent was made to Little Pluton river, which was forded, and the ascent 
continued until the " upper station " was reached, six miles from Foss' and 
the same distance from the Geysers. From the Little Pluton to this point, 
the road lay through timber of various varieties, — oak, madrona, manzanita, 
and much undergrowth. The timber, however, was soon left, and in a few 
minutes longer the highest point on the road was reached, about three thou- 
.saud feet above the ocean (Healdsburg is one hundred and twenty feet above 
tlie sea level). The most thrilling portion of the journey was then com- 
menced. Down the road went upon the Hog's Back, a narrow ridge, wind- 
ing hither and thither, up hill and down, for two miles, appearing almost 
impossible for horses to stand on the side of the hill, but still they would 
creep up with a slow and hardly perceptible motion. The summit of one 
hill gained, they would madly dash down another; to the right, and within 
a foot, the brink of a precipice fearful to behold; to the left, a high rock, 
reaching up hundreds of feet. Now they dash around the hill, the leaders 


trotting to the extreme outer edge of the road and apparently going over 
the brink, to whirl around just in the nick of time. Anon, there is a hill on 
the right and a steep gorge on the left, and then again a yawning gulf on 
either side, the ridge on which the road runs being in places not seven feet 

What a gorgeous panorama is there to be seen from the highest point of 
the road. In the immediate foreground are the steep mountain sides covered 
with a dense foliage of varied hues. From the depth of the gulches sturdy 
pines rear their lofty pinnacles until they seem almost within reach. South- 
ward spreads out the Russian River valley, interspersed with gardens and 
grain fields, and through its center, sparkling in the sun's rays, the river 
winds its tortuous way, concealed at times by the luxuriant growth of oaks 
and clinging vines upon its banks. Far beyond the valley the hills and 
mountains rise in graceful succession ; and farther, on the verge of the hori- 
zon, the coast range hems in the view, and is dimly visible in the soft, hazy 
atmosphere so peculiarly Califor-nian. 

A writer many years ago speaks of the famous " whip " of this route in 
these words: — 

" A trip to the Geysers without Foss, the accommodating and world- 
renowned driver, who originated and owns the line between Calistoga and 
the Geysers is like the play of Hamlet with that melancholy young gentle- 
man left out. Not onl}^ is he an unequalled driver, but he is a man of genius 
and a philosopher. In person he stands over six feet two inches in his 
stockings, is as strong as a giant, has the voice of a tragedian, weighs two 
hundred and thirty pounds, and is as fine a specimen of muscular develop- 
ment and vigor as ever went forth from the hills of the Granite State. 

" With a fresh team of six horses, and a load of appreciative passengers, 
Foss is in his glory. Alternately coaxing and encouraging his horses up the 
steepest acclivities, his eye sparkles at the top as he gathers the reins, care- 
fully places his foot on the brake, turns half round and looks over the coach 
to see that the passengers are all there, when 'crack' goes the whip, a shout 
to the horses, and away we go down the steep mountain side. Trees fly past 
like the wind; bushes dash angrily against the wheels; the ladies shut their 
eyes and grasp the arm of some male passenger ; and speed down the declivity 
with lightning rapidity, the horses on a live jump, and General Foss, whip 
in hand, cracking it about their heads to urge them on. The effect at first 
is anything but pleasant. At every lurch of the coach one feels an instinctive 
dread of being tossed high in air and landed far below in a gorge, or, 
perchance, spitted upon the top of a sharp pine. If a horse should stumble 
or misstep, or the tackle snap, away we should all go down the precipice. 
The angle of descent is exceedingly sharp, and down this declivity the horses 
are run at break-neck speed for two and a half miles, making thirty-five 
turns and some of them extra short ones." 


Tlu' (leysers is a name given t<j springs scattered along the Pluton river 
for six miles above tlu- hotel and two and a half below, but the principal 
ones of interest lie within half a mile of the hotel, across the river and up a 
narrow gorge, called the " Devil's Caiion," which leads into Pluton river, 
perhaps fifty yanls below the hotel. A guide being procured, and each being 
arme<l with a stout walking stick, we pass over the river and visit an iron 
spring, fifty yards in front of the hotel. Then the river Pluton is crossed by 
means of a narrow foot-bridge. The stream is here about thirty feet in 
width and full of large boulders. Passing the bath-house we see the "Eye 
spring," with its dark-colored water; next "Proserpine's Grotto," in the 
Devil's Canon, where we Bnd Epsom salts on the walls in crystals. We 
are now in the "Devil's machine shop," surrounded by infernal springs, 
bubbling and boiling with their alum and iron solutions, among which is 
the " Devil's Ink." The ground is unbearably hot; the steam rushes out 
fi'om the vent holes in the hill-sides and under foot. A feeling of awe and 
jx)ssibly of insecurity takes hold of the stranger. But on we must go, for 
the hot ground burns our feet. Alum springs abound, and here is nitre and 
putty. On the sides of the bank are carbonates of magnesia and various 
salts of iron. A few yards further up the canon is the greatest wonder of 
all — the " Witches' Caldron," a large cavity, six feet by eight, and four 
feet dee]). It is full of a black, boiling liquid, containing iron, sulphur, and 
alum. Although continually boiling and foaming, very little of the fluid 
escapes. The "Devils Canopy" appears to the right, a projection from the 
bank, composed of stalactites of sulphur and iron. We are near the head 
of the canon and the " Steamboat Springs." These are not in the bottom of 
the gorge, but are elevated some twenty feet. Steam is continually escaping 
in jets, and on favorable occasions it ascends three hundred feet. We have 
now reached the head of the gorge with scorching feet, with a bottle of the 
Devil's ink, with putty and various specimens, but the end is not yet. From 
the hotel we have come north-northeast, and now we are directed by the 
guide to the east, leaving the Devil's Canon and going over the ridge to a 
pure stream of cold water, to " Lovers' Retreat," among the laurels, and still 
going east to the " White Sulphur Spring." Turning towards the hotel we 
soon fin.l oui-selves on " Genei'al Hooker's Lookout," opposite the Steam- 
boat Spi-ings, and on the eastern bank of the canon. The view from this 
point, above, around, and below, is grand beyond description. 

Perhaps seventy-five yards east of the Lookout is the Crater, and close to 
it is the " Devil'.s Oven," which is simply a hole in a small side-hill, out of 
which comes steam with a hissing noise. The " Devil's Teakettle " is a short 
distance east of th(3 Oven. We go to it and find a terrible whistling noise 
and see an aperture similar to that of the Oven. In fact, they are both tea- 
kettle.s, but for the .sake of giving a variety of kitchen utensils to His Satanic 
Majesty, the first steam-p(jt was called an oven. Within six feet of the 



Teakettle is an alum spring, and within six feet of that is an iron spring. 
The Crater is a kind of wash-bowl for His Majesty, and is doubtless an 
old witches' caldron, boiled dry. The ground under it is hollow and vibrating. 
The round of wonders, within half a mile of the hotel, has now been com- 
pleted, except the Steam Bath, a quarter of a mile up Pluton Caiion. 
There are many other places of interest down the river, among them the 
Acid Bath, half a mile distant, and the Indian Bath, a mile below. There is 
a dry canon near the Devil's Canon and adjoining it, whose walls are com- 
posed of alum. The odors throughout the region of the Geysers are in some 
cases very unpleasant, but to the chemical student who has experimented 
with sulphuretted hydrogen they will appear less disagreeable than to others. 
Thus the circuit of a mile has been made, and we have seen the most won- 
derftd laboratory in the universe. 

Phenomena. — The causes which produce the phenomena of the Geysers 
are, of course, a subject of frequent discussion with visitors. A majority of 
scientists consider it "the chemical laboratory of the Almighty." They 
maintain that the steam and internal heat are produced by the antagonism 
of mineral substances in the earth, which, with the springs of water flowing 
through them, produce an effect similar to that of the wetting of unslacked 

This theory is generally accepted by chemists;' but it will be very diiScult 
to convince " outsiders " that all this ebullition and intense heat have not a 
common origin with that of volcanoes, differing only in degree. It seems to 
add strength to this theory that the adjacent mountain ranges show abund- 
ant evidence of ancient volcanic action. 

For would-be visitors we once more retrace our steps : Spacious veran- 
dahs surround the hotel, which is replete with every comfort, and as a place 
of resort, it is equally adapted to the sick, the sad, the gay, the philosophic. 
From its windows we see to the north the wonderful caiion already described, 
which, as a natural cariosity, can in no part of the world be excelled, and is 
only equalled in the volcanic development of Hecla in Iceland. The 
Witches' Caldron, the Steamboat Springs, and, the entire infernal appear- 
ance of the region, exceed all language to portray. The metallic hUls, the 
brimstone, the hot river, and volcanic rocks, are draped, in many instances, 
in exquisite green ; grass, shrubs and trees grow and overhang seething 
caldrons. The roar, the steam, the groans, are unearthly. Scientific and 
hydrographical accounts have been written by abler pens, but to see is to be 
convinced that not a tithe of the wealth and power of these mystical Geysers 
and their surrounding metallic hills have yet been developed. " The compli- 
cated sublimity of this spot, and its uses, are attracting the attention of the 
world, and the rapid progress of material development linked with the 
matchless achievements of the past, attest that by the application of scien- 


tific princij^lcs to great speculative ideas, they in time become practice;! 
facts, elevating our race into the knowledge of useful philosophy, and 
inspiring the loftiest conceptions of God's purpose toward man, teaching 
that even nature can be chained as a titanic servant under His Imperial 

Skuiggs Springs. — These springs are situated at the head of Dry Creek 
vallev, about eight miles west of the depot of the San Francisco and North 
Pacific Railroad at Geyserville, and are next in importance and popularity 
to the Geysers. The land upon which they are located was entered by Wil- 
liam Skagns, A. Skaggs, and William and John Knight, as a grazing ranch, 
in ISaG, but in the following Spring, A. Skaggs purchased the interest of 
his partners and became the sole proprietor. 

Here there are a number of hot sulphur springs of pleasant temperature 
for bathing, while there is also a cold soda and iron spring, which pioves an 
excellent tonic for invalids; the principal attractions of the place, however, 
are its positively luxurious baths. 

Another and pleasant manner of reaching the springs is from Healdsburg, 
only fourteen miles distant. The road runs for eleven miles along the valley 
of Dry Creek, a tributary of Russian river, and may be considered a part of 
that justly celebrated valley ; thence three miles into the Coast Range of 
mountains, winding along the valley of Hot Springs creek, a rapid, rock- 
fretted stream, whose dark w^aters nestle closely under the tall cliffs, which 
shut out the sunlight, except for a few hours at mid-day, without possible 
chance of exit, except at this celebrated watering place. Realizing that the 
usy world is left behind, you are awe-inspired, and the feeling creeps over 
you that, perhaps, this is " the bourne from whence no traveller returns." 
"There are here a few acres of tolerable level, fertile land; the rest of the 
country is pretty slanting; in fact up edge-ways, and they pastui'e goats on 
both sides of it. There are plenty of deer in the vicinity, but it is very dan- 
gerous limiting them ; if you should kill one it would be liable to fall on 
j'our head," is the account one writer gives of its charms. 

In the year 1860 Skaggs' first became a regular resort, and from that date 
it gained in popularity, and the number of its visitors increased until 1864, 
when its extending repute caused the proprietors to expend a considerable 
sum of money in making im})rovements so as to increase its attractiveness. 
Building was at once commenced, and the new house was opened in 1864 by 
A. Skaggs ; in 1867 he leased the springs, but in the following year, 
resumed the reigns of oflice. During the next tAVO years the establishment 
was rented by John Leonard, and in 1871 by B. F. Tucker ; in 1872-73 it 
was kept by Perry Emmerson, since when they have been under the control 
of the [)r()priet(n- himself, who has expended a large sura of money upon the 
grounds and buildings. In the hotel and cozy cottages which surround it^ 


there is accommodation for at least three hundred guests, while for their 
delectation there are elegant drives and walks throughout the surrounding 
grounds and conterminous country. -s ^osr^ - 

Litton Springs. — This resort is located four miles from Healdsburg, on 
the line of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad, and is the prop- 
erty of Captain Litton, who improved the place in 1875 at an expense of 
eighty thousand dollars. There is a handsome hotel and a number of conven- 
ient and comfortable cottages. The water is an agreeable seltzer, which is 
bottled and sold in considerable quantities. In late years Litton Springs 
has become a fashionable place of summer resort. 

The Mark West Springs. — These springs are beautifully located in a 
bend of the Mark West creek, which forms a romantic dell surrounded by 
hills densely covered with chapparal. These hills during the season are 
exceptionally beautiful. The chief attraction of these springs is its sulphur 
bath. They are owned by Judge A. P. Overton, of Santa Rosa, their prox- 
imity to which place making them a favorite and fashionable watering place. 

White Sid'phur Springs. — These springs are situated two miles and a 
half from Santa Rosa, under the Cotate peak, which overlooks the city. 
They are owned by John Taylor. The place is well improved ; the water 
holds in solution, sulphur, soda, magnesia, and iron, and is considered very 
healing for many of the ills that flesh is heir to. There are also a number of 
well-fitted bath-rooms supplied with hot and cold mineral water. It is a 
favorite drive from Santa Rosa to the springs, while they are largely patron- 
ized by many from abroad. 

The Mines. — We reproduce in this place from Mr. Thompson's work the 
following record of the mining interests in Sonoma county : — 

As early as 1852 there were reported discoveries of gold on Russian river. 
One of the Kelseys led a prospecting party as far as Eel river. This party 
discovered and named Eden valley, and Round valley, in Mendocino county, 
then a part of Sonoma. They, too, first crossed and gave the name Sanhe- 
drin to the grand mountain which overlooks all the beautiful valleys of 
Mendocino. They met with no great success, and returned, but some mem- 
bers of the party still live in that part of Mendocino county, then first seen 
by white men. In 1854 reports of gold discoveries on Russian river were 
revived, but soon died out. 

After the discovery and occupation of Geyser springs, the abundant indi- 
cations of cinnabar in the neighborhood attracted attention. The price of 
quicksilver at the time was low, — fifty cents per pound; the cost of reduction 
was great, and the Almaden mine was producing a supply adequate to the 
demand. For these reasons no .special attention was paid to the indications 
of mercury everywhere visible on the surface near the Geysers. 


In 1859 Colonel A. C. Godwin, then the owner of the Geyser springs, 
or^'anizctl a mininj^ district, located a number of claims himself, and a num- 
l)er of others were also taken up. These claims were afterward consolidated 
into one or two companies, and some work was done upon them. The low 
price of quicksilver, the scarcity of labor, and lack of skill in manipulating 
the ore. led to loss, and finally put a stop to all work on the mines. In 1861 
Colonel Goilwin, who had given the enterprise most of its life, sold his interest 
in tlie springs and mines, and returned to the East. The stock of the consol- 
idated com]ianies went to zero, and the mines were sold at sheriff's sale to 
satisfy the demand of creditors. Professor Whitney, with a corps of scien- 
tists, came along soon afterwards, and, with his "no vein theory" in the coast 
range, extinguished the last spark of life in mining enterprises in Sonoma for 
the time. 

From 18G1 to 1872 no work was done on the quicksilver mines. In the 
latter part of 1871, and early in 1872, a lively interest in the mines revived, 
quicksilver having advanced to one dollar a pound. Claims in the old dis- 
trict were re-located, roads were built, a mining town sprang up, and at least 
five hundred men were at work in the district. A lawsuit was commenced 
between the old and new locators, which brought to the count^'-seat of Santa a number of the most distinguished mining law^yers of the Pacific coast, 
and learned and eloquent arguments were made which engaged the court for 
a prolonged session, creating for the time more excitement than was ever 
Lefoi-e witnessed in any case in the courts of Sonoma. 

Just after the case was settled, quicksilver again fell in the market to fifty 
cents a jiound. This at once checked the work of development, as most of 
tlie claimants were prospectors, hoping to pay their w^ay from the products 
of the mine, and it cost them as much to get the metal out as it would bring 
in the market. Of the number of claims taken up, two have proved very 
vamable,— the Oakland and the Cloverdale. 

The Odkbmd Mine is situated near Geyser peak, which we have elsewhere 
mentioned. It is at the head of a deep gorge, on the north side of the moun- 
tain, known from its wild and sombre depths as the " Devil's Canon." The 
Oaklan.l, from the opening of the mine, has had good ore, and more than 
paid its way. The furnace at the mine is a small one.— the product, about 
two Imndred fla.sks a month, is up to its full capacity, and metal for at least 
one hun.lred and fifty flasks more per month is left upon the dump for a 
time when a larger furnace will be built. The ore is cinnabar, sulphate of 
mercury, and specimens are found which will retort seventy-five per cent of 
mcfal. The average of tlie ore worked is about four per cent; lower grade 
ore IS lai.l aside for reduction at some future time. 

The Cloverdale Mine.-A.hoMi seven miles from the Geysers, on Sulphur 


creek, four miles northwest of the Oakland, the Cloverdale mine is situated. 
The hill in which this mine is located has all the appearance of an extinct 
geyser. The metal is diffused through the hill, and is found in the country- 
rock, and in fine dust. There is a furnace at this mine, made with the view 
of working the latter kind of ore, which is rarely found. The Cloverdale is 
regarded as one of the most promising mines on the coast. 

In a different part of the county two other valuable mines are located > 
one is known as the Great Eastern, and the other as the Mount Jackson* 
They are four miles north of Guerneville. 

The Great Eastern Mine. — The Great Eastern mine, situated twelve miles 
southwest of Healdsburg, was located in 1873, and in September, 1874, 
leased to Tiburcio Parrott, of San Francisco. The following figures are by 
Mr. Isaac Gum, President of the company owning the mine : — 

Expense, $4,346.11 ; applied towards part payment on the furnaces, by the 
stockholders of the Great Eastern Company, S2^660.67 ; dividends paid, 
$14,051 ; cash on hand, $289.50. Total, $21,347.28. The terms of the lease 
are that Mr. Parrott puts on all improvements, pays expenses, etc., and 
receives therefor seven- eighths of the production. 

The largest portion of the above expense item ($4,346.11) was incurred 
after Mr. Parrott took the mine, and includes cost of patent, lawsuit, etc. 
There have been $160,000 taken out of the mine in five years. 

The company has given Mr. Parrott a new lease for five years^ although 
his present lease will not expire till a year hence. There is now due Mr. 
Parrott from the mine $38,000, (in other words he has put in $38,000 more 
than he has received from the mine), and according to the provisions of the 
lease the stockholders are to leceive one-eighth of the product till that amount 
is paid, above working expenses ; when, if quicksilver rises to fifty cents per 
pound, they get one-sixth; if it rises to fifty -five cents or over, they get one- 
fifth. At the expiration of Mr. Parrott's lease, providing the stockholders 
take the mine, they are to pay him a fair valuation for all the improvements 
he has made. 

An important improvement now being made at the mine is the addition 
of hoisting works, capable of working six or seven hundred feet levels ; there 
will be an ore cage and a double-stroke pump, the latter being needed to free 
the lower levels of water. A kiln of 60,000 bricks has recently been burned 
at the mine, and the little Eames furnace is to be taken down ; another one 
will be built upon its foundation, with Haskins & Hall's patent ore chamber 
attached. There is now in use at the mine a twenty-ton Maxwell furnace, 
almost new, and in fine condition. The improvements in the way of build- 
ings, roads, etc., are numerous and substantial. At present the hoisting 
works are being adjusted, and it is expected that the mine will soon be in 


full operation. D. H. Haskins is the superintendent. This mine was 
located by Mes-srs. Gum, Zane, and Lewis, of Hcaldsburg. 

The Mount Jackson Mine. — This is also a very promising mine. Work 
was commencetl in it in 1873, and has not stopped for a single day. It will 
one day fully equal the expectations of its owners. The Mount Jackson was 
also located by Messrs. Gum, Zane, and Lewis, of Healdsburg, and they sold 
it to a company of gentlemen of that city. 

Mention has been made only of the four leading mines — there are a num- 
ber of others which can be worked to advantage whenever the owners are 
ready to develop them. If the demand would justify it, the quicksilver 
mines of Sonoma could be made to produce from three to five thousand flasks 
of mercury per month. 






In those old days, when Spain was all powerful on land and sea ; when 
her fleets and subjects were to be found penetrating territories and oceans 
which existed merely in legends almost too fabulous to be credited, one of her 
navigators, in the month of October, 1775, Lieutenant Juan Francisco de la 
Bodega y Quadra, in His Majesty's ship the Sonora, touched at a bay on the 
coast, which he carefully explored, and called after himself — this is the 
Bodega bay of to-day. We are told by historians that the English Admiral, 
Sir Francis Drake, landed just below the coast line of Sonoma, in the year 
1579, while, thirty-seven years prior to this date, Cape Mendocino had been 
discovered by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, who named it in honor of the " illus- 
trious Senor Antonio de Mendoza," a Viceroy, and patron of the voyageur. 

On September 17, 1776, the Presidio and Mission of San Francisco were 
founded, on what was then the extreme border of California, the former in 
a manner being a frontier command having a jurisdiction which extended to 
the farthest limits northwards of Spanish discovery. How the arts and 
sciences have bridged time ! What do these comparatively few years in a 
nation's life show ? They speak for themselves ! San Francisco to-day is a 
marvel ! Short though her life has been she has worked wonders; to-day 
she is the centre of civilization as regards the western portion of this vast 
Continent ; she is the heart which sends pulsations through the different com- 
mercial arteries of the coast ; the throbbings of her veins are felt from Behr- 
ing's Straits to those of Magellan; across the oceans the influence of her sys- 
tem is known, while at home she is looked up to as the youth is whose care 
in the future will be the old, the sick, and the maimed. 

Bodega bay having been already visited, a voyage of discovery was under- 
taken by Captain Quiros, to ascertain if there was water communication 
connecting it with the bay of San Francisco, being led to this, presumably, 
on the idea that the peninsula which j uts into the Pacific and forms one side 
of the Golden Gate, now comprising Marin county, was an island. Captain 
Quiros left San Francisco in September, 1776, and gaining the entrance of 
the Petaluma creek, followed its many sinuosities as far as he could, but ulti- 
mately returned without finding the watercourse which he sought. Thus 
was the first trip into what is now known as Sonoma county made. This 
undertaking was one requiring no doubt a vast amount of time, labor, and 
endurance, as well as caution, for even at the present time, the mouths of the 


cixvks whicli flow into the San Pablo bay are difficult to detect, what then 
must it have been to those explorers who had Uijind the landmarks and fix 
tln'in fur all time ' As we fly along the bays, rivers, creeks, and railroads of 
our Stat^', we are prone to gaze on either hand and view with charmed eye 
and cont^'nted mind the miles upon miles of cultivated fields and the thousands 
of hajipy homes we pass, taking all as an accepted fact, at the same time 
totally forgetful of those intrepid men who first had the hardihood to pene- 
trate into them when unknown wilds, thus paving the way for generations 
yet unborn, and by their labor assuring both peace and plenty. 

In the year 171)3 the British Government was still in the habit of keeping 
a fleet of observation cruising along the Pacific shores, and on an occasion a 
party of Indians reported that the^ had actually anchored in Bodega bay. 
Upon receipt of this intelligence, instructions were sent to Governor Arril- 
laga, by the Viceroy of Mexico, to take prompt and energetic steps for the 
assertion and protection of Spanish rights, one of the measures consequently 
atlopted being the construction of a redoubt mounted with four guns at 
Bodega, anil the making a road to facilitate the transportation of supplies 
inland, a task of no mean engineerhig difficulty. It was found, however, 
that the English had taken no positive steps toward the permanent occupa- 
tion which had caused the alarm, therefore the battery was dismantled after 
a time, and the guns removed to Monterey. 

A new era now commenced on the Pacific Coast. 

The Kussians, to whom then belonged all that territor}^ now known as 
Alaska, had found their country of almost perpetual cold, without facilities 
for the cultivation of those fruits and cereals which are necessary to the 
maintenance of life; of game there was an inexhaustible supply; still, a 
variety was wanted. Thus, ships were despatched along the coast in quest 
of a spot where a station might be established and those wants supplied, at 
the same time bearing in mind the necessity of choosing a location easy of 
access to the head-quarters of their fur-hunters in Russian America. In a 
voyage of this nature, Bodega was visited in January, 1811, by Alexander 
Koskofl", who took po.s.session of the place on the fragile pleas that he had 
been refused a supply of water at Yerba Buena (San Francisco), and that 
he had obtained by right of purchase from the Indians a small tract of land 
along the margin of the bay. Here he remained for a while, and to Bodega 
gave the name of Romanzott', calling the stream, now known as Russian 
river, Slavianka. KoskoflT, on account of having a wooden leg, received 
from the Sj^aniards the sobriquet of " Pie de Palo." General Vallejo, in a 
remarkably clahorate address on the early history of Sonoma, delivered at 
Santa Rosa on July 4, 1876, on the occasion of the Centennial celebration, 
remarks: "As the new-comers came without permission from the Spanish 
Government, they may be termed the pioneer ' squatters ' of California." 

The King of Spain, it should be remembered, claimed all territory north 


to the Fuca Straits. Therefore, on Governor Arguello receiving the intelli- 
gence of the Russian occupation of Bodega, he reported the circumstance, as 
in duty bound, to the Viceroy, Revilla-Gigedo, who returned despatches 
ordering the Muscovite intruder to depart. The only answer received to this 
communication was a verbal message, saying that the orders of the Viceroy 
of Spain had been received and transmitted to St. Petersburg for the action 
of the Czar. Here, however, the matter did not rest. There arrived in the 
harbor of San Francisco, in 1816, in the Russian brig "Rurick," a scientific 
expedition, under the command of Otto von Kotzebue. In accordance with 
instructions received from the Spanish authorities, Governor Sola proceeded 
to San Francisco, visited Kotzebue, and, as directed by the Government, 
offered his aid in furtherance of the endeavors to advance scientific research 
on the coast. At the same time he complained of Koskofi"; informed him of 
the action taken on either side, and laid particular emphasis on the fact that 
the Russians had been occupants of Spanish territory for five years. Upon 
this complaint, Don Gervasio Arguello was despatched to Bodega as the 
bearer of a message from Kotzebue to Koskofi", requiring his presence in San 
Francisco. This messenger was the first to bring a definite report of the 
Russian settlement there, which then consisted of twenty-five Russians and 
eighty Kodiac Indians. On the 28th day of October, a conference was held 
on board the " R-urick," in the harbor of San Francisco, between Arguello, 
Kotzebue and Koskofi"; there being also present Jose Maria Estudillo, grand- 
father of that worthy ofiicial who Avas State Treasurer in 1876, and Luis 
Antonio Arguello, afterwards Governor of California; a naturalist, named 
Chamisso, acting as interpreter. It may here be mentioned that the Russian 
chief made the somewhat perilous voyage from Fort Ross to San Francisco 
in the frail haidarka, or skin boat, then much in vogue for lengthy journeys 
by water. No new development was made at this interview; for Koskofi" 
claimed he was acting in strict conformity with instructions from the 
Governor of Sitka, therefore Kotzebue declined to take any action in the 
matter, contenting himself simply with the promise that the entire aff"air 
should be submitted to St. Petersburg, to await the instructions of the 
Emperor of Russia. Thus the matter then rested. Communications subse- 
quently made produced a like unsatisfactory result, and the Russians were 
permitted to remain for a lengthened period possessors of the land they had 
so arbitrarily appropriated. 

So far indeed was it from the intention of the unwelcome Muscovite to 
move, that we find them extending their trapping expeditions along the coast, 
to the north and south, and for a considerble distance inland. At Fort Ross 
they constructed a quadrilateral stockade, which was deemed strong enough 
to resist the possible attacks of Spaniards or Indians. It had within its 
walls quarters for the commandant, officers, and men, an arsenal, store-houses, 
a Greek church surmounted with a cross and provided with a chime of bells, 


besides several other erections for tlie use of mechanics, of which there were 
a number, the remains of whose trades were in existence at the time of the 
first American sottlemont. The stockade was about ten feet high, pierced 
witii embrasures and furnislied with carronades ; in addition to these, there 
were situated at opposite corners two bastions of two stories high, armed 
with six i)ieces of artillery. There was no lack of vegetables and fruits, for 
the gardens were of considerable proportions, and the orchard vast in extent 
and well tilled with trees, some of which, now more than half a century old, 
are still flourishing and bear abundant crops. At this time, too, they made 
considerable annual shipments of grain to Sitka from Fort and Bodega. 
Thus we may safely assert, without much fear of contradiction, that to Sonoma 
county belongs the honor of erecting the first church in California, north of 
the bay of San Francisco; but this is not all; to her belongs the credit of 
first planting fruit, raising grain, and working in leather, wood, and iron, 
within the limits of the same territory. With these industries in hand, there 
is not the remotest doubt that the Russians looked to a future permanent 
possession of Northern California ; the doctrine propounded in 1823 by Pres- 
ident Monroe, that " the American continents were henceforth not to be 
considered as subjects for foreign colonization by any European power," put 
an end to Russian land grabs on this part of the coast. 

Captain John Hall visited Bodega and other parts of this coast in 1822. 
On June 8th, when at Bodega, he was visited by the Russian Governor, who 
brought with him. Captain Hall tells us, " two fine fat sheep, a large tub of 
butter, and some milk, which was very acceptable after a long voyage, and 
gave us proof at once of the Governor's hospitality, and of the abundance 
and cheapness of provisions. The price of a bullock at that time was twelve 
dollars, and of a sheep two dollars; vegetables were also plentiful and in 
their proper sea.son." 

Lot us for a moment return to the earlier Russian times. As soon as their 
presence at Bodega was made known to the Spanish authorities, by the 
Indians, two non-com missioned officers, Sergeant Jose Sanchez and Corporal 
Heirara, undertook the rather hazardous task of reconnoitering the Russian 
establishment. This duty they succeedsd in accomplishing, disguised as 
Indians. On their -way back they captured a band of horses, which were 
swam aero.s.s the bay of San Francisco behind canoes, at Playita de los 
CaVtallos, naiiK-d .so from this circumstance — now Lime Point. It was appre- 
hended at this juncture, that an attempt would be made by the Russians to 
get a foothold on San Francisco bay ; therefore the time-honored Fiery Cross 
was called into rccjuisition. In such an event, immense piles of brushwood 
fired on the prominent mountain tops would inform the soldiery of a demon- 
stration, whifh, however, was never made. 

In the year 1822, Mexico having won her independence, the regime of old 
Spain and her dashing cavaliers ceased, California giving in her adherence to 


the new state of things. The federal constitution of 1824 was afterwards 
adopted, and the government of Cahfornia vested in a Political Chief, aided 
by a Council known as the Territorial Deputation. 

With an armed escort under Ensign Jose Sanchez, mounted on the horses 
mentioned above. Padre Jose Altimira and Don Francisco Castro started on 
an expedition to select a suitable and convenient site whereon to establish a 
new mission, whither it was proposed to transfer the Mission of San Fran- 
cisco de Asis. The Padre and his party left San Raphael, where a mission 
had been already founded, on the 25th of June, 1823, and during the day passed 
the position now occupied by the city of Petaluma, then called by the Span- 
iards " Punta de los Esteros," and known to the Indians as " Chocuali," that 
night encamping on the " Arroyo Lema," where the large adobe on the Peta- 
luma Rancho was afterwards constructed by General M. G. Vallejo. Here a 
day's halt wouJd appear to have been called, in order to take a glance at the 
beautiful country and devise means of further progress.. On the 27th they 
reached the famous "Laguna de Tolly," now, alas, nothing but a place, it 
having fallen into the hands of a German gentleman of marked utilitarian 
principles, who has drained and reclaimed it, and planted it with potatoes- 
Here the expedition took a northeasterly route, and entering the Sonoma 
valley, which Father Altimira states was then so called by former Indian 
residents; the party encamped on the arroyo of "Pulpula," where J. A. 
Poppe, a merchant of Sonoma, has a large fish-breeding establishment, 
stocked with carp brought from Rhinefelt, in Germany, in August, 1871. 
The Holy father's narrative of the beauties of Sonoma valley, as seen by the 
new-comers, are so graphically portrayed by himself that we cannot refrain 
from quoting his own words : " At about 8 P. M.," (June 28, 1823) "leaving 
our camp and our boat on the slough near by, we started to explore, direct- 
ing our course northwestward across the plain of Sonoma, until we reached 
a. stream (Sonoma river) of about five hundred plumas of water, crystalline, 
and most pleasing to the taste, flowing through a grove of beautiful and 
useful trees. The stream flows from some hills which inclose the plain, and 
terminate it on the north. We went on, penetrating a broad grove of oaks ; 
the trees were lofty and robust, offering an external source of utility, both 
for firewood and carriage material. This forest was about three leagues long 
from east to west and a league and a half wide from north to south. The 
plain is watered by another arroyo still more copious and pleasant than the 
former, flowing from west to east, but traveling northward from the centre 
of the plain. We explored this evening as far as the daylight permitted. 
The permanent springs, according to the statement of those who have seen 
them in the extreme dry season, are almost innumerable. No one can doubt 
the benignity of the Sonoma climate after noting the plants, the lofty and 
shady trees — alders, poplars, ash, laurel, and others — and especially the 
abundance and luxuriance of the wild grapes. We observed also that the 


launch luav ccine up tli.- vvcvk to where a settlement can be founded, truly 
a most convenient circumstance. We saw from these and other facts that 
Sonoma is a most desiralde site for a mission." 

Let us here note who are now located on the places brought prominently 
forward by Pa<lre Altimira. The hills which inclose the valley and out of 
whose bosom the Sonoma river s]irings, is now occupied by the residence and 
vineyards of Mr. Edwards. The forest mentioned, covered the present site of 
the Leavenworth vineyards, the Hayes' estate, and the farms of Wratten, 
Carriger, Harrison, (^raig. Herman, Wohler, Hill, Stewart, Warfield, Krous 
c<c Williams, La Motte, Hood, Kohler, Morris, and others. The second stream 
mi-ntioned as flowing northward from the centre of the plains, is the 
" Olema," or flour-mill stream, on which Colonel George F. Hooper resides, 
while the locality in which he states are innumerable springs, is that tract of 
countrv where now are located the hacienda of Lachryma Montis, the resi- 
dence of General M. G. Vallejo, and the dwellings and vineyards of Haraszthy, 
Gillen, Tichner, Uressel, Winchel, Gundlach, Rufus, Snyder, Nathanson, and 
the ground of the Buena Vista Vinicultural Society. The head of naviga- 
tion noted- is the place since called St. Louis, but usually known as the 

Padre Altimira continued his survey to " Huichica," at present the property 
of Streeter and Borel, and after most carefully exploring the Napa valley, 
climbed the Suisun range of mountains, and there found stone of excellent 
([uality and in such large quantities that of it "a new Rome might be built." 
The party having extended their explorations to the eastward for ten leagues, 
returned to the Sonoma valley on the evening of the 1st of July. 

We once moi-e take up the Father's diary : " We descended into the plain, 
and in less than one-fourth of a league we found six hundred and seven 
springs of water; some among willows, others covered with tules, the water 
l)eing fresh, sweet and of agreeable taste." Further explorations were made 
in dirtl-rent directions, l)ut no site was found so suitable as that of Sonoma. 
' Therefore, on July -i, 1823, a cross was planted by Father Altimira very 
near the spot wheix* the Catholic church now stands. Kites according to the 
Church of Rome were performed for the first time in Sonoma county, the 
place was named New San Francisco, and the third settlement in the county 
founded. The first two settlements, however arbitrary the proceedings may 
have l»een, it will be remembered were made at Bodega and Ross by the 
Rus.sians, at which latter place they had also built a church. 

The construction of the mission l)uil(lings Avas commenced at once, Altimira 
writing to Governor Arguello un<ler date •' New San Francisco, August 31, 
1823: We chose a site and began work. In four days we have cut one 
lMin<lred re«lwood beams with which to build a granary. A ditch has been 
dug and running water brought to the place where Ave are living." (Note — 
Now Mr. Pickett's vineyard.) " We are making a corral, to which, by the 


grace of God, our cattle will be brought to-morrow. We are all highly 
pleased with the site, and all agree that it offers more advantages than any- 
other place between here and San Diego." On completion of the mission 
San Francisco Solano was chosen its patron saint. We will hereafter show 
how the original name of Sonoma was revived, on the establishment of this 
point as a " coma7idancia." 

Three years after the events above recorded, in the year 1826, the new 
mission was destroyed by the Indians, Padre Altimira barely escaping with 
his life. He soon after left this portion of the country for Santa Barbara, 
in company with Father Antonio Ripoll, on board of an American vessel 
commanded by Captain Joseph Steele. Under Padre Fortuni, the successor 
of Altimira, the mission once more was built, the protection afforded by the 
Presidio at the Golden Gate keeping the hostile natives in check, he remaining 
in charge until building in a more permanent shape commenced in 1830. 
The last-named Father was relieved by Padre Gutierrez, who remained at 
San Francisco Solano until the promulgation by the Mexican Government, 
in 1834, of the decree of secularization, consequent on which was the over- 
throw of the authority of the Fathers, the liberation and dispersion of the 
Indians, and the partition of the mission lands and cattle, with a result 
disastrous in the extreme to the aboriginals, whatever it may have been to 
the Mexican population. 

It is stated, and with every semblance of historical correctness, that of 
some of the missions, which in the year 1834 numbered fifteen hundred souls, 
in 1842 counted only a few hundreds. In these short eight years the 
numbers of the mission at San Raphael decreased from thirteen hundred to 
seventy. There are those, the favorers of the secularization scheme, who 
contend that the diminution in numbers was the result of a decimating- 
scourge of small-pox, said to have been contracted from a subordinate Mexican 
officer who had caught the disease at Ross, in the year 1837. Be this as it 
may, the officer recovered, and sixty thousand Indians are said to have 
perished in what is now known as the counties of Sonoma, Solano and Napa. 
So rapidly did they die, that it was found necessary to entomb the victims 
in huge pits, while others of them abandoned the land, which to them had 
become accursed by the presence of the foreign intruders. Thus have the 
aboriginal Californians passed away, and now live only in the memory of 
the few pioneers who were their contemporaries. 

In June, 1834, it had been decided that certain colonists known as the 
" Cosmopolitan Company " should be despatched from Mexico, under the 
direction of Jose Maria Hijas, and one Padres, to settle in California. Gover- 
nor Figueroa therefore personally conducted exploring expeditions which 
extended to the Russian establishment at Ross, in search of a suitable site 
whereon to found a settlement. A proper location, answering all desired 
wants, was selected on Mark West creek, then called " Potiquiyomi," on land 


now owne.l l.y Mrs. Henry Mizer, near to a well-known redwood tree, which is 
still standing. The site was quickly divided off into lots, a plaza laid out, 
and the place given the name of Santa Ana y Farias, in honor of the 
then President and Vice-President of Mexico; the Governor himself, on 
completion of these duties, returning to Monterey. 

The month cf March, 1835, witnessed the arrival at San Francisco Solano 
of the colonists, who as a temporary measure were quartered in the mission 
buildings, until more definite arrangements should be completed. On leaving 
Mexico, strong inducements had been held out to these emigrants. They 
had Ikx'U toltl of the glories of the country, the richness of its soil and the 
certain accunmlation of wealth, in but a few years at best. On arrival on 
the scene of action, they found their [prospects less flattering than they had 
been led to expect, therefore a rancorous feeling commenced to manifest itself. 
Hija3 and Padres, the chiefs of the colony, supported by Berduzco, Lara and 
Torres, bore 'an itching palm ' for power, and soon evinced signs of discon- 
tent and rebellion, wdiich were with dithculty suppressed by General M. G. 
Vallejo, who had been left with some soldiers in command of the new settle- 
ment. The mutinous designs of Hijas and Padres, being made known to 
Governor Figueroa, they were suspended from the office of Directors, and 
their persons ordered, under date March 16th, to be seized, and the arms and 
other property of the colony to be taken possession of by the military. On 
the following da}'' the malcontents were apprehended and sent to San Fran- 
cisco under escort. " The weapons," General Vallejo says, " served later to 
arm a company of Suisun Indians, who did duty as a body-guard of my 
faithful ally. Prince Solano, head of the powerful tribe of Suisunes. This 
guard of honor was put under the command of Sergeant Sabas Fernandez." 

Vallejo, finding himself isolated in the Santa Rosa valley, and hard pressed 
by hostile Indian tribes, with direct communication between himself and the 
headquarters at San Francisco cut off, reported this condition to the author- 
ities, and was thereupon directed to establish himself in some position nearer 
the bay. It was then that the town of Santa Ana y Farias was abandoned 
and the site of the mission of San Francisco Solano chosen ; here he estab- 
lished the military command of the northern frontier of California, laid out 
the Pueblo as it now exists, and resuscitated the almost foro-otten but still 
harmonious name of Sonoma, which that city, the prolific valley, and mag- 
nificent county still bears. 

Between the years 1835 and 1840, we have it on the indisputable authority 
of General Vallejo, there came and established themselves in the new settle- 
ment and the surrounding Sonoma valley, the following persons with their 
families: Mariano G. Vallejo, Salvador Vallejo, Julio Carrillo, Rafael Garcia, 
Cayetano Juraez, Fernando Felix, Ignacio Pacheco, Nazario Berreyesa, 
Francisco Berreyesa, Manuel Vaca, Felipe Pena, Lazaro Pena, Juan Miranda, 
Gregorio Briones, Joaquin Carrillo, Ramon Carrillo, Domingo Suenz, Pablo 


Pacheco, Bartolo Bohorques, Francisco Duarte, Juan Padilla, Marcos Juarez 
and Rosalino Olivera. To these were added a few years later, the followmg 
foreigners, who settled in different parts of the county and whose locale we 
will hereafter attempt to lay before the reader : Victor Prudon, French ; 
George Yount, American ; John Wilson, James Scott, Mark West, Scotch ; 
J. B. R. Cooper, English; Edward Manuel Mcintosh, Irish; James Black, 
James Dawson, Edward Bale, English; Tim. Murphy, Irish; Henry D. Fitch 
and Jacob P. Leese, American. All these, with the single exception of Mc- 
intosh, were married to daughters of the soil — "Hijas del Pais." 

Frequent expeditions were conducted against the Indians during this 
period, more especially toward the northeast, on the Sacramento river, in 
the north in the Clear Lake region, and in the northwest on Russian 
river. In spite of these troubles, the extension of agricultural industries and 
the raising of cattle, sheep, and horses, was being gradually accomplished ; 
the people had to live, however, in a perpetual state of preparation, keepino- 
themselves constantly under arms and subject to the call of the commandant, 
for they were surrounded by thousands of hostile natives, who took advant- 
age of every opportunity to attack a people whom they deemed their natural 
enemies, and the ruthless destroyers of their homes. At that time the entire 
country abounded with game, such as deer, bears, mountain sheep, hares, 
rabbits, geese, quail, etc., and the streams were well stocked with many kinds 
of fish. Besides these, the fertile valleys and hillsides grew an abundance of 
edible seeds and wild fruits, which were garnered by the Indians and, by them, 
held in great store. Such means of existence being so easily obtained, is 
perhaps a reason for the wonderful disinclination of Indians to perform any 
kind of labor. Indeed, what need was there that they should toil, when 
beneficent Nature had, with a generosity which knew no stint, placed at their 
feet an unlimited supply of health-giving food ! 

We would now ask the reader to return with us for a short time to record 
the further doings of the Muscovite settlers. For upwards of thirty years 
they rewflained in undisputed possession of Ross and Bodega, under the suc- 
cessive gubernatorial regimes of Koskoff, Klebnikoff, Kostromitinoff, and 
Rotscheff, the latter of whom, with a party of Russians, visited Mount 
Mayacmas, on the summit of which they affixed a copper-plate with an inscrip- 
tion. In the year 1853 this plate was discovered by Dr. T. A. Hylton, and 
a copy of it preserved by Mrs. H. L. Weston, of Petaluma, by whose courtesy 
we are enabled to reproduce it. The metal slab is octagonal in shape, and 
bears the following words in Russian : 

"Russians, 1841 June. E. L. Voznisenski iii, E. l. Chernich." 

This legend we referred to Mr. Charles Mitchell Grant, of Oakland, a 
gentleman long resident in Siberia, and eminently capable in matters 
connected with the Russian language and people, and from him 
received the following notes : " iii, means that Voznisenski is the third 


of th.' sain.« nam." in his tainily, the other two being still living, or, 
at any vaW, alive when he was born. Evidently two Russian 
sailoi-s;' the- tirst is a Polish name, the second a name common in Little 
Russia," To this mountain Rotscheff gave the name of St. Helena, calling 
it so after his wife, the Princess de Gagarin, who was then at Fort 
Rks. General Vallejo relates the following romantic episode in connection 
with tile fair Princess : " The beauty of this lady excited so ardent a passion 
in tlie brca-st of Prince Solano, Cliief of all the Indians about Sonoma, that 
ho rornu'd a ])lan to capture, by force or stratagem, the object of his love; 
an.l hf might very likely have succeeded had I not heard of his intention in 
time to prevent its execution." On his return from Mount St. Helena, 
Rot.schetl" dispatched herds of cattle and sheep from Ross and occupied a cer- 
tain tract of land to wliich they gave the name of " Muny " or " Muniz " ; this 
is what is known as Russian Gulch, and now occupied by the Rule and 
Myei-s' ranchos. 

We now wind up the Russian occupation, in the lucid words of the veteran 
General: " Since my appointment to the command of the frontier, in 1835, 1 
had Ix-i-n directed by my Government to advance our colony northwestward, 
and by \irtue of the powers with which I was invested I made grants of 
laud to Messi-s. Mcintosh, Black, and Dawson, who had other foreigners in 
their service. After the advance of the Russians continual disputes arose 
between our colonists and theirs, and as my settlers were ready for a quarrel 
and were not sparing of those 'energetic words ' well known in the English 
idiom, our neighbors gradually retired towards Ross, and left the country in 
po.ssussion of their rivals, who, like good Anglo-Saxons, knew how to main- 
tain their riglits. Matters constantly became more complicated, until 1840, 
when Colonel Kupreanotf, Governor of Sitka, came to San Francisco, and 
many official communications passed between him and myself as Military 
Commandi^r of Calif(jrnia. The result was that the Russians prepared to 
abandon their California territory, and proposed to sell me their property. 
I was obliged to decline, because they insisted on selling also the land which 
was already the property of my Government. Finding that I would not 
yield on the point, they applied to Governor Alvarado, at Monterey, and 
received from him a similar reply. Then they applied to John A. Sutter, 
who, in 1840, made the purchase. (For particulars of this transaction we 
refer the reader to the history of Bodega Township). California was at 
last frce<l from guests who had always been regarded by us as intruders. 
Yet it is but just to say tliat in all mercantile transactions the Russians were 
notable for strict honasty, as, in social intercourse, for hospitality and affa- 
bility of manners tcnvards our ]>eople- They took immense numbers of 
beaver and seal skins during their stay, and left the country almost without 
fur-bearing animals." 

The tract of land grantei by General Vallejo to Mcintosh, Black and 


Dawson, who had come to the country with Captain John Cooper as sailors 
somewhere about 1830, was that now known as the Estero Americano, and 
Canada de Jonive. Black afterwards disposed of his interest to the other 
two, and removed to Marin county, where he permanently located. In 
1833, Dawson and Mcintosh applied for citizenship to the Mexican Govern- 
ment, and in November of that year the latter went to Monterey for the 
purpose of getting the grant confirmed. He got the papers made out in his 
own name, leaving that of Dawson out entirely. At this ungenerous con- 
duct, Dawson became much incensed. He first inflicted personal chastisement 
upon his quondam partner, and next sawed the house, which they had 
conjointly constructed, in two, and removed what he considered as his share 
entirel}' off the rancho and planted it beyond the boundary, and to day it is 
still used as a portion of the dwelling of F. G. Blume at Freestone. On the 
establishing of his residence, Dawson applied for and received that tract 
known as the Pogolome grant, and to him is the honor of having first 
attempted the manufacture of lumber; for we learn that as early as the 
year 1834 he had enough on hand, sawed in a pit with a long rip-saw, to 
build a house. The pits are still to be seen near the residence of the late 
Jasper O'Farrell. 

We have already shown that the Russians had taken their departure. 
This had scarcely been satisfactorily effected than a new element, more for- 
midable in its probable results, presented itself. In the first five years of the 
decade commencins with 1840, there began to settle in the vast Californian 
valleys that intrepid band of pioneers, who, having scaled the Sierra Nevadas 
with their wagons, trains and cattle, began the civilizing influences of progress 
on the Pacific Coast. Many of them had left their homes in the Atlantic 
and Southern States with the avowed intention of proceeding direct to Ore- 
gon. On arrival at Fort Hall, however, they heard glowing accounts of the 
salubrity of the Californian climate and the fertility of its soil ; they therefore 
turned their heads southward and steered for the wished-for haven. At 
length, after weary days of toil and anxiety, fatigued and foot-sore, the 
promised land was gained. And what was it like? The country in what 
valley soever we wot was an interminable grain field; mile upon mile, and 
acre after acre wild oats grew in marvellous profusion, in many places to a 
prodigious height — one great glorious green of wild waving corn — high over 
head of the wayfarer on foot, and shoulder-high with the equestrian ; wild 
flowers of every prismatic shade charmed the eye, while they vied with each 
other in the gorgeousness of their colors, and blended into dazzling splendor. 
One breath of wind and the wide emerald expanse rippled itself into space, 
while with a heavier breeze came a swell whose rolling waves beat against 
the mountain sides, and, being hurled back, were lost in the far-away hori- 
zon; shadow pursued shadow in a long merry chase. The air was filled with 
the hum of bees, the chirrup of birds, and an overpowering fragrance from 


the various plants weighted the air. The hill sides, overrun as they were 
with a dense mass of tangled jungle, were hard to penetrate, while in some 
portions the dei^p dark gloom of the forest trees lent relief to the eye. The 
almost boundless range was intersected throughout with divergent trails, 
whereby the traveller moved from point to point, progress being as it were 
in darkness on account of the height of the oats on either side, and rendered 
dangerous in the valleys by the bands of untamed cattle, sprung from the 
stock introiluced by the missions and early Spanish settlers. found 
fooil and shelter on the plains during the night ; at dawn they repaired to 
the higher grounds to chew the cud and bask in the sunshine. At every 
yard cayotos sprang from beneath the feet of the voyager. The hissing of 
snakes, the frightened rush of lizards, all tended to heighten the sense of 
danger, while the flight of quail and other birds, the nimble run of the 
rabbit, and the stampede of elk and antelope, which abounded in thou.sands, 
added to the charm, causing him, be he whosoever he may, pedestrian or 
equestrian, to feel the utter insignificance of man, the " noblest work of God." 

In the year 1840, there arrived in the Russian River valley, from San 
Diego, Cyrus Alexander, to take charge of the Sotoyome grant, the estate of 
Captain H. D. Fitch, the terms of his contract with Fitch being that he was 
to superintend the property and its stock, and at the end of four years 
receive two leagues of the ranch in payment. His first duty was to define 
the boundaries of the grant with the aid of the Mexican authorities. Sur- 
veying by the Mexicans at this early date was very different from the 
scientific knowledge which is found necessary now. In the first place, the 
lariat was substituted for the chain, while the pins used were long enough 
to be handled and placed in position from on horseback. The manner of 
effecting a survey was in this wise: The Surveyor would set his compass 
and take the bearings of a high hill or large tree at the extreme range of his 
vision; the word would then be given to his satellites, who would urge their 
horses to a fast trot, or sometimes to a hand-gallop, in the direction indicated, 
and without stopping they would draw the pins here, and set them there, 
thus continuing until the line had been run. Under these circumstances, it 
is not wonderful that such surveys lacked anything like mathematical 
precision, and have been the primary cause of the many bitter feuds that 
have since obtained, some of which are still unsettled. 

Mention has hitherto been frequently made of the aboriginal Indians, 
without any attempt at a description of their appearance, manners, and cus- 
toms. Place aux davies! The toilet of the women was more pretentious 
than that of the males, consisting only of a scanty apron of fancy skins or 
feathers, extending as far as the knees. Those of them who still remained in 
single blessedness wore a bracelet around the ankle or arm near the shoulder, 
an ornament usually made of bone or fancy wood. Polygamy was a recog- 
nized institution, chiefs generally possessing eleven wives, sub-chiefs nine» 


and ordinary warriors two, or more, according to their wealth or property. 
Indian-like they would fight among themselves long before the Spaniards 
came, and bloody fights they often were. Their weapons were bows and 
arrows, clubs, and spears, with which they were very adroit; they also had 
a kind of helmet made of skins. In times of peace they kept up the martial 
spirit by sham fights or tournaments. In these battles the women partici- 
pated, not as actual belligerents, but as a sanitary brigade; they followed their 
warriors, supplied them with provisions, and attended to them when 
wounded, carrying their pappooses on their backs at the same time. These 
Indians believed in a future existence and an all-powerful Great Spirit; but 
they likewise had faith in a Cucusuy or Mischief-maker, who, it was thought, 
took delight in their annoyance, while to him, and his agency, they attributed 
all their sickness and other misfortunes. They dwelt in miserable camps or 
rancheries. A rancheria, or small Indian town consists of certain "wick- 
eup " or wigwams for living in, and one sweat-house. These laft are usually 
constructed near a running stream. The Digger Indians, who occupied a 
considerable portion of this country, adopted the plan of digging into the 
earth some distance, and when attaining the desired depth would construct, 
around the excavation, a house of adobe clay, fashioned like a bee-hive, 
pel fectly air-tight and tapering to a cone. As a means of entrance and exit, 
an aperture of sufficient size to permit of the occupant's crawling through, 
was made, and so arranged that it could be easily closed. Within these 
ovens a fire would be lit, the Indian would strip, roll himself in his blanket 
and sleep, asphyxia being prevented by a small hole in the apex of the cone, 
which drew off the smoke and noxious gases. 

While on the subject of Indians it may not be out of place here to relate 
the following legend, which bears upon one of the prominent landmarks in 
this section of California : When the Spaniards were crossing the moun- 
tain called Bolgones, where an Indian spirit was supposed to dwell, having a 
cave for his haunt, he was disturbed by the approach of some soldiers, then 
on their way to Sonoma, and, emerging from the gloom, arrayed in all his 
feathers and war paint, with very little else by way of costume, motioned 
them to depart, threatening by gesticulations to weave a spell around them, 
but the sturdy warriors were not to be thus easily awed. They beckoned 
him to approach ; this invitation the wizard declined ; then one of the men 
secured him with his lasso to see if he were " goblin damn'd " or ordinary 
mortal. Even now he would not speak but continued his mumblings, when 
an extra tug caused him to shout and pray to be released. On relating this 
experience, the Indians pointed to Bolgones, calling it the mountain of the 
Cucusuy, which the Spaniards translated into Monte Diablo — hence the 
name of the mountain which is the meridian of scientific exploration in 

In the early days, probably in 1840, certamly not later than 1841, a man 


1)V the nanu' of SU^plieii Smitli, master of a bark called the " George and 
Henry," came to this coast on a trading expedition. He hailed from Massa- 
chusetts, of which States he was a native, and brought with him a cargo of 
8u<>-ar, svrup, tobacco, cotton and other cloths, besides whatever else could be 
disposal of readily in the California market at that time, receiving in return 
for these a cargo of hides, horns and tallow. While lying in the bay of San 
Francisco, he doubtless saw the Russians as they came there for the pur- 
pose of sailing to Sitka, and of course heard all about the country and the 
improvements which they had left behind. It is also more than likely that 
he took a cruise up that way for the purpose of spying out the land, and 
doubtless cast his anchor and furled his sails in the quiet and secure harbor 
of Bodega bay. He then evidently went ashore and visited the entire section 
of country immediately adjacent thereto. Here be saw the giant red- 
woods, and recognized the fact tliat in them was the lumber which generations 
yet unborn would use in the construction of homes. Nearly all the lumber 
then consumed on this coast was imported from the Sandwich Islands, and 
the establishment of a sawmill here, within five miles of a sj)lendid shipping 
point, which Avas within twenty-four hours sail of San Francisco bay, would 
certainly be laying the foundation for a princely fortune. He also conceived 
the idea of constructing a grist-mill in connection wdth his sawmill. He then 
hied himself away to the Atlantic seaboard with his head full of his great 
pniject. At least two years were consumed in this trip. While in Baltimore, 
having disposed of his cargo of hides, tallow,- etc., he purchased a complete 
outfit for a steam grist and sawmill, also a cargo of assorted merchandise. 
He then set .sail for California. On his way out he stopped at Pieta, Peru, 
wliere he was united in mariiage with Donna Manuella Torres, a lady of 
remarkable refinement and intellect, and at that time sixteen years of ao-e. 
It is apropos to remark here that Captain Smith was sixty-one years of age 
at the time of his marriage with Donna Manuella. This was his second 
marriage, his first wife having died some years previous. In Baltimore, he 
engaged one Henry Hagler as ship's carpenter. While at Pieta he engaged 
the services of William A. Streeter as engineer in his new mill. At Valpa- 
raiso he secured the services of David D. Dutton, now of Vacaville, Solano 
county, for the purpose of constructing his mill. He also somewhere on the 
trip ol)taine<l the .services of Philip Crawley and a man named Bridges. On 
the 27th of March, 1843, Captain Smith weighed anchor in the harbor of 
Pieta, setting sail for California. He brought also wnth him from Pieta his 
wife's mother, Mrs. Minunga Torres, and her brother, Manuel Torres., now a 
resident of Martinez, Contra Costa county. They reached Monterey about 
the middle of April following. Here the vessel was entered at the custom 
house. He then sailed for Santa Cruz, at which place lumbeT* was purchased 
and taken on board for the construction of the mill building- He then came 
to San PVancLsco bay and anchored off Clark's Point. While here he engaged 


.the the services of James Hudspeth, now of Green valley, Analy township,, 
Sonoma county, Alexander Copeland, now in the southern part of the State, 
Nathaniel Coombs, lately of Napa county, but now deceased, and John Dau- 
binbiss, now of Santa Cruz county. These men went on board of the ship, 
and all set sail for Bodega bay, where he arrived sometime in the month of 
September, 1843. Upon his arrival here a new difficulty arose. Bidwell, 
Sutter's agent, refused Smith the privilege of landing and of establishing his 
mill on any part of the land which had been previously occupied by the 
Russians, and over which, as Sutter's agent, he supposed he had dominion. 
But the hardy old tar was not to be thwarted in his enterprise after waiting 
two long years for its fulfillment. Therefore he took his men and began at 
once to get out timber for his mill buildings. When Bidwell protested, the 
captain informed him that he proposed to proceed with his enterprise, and 
warned him not to interfere. Bidwell at once returned to New Helvetia, 
and reported to Sutter what had occurred. E. V. Sutter, son of Captain 
John A. Sutter, is our authority for the above statements; but injustice to 
Captain Smith we will say, that the Mexican government did not at that 
time, nor has it at any time since, recognized the Russian claim, nor that of 
Sutter, to the tract in question ; and knowing this. Captain Smith was not 
doing an unrighteous deed when he took semi-forcible possession of the land. 
That the Mexican government approved of his course is certainly substan- 
tiated by the fact that it granted him eight leagues of the same territory a few 
years later. Captain Smith, in all his dealings with men, was characterized 
as the soul of honor, hence was incapable of committing any high-handed 

We will now take a glance at this pioneer steam grist and saw mill during 
its course of construction, that we may get a clear idea of its machinery and 
capacities. It was situated at the foot of a hill, on the brow of which grew 
the very initial trees of the great redwood belt, and was nearly one mile, in 
a northwesterly direction from the present site of the town of Bjdega 
Corners. An excavation about five feet deep and thirty bv fifty feefc was 
made. In the bottom of this a well was dug, for the purpose of furnishing 
the water supply to the boilers, which were of the most simple pattern 
known. They were three in number, each being thirty -six feet in length, 
and two and one-half feet in diameter. They were single-fiue boilers, hav- 
ing three openings, all in one end, one through which the water entered the 
boiler, near the bottom, one through which the steam passed to the engine, 
near the top, and the large " man hole " in the centre of the end which was 
fastened down with bolts, nuts and packing. These three boilers were 
arranged in a row, with a furnace of masonry around them, the fire being 
built Tinder, not in them, and the heat passed around and not through 
them, as at the present time. We know nothing of the style of the 
engine used, but it was doubtless one of the low-pressure stationary 


class, so common thirty years ago. The mill contained one run of burs, 
with' a probable capacity of t«n barrels of flour per day. These burs 
wore very peculiar in their composition, being made of small pieces of 
granito, united with a very tenacious and enduring cement; were about 
four foot in diameter and one and one-half feet in thickness, and encircled 
In- two strong bands of iron. The saw was what is known among 
riiill-men as a "sash " saw, i. e., one which is operated in a perpendicular 
position, similar to what they now call a "Mully" saw. It did not do the 
work nearly as fast as a circular saw, but it was far ahead of the old methods, 
either in a pit or with water or wind power. All this machinery which we 
have just described was nicely housed in a building erected of the lumber 
purchased by the Captain at Santa Cruz. Of course there were several 
other ai)pliances which we have not thought necessary to describe in detail, 
such as flour bolts, log can-iages, etc., but as f ar as it went, and for its capacity, 
the mill was complete in every respect. As stated above it was located 
at the foot of a bald hill, on the brow of which huge redwoods grew. As 
soon as Captain Smith landed he set men to work at cutting logs at this 
point, and as fast as chopped they were rolled down to the mill. This 
style of conveying logs from the woods to the mill was adhered to as long as 
Cai)t. Smith had the establishment. Upon the completion of the mill, and 
•when it was found that all of its machinery worked to a charm, invitations 
were Issued to the people of the surrounding country. Men of every nation- 
ality were there to see the marvelous machine put into operation. It was 
probably the first steam engine that quite a large portion of those present 
had ever witnessed in operation. Let us contemplate that throng for a 
moment. Here we see the " ranchero," with his broad "sombrero" over- 
shadowing him completely, his red bandana kerchief tied loosely about his 
neck, his bosom and arms bared to the sun, his broad-ciiecked pantaloons 
showing out in bold relief, mounted on a fiery, half-tamed " caballo de silla." 
By his side, mounted also on just as wild a steed, is the " vaqucro," with 
"sombrero" for his head, kerchief for his neck, "serrapa" thrown loosely 
about his .shoulders, his horse caparisoned as befitting a man in his position, 
his long "lariata" hanging in graceful coils from his saddle-horn, with 
mammoth spurs dangling from his heels, the bells of which chimed harmoni- 
ously with the mellifluous hum of the conversation, and the rowels of which 
served to designate the standing of the w^earer in the community. Then 
there was the old-time soldier, with a dress-parade air about his every look 
and action; and the grant-holders were there, and the Alcaldes, and all the 
the dignitaries within reach of the invitation. It was a grand holiday occa- 
sion for all, a day of sight-seeing not soon to be forgotten. Everything being 
in readiness, the hopper was filled with wheat brought from a neighboring 
ranch. 'J'he steam is turned on slowly, and the ])onderous H y-wlieel coinmencca 
U) revolve. The entire mass of machinery begins to vibrate with the j)ower 


imparted to it by the mighty agent curbed and bound in the iron boilers. All 
is motion, and the hum and whir of machinery is added to the babel of tongues, 
while amid exclamations of surprise and delight the grain is sent through 
the swirling burs into the bolts, and at length is reproduced before their 
wondering gaze as "flor de harina" — fine, white flour. Then a monster 
redwood log is placed upon the carriage, and the saw put ia motion ; slowly 
but surely it whips its way through it, and the outside slab is thrown 
aside. The log is passed back, and again approaches the saw. This time a 
beautiful plank is produced. Again and again is the operation repeated until, 
in a marvelously short period of time, the whole log is reduced to boards of 
different widths and thicknesses. While this is being done and admired by 
all, the first bags of flour have been sent to the house near by and converted 
into most excellent and nutritious bread. A beeve has been slaughtered, 
abundance of venison is at hand, and a sumptuous repast has been prepared, to 
which all are now invited to betake themselves. After the feast comes the toasts. 
The health and prosperity of the enterprizing Yankee host is drank in many 
an overflowing bumper. After dinner speeches were indulged in, and General 
M. G. Vallejo being there, and being the head and front of the native Cali- 
fornians present, was called upon to make some observations. In this speech 
he remarked that there were those present who would see more steam 
engines in the beautiful and fertile valleys of California than there would be 
soldiers. Surely was he endowed with prophetic power! He now has the 
satisfaction and pleasure of knowing ho w truly this remark has been verified. 
The repast and the sequent festivities over the company of sight-seers dis- 
perse, either to their homes or to some neighboring rancho, where a grand 
fandango is indulged in till the gray dawn steals upward over the far-away 

The sketch of the pioneer mill of Sonoma county would be incomplete 
without following it through the devious windings of the road it has traveled 
to the present time. Capt. Smith continued to operate it until the year 1850. 
During this time he sawed a vast amount of lumber, drawing it a distance 
of five or six miles to Bodega bay for shipment, some of which he exported 
to the Sandwich Islands, while he exchanged lumber for the tract of land 
known as the " Blucher " rancho. In Nov. 1849 he laid aside the sash saw 
and placed in its stead a circular saw. In 1850 Capt. Smith leased the 
entire tract of timber land on the Bodega rancho to Messrs. Hanks & Mudge 
for the term of ninety-nine years, for the sum of fifty thousand dollars. 
They took the saw out of the old building, and with new engines to run it, 
put it in a mill situated further up in the heart of the redwoods. After loca- 
ting at different points most convenient to the timber, the mill was eventu- 
ally taken to Mendocino county. In 1854 the Smith mill building was 
destroyed by fire, and it was never rebuilt, its projector and sustainer soon 
after beiag called to pass the dark river. One of the boilers does duty at the 


present time as a " lieatcr " at Duncan's mill. The visitor of to-day at the 
old mill site finds the excavation and the well of water in it; two of the old 
boilers lie mouldering and rusting on the ground in the excavation, while 
willow trees have grown up beside them to the height of twenty-five feet. 
At the end of the boilers one of the burs lies slowly but surely crumbling 
back to mother earth ; time and weather have eaten great holes in it, and 
the surface that once was able to withstand the steeled edge of the mill- 
wright's pick is now as soft as sandstone. One of the iron bands which sur- 
rounded it in its day of strength and glory has rusted until it has parted and 
dropped away from the stone, while the other is fast going to decay. Curi- 
osity-seekers are ever and anon taking pieces of the granite and cement, and 
soon nothing will be left to tell of it. On the bank lies the smoke-stack, 
while here and there stands a post used in the foundation. A few logs which 
were brought to the mill thirty years ago, but which were never sawed, still 
lie where they were placed in that long ago time, mute reminders of what 
was, and what is, links uniting the strange historical past with the living 
present. To Sonoma county, therefore, is the honor due of the inti'oduction 
of this great element of wealth and progress. 

General Vallejo thus describes that memorable visit: "I distinctly remem- 
ber having predicted on that occasion that before many years there would 
be more steam-engines than soldiers in California. The successors of Smith 
have not only proved the truth of my words, but have almost verified the 
remark of my compatriot, General Jose Castro, at Monterey, that ' the North 
Americans were so enterprising a people that if it were proposed, they were 
quite capable of changing the color of the stars.' Castro's discourse was made 
with no sympathy for the North American, since it was well known that 
he was no fi-iend to either Government or citizens; yet I believe that if 
General Castro had lived until to-day, he would unite with me in praise of 
that intelligent nation which opens her doors to the industrious citizens of 
the whole world, under the standard of true liberty." 

Up to this time there had been twenty-three grants of land confirmed to 
their original owners inside the boundaries of Sonoma county. Of these the 
largest was the Petaluma grant, situated mostly in what is now known as 
Vallejo and Sonoma townships. It included all that vast tract, comprising 
at least s('venty-five thousand acres, which lay between Sonoma creek on 
the east, San Pablo bay on tlie south, and Petaluma creek on the west, 
possessing the most fertile soil in the county, if not in the entire State. 
Every acre of it was tillable, and might have been most easily enclosed. The 
tract is now assessed for not less than three millions of dollars. It was orig- 
inally granted to General M. G. Vallejo. Of the foreigners who had acciuired 
land up to the period now under treatment, among the most notable were 
Jacob P. Leese, Henry D. Fitch, Juan P. Cooper, John Wilson and Mark West. 
Lcese, Fitch and Cooper were brothers-in-law of General Vallejo. The site 


whereon now stands the county seat — the flourishing town of Santa Rosa 

was granted to Mrs. Carrillo, the mother of the well-known Julio Carrillo, 
who is still a resident of that city; while the country lying between Santa 
Rosa and Sebastopol, in Analy township, was the property of Joaquin 
Carrillo, a brother of Mrs. Vallejo. The Bodega ranch, which contained 
thirty-five thousand four hundred and eighty-seven acres, was grantt-d to 
Captain Stephen Smith, who is described as " a remarkable man, and was a 
fine type of the pioneer — honest, hospitable and generous to a fault." Cap- 
tain Juan B. Cooper, another sailor, received the " El Molino," or Mill ranch, 
so named from a mill which he had erected on it in 1834, but which was 
washed away by a freshet in 18-10-41 ; Manuel Torres got the Munez ranch ; 
and the Rancho de Herman, in the northwest of the county, was granted to 
a number of Teutons, where they appropriately named the stream running 
through their property the Valhalla. Jasper O'Farrel exchanged a ranch 
in Marin county for the Canada de Jonive, situated in Analy township ; and 
acquired, by purchase or otherwise, from Mcintosh, the tract in Bodega 
township known as the Estero Americano. Mark West received six thousand 
six hundred and sixty-three acres, between the two streams now called Mark 
West creek and Santa Rosa creek. 

In another portion of our work will be found a fuller record of these Span- 
ish grants. The above named are sufficient to note in this place. Says Mr. 
Robert Thompson "The total number of acres included in all the grants in 
the county was four hundred thousand, one hundred and forty-three, just 
less than one-half its whole area as now bounded, which is estimated at eight 
hundred and fifty thousand acres. All the valleys we have elsewhere 
described were covered by grants without an exception. The public land all 
lay in the low hills, on the border of the valleys, and in the mountains. 
Fortunately for the future welfare of the county, these grants were sub- 
divided and sold in small tracts at a very early day. The titles to most of 
them were settled without much dispute or delay; and the subdivided lands 
were purchased by industrious and enterprising farmers, who have since 
lived upon and improved them. They have converted the long-horned 
worthless Spanish cattle into the short-horn, and the mustang horse into the 
thorough-bred, and the pastures of this worthless stock into homes of 
beauty and teeming abundance. With one exception all the grants have 
been sold in small tracts, and that is the Cotate ranch, on the plain between 
Petaluma and Santa Rosa. This tract belongs to an estate, and under the 
will can not be divided until the youngest child comes of age. This is the 
largest farm in the county, the railroad passing through it for six miles. The 
dairy is supplied with the milk of two hundred and fifty cows; there are five 
hundred head of cattle on the place, and ten thousand head of sheep; each cow 
averages daily one pound and a quarter of butter during the season, and the 
sheep shear an average of six pounds of wool each." 


We have alrendy in the commencement of our annals of Mendocino and 
Russian River townsliips, entered upon the subject of the primitive dwellings 
in vogue among the pioneei-s of 1840 and after; we would now call atten- 
tion to a few of their earlier implements and conveniences as well as one of 
thesti antique dwellings of another style, and in describing those adopted 
and ma.le by Cyrus Alexander we but tell the story of the rest, for the 
experiences of each were almost identical. Mention has been made of the 
adobe liouses of the early Californians. Let us consider one of these primi- 
tive habitations: Its construction was beautiful in its extreme simplicity. 
The walls wore fashioned of large sun-dried bricks, made of that black loam 
known to settlers in the Golden State as adobe soil, mixed with straw, with 
no particularity as to species, measuring about eighteen inches square and 
three in thickness; these wei'C cemented w^th mud, plastered within with the 
same substance, and w^hite- washed when finished. The rafters and joists were 
of rough timber, with the bark simply peeled off and placed in the requisite 
position, while the residence of the wealthier classes were roofed with tiles of 
a convex shape, placed so that the one should overlap the other and thus 
make a wateished; or, later, with .shingles, the poor contenting themselves 
with a thatch of tale, fastened down with thongs of bullocks' hide. The 
former modes of covering were expensive, and none but the opulent could 
afford the luxury of tiles. When completed, however, these mud dwellings 
will stand the brunt, and wear and tear of many decades, as can he evi- 
denced by the number which are still occupied in out-of- the-way corners of 
the county. 

In order to facilitate transportation it was found necessary to construct 
some kind of a vehicle, which was done in this manner: The two wheels 
were sections of a log with a hole drilled or bored through the center, the 
axle being a pole sharpened at each extremity for spindles, with a hole and pin 
at either end so as to prevent the wheels from slipping off. Another pole 
fastened to the middle of the axle, served the purpose of a tongue. Upon 
this framework was set, or fa.stened, a species of wicker-work, framed of 
sticks bound together with strips of hide. The beasts of burden in use were 
oxen, of which there were a vast number. These were yoked with a stick 
across the forehead, notched and crooked, so as to fit the head closely, and 
the whole tied with rawhide. Such was the primitive cart of the time- 
The plow was a still more peculiar affair. It consisted of a long piece of 
timber which served the purpose of a beam, to the end of which a handle 
was fastened ; a mortise was next chiseled so as to admit the plow, which 
was a short stick with a natural crook, having a small piece of iron fastened 
on one end of it. With this crude implement was the ground upturned, 
while the branch of a convenient tree served the purposes of a harrow. 
P'ences there were none so that crops might be protected ; ditches were there- 
fore dug, and the crests of the sod covered with the branches of trees to warn 


away the numerous bands of cattle and horses, and prevent their intrusion 
upon the newly sown grain. When the crops were ripe they were cut with 
a sickle, or any other convenient weapon, and then it became neeessary to 
thresh it. Now for the inodus operandi. The floor of the corral into which 
it was customary to drive the horses and cattle in order to lasso them, from 
constant use had become hardened. Into this inclosure the grain would be 
piled, and upon it the manatha, or band of mares, would be turned loose to 
tramp out the grain. The wildest horses, or mayhap the colts which had 
only been driven but once, and then to be branded, would be turned adrift 
upon the pile of straw, when would ensue a scene of the wildest confusion, 
the excited animals being driven, amidst the yelling of the vaqaeros and the 
cracking of whips, here, there and everywhere, around, across and lengthwise, 
until the whole was trampled, leaving naught but the grain and chaff. The 
most difficult part of the operation, however, was the separating of the grain 
from the chaff. Owing to the length of the dry season, there was no urgent 
haste to effect this ; therefore when the wind was high enough, the Indians, 
who soon fell into the ways of the white pioneers, more especially where they 
were paid in kind and kindness, would toss the trampled mass into the air 
with large wooden forks, cut from the adjacent oaks, and the wind carry 
away -the lighter chaff leaving the heavier grain. With a favorable wind 
several bushels of wheat could thus be winnowed in the course of one day. 
Strange as it may appear, it is declared to be the fact, that grain thus win- 
nowed was much cleaner than it is to-day. Mention has elsewhere been 
made of the necessity which compelled the tanning of hides from which 
clothes might be made. Let us now relate the following ingenious device 
whereby Mrs. Alexander was wont to'make yarn ; a novel spinning-wheel 
truly. A large bowl was procured with its inner surface polished to a great 
degree of smoothness ; when ready for operation, it would rest in the lap of 
the manipulator, she occupying a low seat. In the bowl was twirled or spun 
a spindle whittled into such a shape as to perform its movements easily, its 
form being that of a peg-top. While this was kept in motion with one hand, 
the wool would be payed out with the other, thus spinning the yarn, enough 
of which could be prepared in one day to knit a pair of socks. 

We have more than once referred to the vast bands of cattle that roamed 
about at will over the plains and among the mountains. Once a year these 
had to be driven in and rodeod, i. e. branded, a work of considerable danger, 
and one requiring much nerve. The occasion of rodeoing, however, was the 
signal for a feast ; a large beeve would be slaughtered, and all would make 
merry until it was consumed. The rule or law concerning branded cattle 
in those early days was very strict. If any one was known to have branded 
his neighbor's cattle with his own mark, common usage called upon him to 
return in kind fourfold. Not only did this apply to cattle alone, but to all 
other kinds of live stock. 


The early settlers in Sonoma county, but more especially those in the hilly 
districts, had always been more or less molested by wild animals, chief among 
them V»eing the jjrizzly bear. Up in the hills about Healdsburg Cyrus 
AK'xander had his share of these annoyances; let us record one of his experi- 
ences: He was then the proud possessor of a number of hogs, and hogs were 
but few in the county, one, being worth about seventy-five dollars. It is 
w ell known that the grizzly has a most unjudaic partiality for pork, and 
one especially had evinced this taste among Mr. Alexander's pigs. He was 
a huge monster, and many plans had been laid to effect his capture, but 
without success. One night the " old fellow " had dispatched a fat hog, but 
for some unknown reason he lefc an uneaten half of his supper under the 
shade of a live oak. A war, offensive and defensive, was now declared 
against Bruin; it was premised that he would return on the following night 
to finish his repast, or, to lay in another supply. Alexander and his men 
therefoie drove all the porkers that could be found into a pen, and gave them 
time to quiet down, which being attained, a gap was left in the gate-way to 
the pen so that stragglers could find ready ingress. The watchers next 
sttitioned themselves, gun in hand, in such positions, that they could keep 
within view both the half eaten pig and the pen. The night was dark and 
rainy — just such an one as Bruin would select for a foraging expedition. 
Nearly three hours after the sentinels had taken their posts, the hogs in the 
pen commenced to squeal and give signs of being disturbed, the watchers 
swiftly ran in that direction and sure enough there was Mr. Grizzly at work 
among the pigs; he had stationed himself at the entrance bars, and as each 
unsuspecting porker would approach so sure would he up paw and slap him 
over the back; tAvo he had killed outright while several more had been much 
lacerated and mangled. The wily rascal had found out that by frightening 
the hogs they would attempt to escape, therefore he stationed himself at the 
only means of exit. Unluckily, as he was neared by the party, he took to 
the mountains without giving the chance for a shot; however, future plans 
were arranged for his reception. Alexander determined to build a "log cabin 
bear trap." This construction was eight by ten feet in size and took 
several hard days' work to complete. A hole was next dug and laid with a 
log floor upon which the trap should rest, the corners being notched and 
pinned in such a manner that the bear could not force his paws through. A 
large and strong trap-door was next made, but before it was completed a 
tempting bait was set so as to lure Bruin to the spot — the ruse was success- 
ful—lie came, took possession of the meat and returned to his lair. The door 
being now finished, the ti-a^) was put into working order and once more 
baited, this time witli an entire pig, the door was hung upon a double trig- 
ger, after the manner of tin; "box skunk traps',' of to-day, and was found to 
work admirably. Pati(;nce did the rest. In the morning, the door was 
down and the trap occupied by a monster w^eighing nine hundred pounds, 
who .soon receive<l his (piietus Avith a rifie bullet. 


In the early part of 1839 a company was made up in St. Louis, Missouri, 
to cross the plains to California, consisting of D. G. Johnson, Charles Klein 
David D. Dutton, mentioned earlier as having coming to the country with 
Captain Smith, and William Wiggins. Fearing the treachery of the Indians 
this little band determined to await the departure of a party of traders in the 
employ of the American Fur Company, on their annual tour to the Rocky 
Mountains. At Westport they were joined by Messrs. Wright, Gego-er, a 
Doctor Wiselzenius and his German companion, and Peter Lassen, as also 
two missionaires with their wives and hired man, en route for Oregon, as 
well as a lot of what were termed fur trappers, bound for the mountains 
the entire company consisting of twenty-seven men and two women. 

The party proceeded on their journey and in due time arrived at the 
Platte river, but here their groceries and breadstuff gave out; happily the 
country was well stocked with food, the bill of fare consisting henceforward 
of buffalo, venison, cat-fish, suckers, trout, salmon, duck, pheasant, sao-e-fowl, 
beaver, hare, horse, grizzly bear, badger and dog. The historian of this 
expedition thus describes this latter portion of the menu. "As much misun- 
derstanding seems to prevail in regard to the last animal alluded to, a particu- 
lar description of it may not be uninteresting. It is, perhaps, somewhat 
larger than the ground squirrel of California, is subterranean and gregarious 
in its habits, living in 'villages;' and from a supposed resemblance in the feet, as 
well as in the spinal termination, to that of the canine family, it is in popular 
language known as the prairie dog. But in the imposing technology of the 
mountain graduate it is styled the canus prairie cuss, because its cussed 
holes so often cause the hunter to be unhorsed when engaged in the chase." 

After enduring a weary journe}^, accompanied by the necessary annoy- 
ances from treacherous and pilfering Sioux, hail-storms, sand-storms, rain 
and thunder-storms, our voyagers arrived at Fort Hall, where they were 
disappointed at not being able to procure a guide to take them to California. 
This was almost a death-blow to the hopes of the intrepid travelers ; but hav- 
ing learned of a settlement on the Willamette river, they concluded to proceed 
thither in the following spring, after passing the winter at this fort. Here 
Klein and Doctor Wiselzenius determined to retrace their steps; thus the 
party was now reduced to five in number — Johnson going ahead and leavino- 
for the Sandwich Islands. In September, 1839, the company reached Oreo-on, 
and sojourned there during the winter of that year ; but in May, 1840, a 
vessel arrived with Missionaries from England, designing to touch at Califor- 
nia on her return, Mr. William Wiggans, now of Monterey, the narrator of 
this expedition, and his three companions from Missouri, among whom was 
David D. Dutton, at present a resident of Vacaville township, in Solano 
county, got on board; but Mr. W., not having a dollar, saw no hope to get 
away ; as a last resort, he sent to one of the passengers, a comparative 
stranger, for the loan of sixty dollars, the passage-money, when, to his great 


joy and surprise, the money was furnished — a true example of the spontane- 
ous generosity of those early days. There were three passengers from Oregon, 
and many others who were " too poor to leave." In June, they took passage 
in the " Lausenne," and were three weeks in reaching Baker's bay, a distance 
of only ninety miles. On July 3d, they left the mouth of the Columbia, 
and, afttn- being out thirteen days, arrived at Bodega, in Sonoma county, 
then a harbor in possession of the Russian.s. Here a dilemma arose of 
quite a threatening character. The Mexican Commandant sent a squad of 
soldiers to prevent the party from landing, as they wished to do, for the cap- 
tain of the vessel had refused to take them farther on account of want of 
money. At this crisis, the Russian Governor arrived, and ordered the 
soldiers to leave, be shot down, or go to prison ; they, therefore, beat a retreat. 
Here were our travelers at a stand-still, with no means of proceeding on their 
journey, or of finding their way out of the inhospitable country ; they, there- 
fore, penned the following communication to the American Consul, then 
at Monterey: — 

" Port Bodega, July 25, 1840. 
" To the American Consul of California — 

" Dear Sir : — We, the undersigned citizens of the United States, beinof desir- 
ous to land in the country, and having been refused a passport, and been 
opposed by the Government, we write to you, sir, for advice, and claim your 
protection. Being short of funds, we are not able to proceed further on the 
ship. We have concluded to land under the protection of the Russians ; we 
will remain there fifteen days, or until we receive an answer from you, which 
we hope will be as soon as the circumstances of the case will permit. We have 
been refused a from General Vallejo. Our object is to get to the 
settlements, or to obtain a pass to return to our own country. Should we 
receive no relief, we will take up our arms and travel, consider ourselves in 
an enemy's country, and defend ourselves with our guns. 
" We subscribe ourselves, 

" Most respectfully, " David Dutton, 

" John Stevens, 
" Peter Lassen, 
" Wm. Wiggins, 
"J. Wright." 
Wc have above mentioned the names of those intrepid pioneers who came 
to Sonoma and settled — a list of the earliest of these has be&n given in its 
proper place. In our histories of the townships such matters have received 
the most marked treatment, and leave but little to be dealt with in the 
general history. Prior to the discovery of gold but comparatively few 
arrived, and anterior to the "Bear Flag" times their number could be 
counted by tens. There were these trusty pioneers, Cyrus Alexander (1840) ; 
Frank Bidwell (1843;, and Mose Carson (1845,) in Mendocino township. In 


Analy, there were John Walker, and the hale, hearty and most genial host, 
James M. Hudspeth (1843). In Sonoma there was General Vallejo (1835), 
now one of America's most loyal citizens. William Benitz, and Ernest 
Rufus (1845), had been in Salt Point. Frederick Starke (1845) had settled 
in Vallejo township, while throughout the county there are many names we 
have been unable to trace. 

With the year 1846 more emigrants mounted the Sierras, and descended 
into the California valleys, some to remain ; but there were those who never 
arrived, as the following interesting relation of the sufferings of the ill-fated 
Donner party will exemplify : — 

Tuthills's History of California tells us : " Of the overland emigration to 
California, in 1846, about eighty wagons took a new route, from fort Bridger, 
around the south end of Great Salt Lake. The pioneers of the party arrived 
in good season over the mountains ; but Mr. Reed's and Mr. Donner's com- 
panies opened a new route through the desert, lost a month's time by their 
explorations, and reached the foot of the Truckee pass, in the Sierra Nevada, 
on the 31st of October, instead of the 1st, as they had intended. The snow 
began to fall on the mountains two or three weeks earlier than usual that 
year, and was already piled up in the Pass that they could not proceed. They 
attempted it repeatedly, but were as often forced to return. One party built 
their cabins near the Truckee Lake, killed their cattle, and went into winter 
quarters. The other ( Donner's ) party, still believed that they could thread 
the pass, and so failed to build their cabins before more snow came and buried 
their cattle alive. Of course these were soon utterly destitute of food, for 
they could not tell where the cattle were buried, and there was no hope of 
game on a desert so piled with snow that nothing without wings could move. 
The number of those who were thus storm-stayed, at the very threshold of 
the land whose winters are one long spring, was eighty, of whom thirty were 
females, and several children. The Mr. Donner who had charge of one com- 
pany, was an Illinoisian, sixty years of age, a man of high respectability and 
abundant means. His wife was a woman of education and refinement, and 
much younger than he. 

During November it snowed thirteen days ; during December and January, 
eight days in each. Much of the time the tops of the cabins were below the 
snow level. 

It was six weeks after the halt was made that a party of fifteen, including 
five women and two Indians who acted as guides, set out on snow-shoes to 
cross the mountains, and give notice to the people of the California settle- 
ments of the condition of their friends. At first the snow was so light and 
feathery that even in snow-shoes they sank nearly a foot at every step. On 
the f^econd day they crossed the ' divide,' finding the snow at the summit 
twelve feet deep. Pushing forward with the courage of despaii', they made 
from four to eight miles a day. 


Within :i \vick they got entirely out of provibions; and three of them, suc- 
cumbing to eolil, weariness, and starvation, had died. Then a heavy snow- 
storm came on, which compelled them to lie still, buried between their blankets 
under the snow, for thirty-six hours. By the evening of the tenth day three 
more had died, and the living had been four days without food, The horrid 
alternative was accepted — they took the flesh from the bones of their dead, 
remained in camp two days to dry it, and then pushed on- 

( )ii New Years, the sixteenth day since leaving Truckee Lake, they were up a steep mountain. Their feet were fro/.en. Every step was marked 
with lilood. On the second of January, their food again gave out. On the 
third, thfv ha<l nothing to eat but the strings of their snow-shoes. On the 
fourth, the Indians eloped, justl}^ suspicious that they might be sacrificed for 
food. ( )n the fifth, they shot a deer, and that day one of their nund)er died. 
Soon after three others died, and every death now^ eked out the existence of 
the survivors. On the seventeenth, all gave out, and concluded their wan- 
derings useless, except one. He, guided by two stray friendly Indians, drag- 
ged himself on till he reached a settlement on Bear river. By midnight the 
settlers had found and were treating with all Christian kindness what 
remained of the little company that, after more than a month of the most 
terrible sufferings, had that morning halted to die. 

The story that there were emigrants perishing on the other side of the 
snowy barrier ran sw^iftly dow^n the Sacramento valley to New Helvetia, 
and (Captain Sutter, at his own expense, fitted out an expedition of men and 
of mules laden wnth provisions, to cross the mountains and relieve them. It 
ran on to San Francisco, and the people, rallying in public meeting, raised 
fifteen hundred dollars, and with it fitted out another expedition. The naval 
commandant of the port fitted out still others. 

The first of the relief parties reached Truckcc lake on the nineteenth of 
February. Ten of the people in the nearest camp w^ere dead. For four weeks 
those who were still alive had fed only on bullocks' hides. At Donner's camp 
they had but one hide remaining. The visitors left a small su})ply of provi- 
sions with the twx'nty-ninc whom they could not take with them, and started 
back with the remainder. Four of the children they carried on their backs- 

Anf)th('r of the relief parties reached Truckee lake on the first of March. 
They immediately started back with seventeen of the sutierers; but, a heavy 
snow storm overtaking them, th(^y left all, except three of the children, on the 
road. Another party went after those who were left on the way ; found three 
of tiiem dea<l, and the rest sustaining life by feeding on the flesh of the dead. 

The last relief party reached Donner's camp late in April, when the snows 
had melted so much that the earth appeared in spots. The main cabin was 
empty, but some miles distant they found the last survivor of all lying on 
the cabin floor smoking his pipe. He w^as ferocious in aspect, savage and 
repulsive in manner. His camp-kettle w^as over the fire and in it his meal 


of human flesh preparing. The stripped bones of his fellow-sufferers lay 
around him, He refused to return with the party, and only consented when 
he saw there was no escape. 

Mrs. Donner was the last to die. Her husband's body, carefully laid out 
and wrapped in a sheet, was found at his tent. Circumstances led to the 
suspicion that the survivor had killed Mrs. Donner for her flesh and her 
money, and when he was threatened with hanging, and the rope tio-htened 
around his neck, he produced over five hundred dollars in gold, which, pro- 
bably, he had appropiated from her store." 

In relation to this dreary story of suflering, this portion of our history will 
be concluded by the narration of the prophetic dream of George Yount, 
attended, as it was, with such marvelous results. 

At this time, ( the winter of 1846 ) while residing in Napa county, of which, 
as has been already remarked, he was the pioneer settler, he dreamt that a 
party of emigrants were snow-bound in the Sierra Nevadas, high up in the 
mountains, where they were suffering the most distressing privations from 
cold and want of food. The locality where his dream had placed these 
unhappy mortals, he had never visited, yet so clear was his vision that he 
described the sheet of water surrounded by lofty peaks, deep-covered with 
snow, while on every hand towering pine trees reared their heads far above 
the limitless waste. In his sleep he saw the hungry human beings ravenously 
tear the 'flesh from the bones of their fellow creatures, slain to satisfy their 
craving appetites, in the midst of a gloomy desolation. He dreamed his dream 
on three successive nights, after which he related it to other.s, among whom 
were a few who had been on hunting expeditions in the Sierras. These wished 
for a precise description of the scene foi'eshadowed to him. They recognized 
the Truckee, now the Donner lake. On the strength of this recognition 
Mr. Yount fitted out a search expedition, and,- with these men as guides, went 
to the place indicated, and, prodigious to relate, was one of the successful 
relieving parties to reach the ill-fated Donner party. 

Of those who were fortunate to press the wished-for peaceful glades with 
their weary feet were the Gordons, W.J. Morrow of Mendocino, (1848;) Louis. 
Adler of Sonoma, (1848 ;) and some others whose names will be found elsewhere 

Who does not think of 1848 with feelings almost akin to inspiration? 

The year 1848 is one wherein reached the nearest attainment of the dis- 
covery of the Philosopher's stone, which it has been the lot of Christendom 
to witness: On January 19th gold was discovered, at Coloma, on the 
American Hiver, and the most unbelieving and coldblooded were, by the 
middle of spring, irretrievably bound in its facinating meshes. The wonder 
is that the discovery was not made earlier. Emigrants, settlers, hunters, 
practical miners, scientific exploring parties, had camped on, settled in, 
hunted through, dug in and ransacked the region, yet never found it ; the 
discovery was entirely accidental. Franklin Tuthill, in his History of Cal- 


ifornia, tolls the story in tliose words: " Captain Sutter had contracted with 
James W. Marshall, in September, 1847, for the construction of a sawmill, 
in Coloma. In the course of the winter a dam and race were made, but, 
when the water was let on, the tail-race was too narrow. To widen and 
tleepen it, Marshall let in a strong current of water directly to the race, 
which bore a large body of mud and gravel to the foot. 

On the 19th of January, 1848, Marshall observed some glittering particles 
in the race, which he was curious enough to examine. He called five car- 
penters on the mill to see them ; but though they talked over the possibility 
of its being gold, the vision did not inflame them. Peter L. Weimar claims 
that he was with Marshall when the first piece of " yellow stuff" was 
picked up. It was a pebble, weighing six pennyweights and eleven grains. 
Marshall gave it to Mrs. Weimar, and asked her to boil it in saleratus water 
and see what came of it. As she was making soap at the time, she pitched it 
into the soap kettle. About twenty-four hours afterwards it was fished out 
and found all the brighter for its boiling. 

Marshall, two or three weeks later, took the specimens below, and gave 
them to Sutter, to have them tested. Before Sutter had quite satisfied 
himself as to their nature, he went up to the mill, and, with Marshall, made 
a treaty with the Indians, buying of them their titles to the region round 
about, for a certain amount of goods. There was an effort made to keep the 
secret inside the little circle that knew it, but it soon leaked out. They had 
many misgivings and much discussion whether they were not making 
themselves ridiculous; yet by common consent all began to hunt, though 
with no great spirit, for the "yellow stuff" that might prove such a prize. 

In February, one of the party went to Yerba Buena, taking some of the 
dust with him. Fortunately he stumbled upon Isaac Humphrey, an old 
Georgian gold-miner, who at the first look at the specimens, said they were 
gold, and that the diggings must be rich. Humphrey tried to induce some 
of his friends to go up with him to the mill, but they thought it a crazy 
expedition, and left him to go alone. He reached there on the 7th of March. 
A few were hunting for gold, but rather lazily, and the work on the mill 
went on as usual. Next day he began "prospecting" and soon satisfied 
himself that he had struck a rich placer. He made a rocker, and then com- 
menced work in earnest. 

A few days later, a Frenchman, Baptiste, formerly a miner in Mexico, left 
the lumber he was sawing for Sutter at Weber's, ten miles east of Coloma. 
and came to the mill. He agreed with Humphrey that the region was rich, 
and, like him, took to the pan and the rocker. These two men were the com- 
petent practical teachers of the crowd that flocked in to see how they did it. 
The lesson was easy, the process simple. An hour's observation fitted the 
least experienced for working to advantage. 

Slowly and surely, however, did these discoveries creep into the minds of 


those at home and abroad ; the whole civiHzed world was set agog with the 
startling news from the shores of the Pacific. Young and old were seized 
with the California fever ; high and low, rich and poor, were infected by it ; 
the prospect was altogether too gorgeous to contemplate. Why, they could 
actually pick up a fortune for the seeking it ! Positive aftluence was within 
the grasp of the weakest; the very coast was shining with the bright metal, 
which could be obtained by picking it out with a knife. 

Says Tuthill : Before such considerations as these, the conservatism of 
the most stable bent. Men of small means, whose tastes inclined them to 
keep out of all hazardous schemes and uncertain enterprises, thought they 
saw duty beckoning them around the Horn, or across the plains. In many 
a family circle, where nothing but the strictest economy could make the two 
ends of the year meet, there were long and anxious consultations, which 
resulted in selling off a piece of the homestead or the woodland, or the choicest 
of the stock, to tit out one sturdy representative to make a fortune for the 
family. Hundreds of farms were mortgaged to buy tickets for the land 
of gold. Some insured their lives and pledged their policies for an outfit. 
The wild boy was packed off hopefully. The black sheep of the flock was 
dismissed with a blessing, and the forlorn hope that, with a change of skies 
there might be a change of manners. The stay of the happy household said, 
" Good-bye, but only for a year or two," to his charge. Unhappy husbands 
availed themselves cheerfully of this cheap and reputable method of divorce 
trustinsr Time to mend or mar matters in their absence. Here was a chance 
to begin life anew. Whoever had begun it badly, or made slow headway on 
the right course, might start again in a region where Fortune had not learned 
to coquette with and dupe her wooers. 

The adventurers generally formed companies, expecting to go overland or 
by sea to the mines, and to dissolve partnership only after a first trial of luck 
together in the " diggings." In the Eastern and Middle States they would buy 
up an old whaling ship, just ready to be condemned to the wreckers, put in 
a cargo of such stuff as they must need themselves, and provisions, tools, or 
goods, that must be sure to bring returns enough to make the venture profit- 
able. Of course, the whole fleet rushing together through the Golden Gate 
made most of these ventures profitless, even when the guess was happy as to 
the kind of supplies needed by the Californians. It can hardly be believed 
what sieves of ships started, and how many of them actually made the voy- 
age. Little river-steamers, that had scarcely tasted salt water before, were 
fitted out to thread the Straits of Magellan, and these were welcomed to the 
bays and rivers of California, whose waters some of them ploughed and vexetl 
busily for years afterwards. 

Then steamers, as well as all manner of sailing vessels, began to be adver- 
tised to run to the Isthmus; and they generally went crowded to excess with 
passengers, some of whom were fortunate enough, after the toilsome ascent 


of the Chagres river, antl the descent either on mules or on foot to Panama, 
not to be detained more than a month waiting for the craft that had rounded 
the Horn, and by whicli tliey were ticketed to proceed to San Francisco. 
But liundreds broke down under the horrors of the voyage in the steerage; 
contracted on the Isthmus the low typhoid fevers incident to tropical marshy 
regions, and died. 

The overland emigrants, unless they, came too late in the season to the 
Sieri'as, seldom suffered as much, as they had no great variation of climate 
on their route. They had this advantage, too, that the mines lay a^ the end 
of their long road ; while the sea-faring, when they landed, had still a weary 
journey before them. Few tarried longer at San Francisco than was neces- 
sary to learn how utterly useless were the curious patent mining contrivances 
they had brought, and to replace them with the pick, shovel, pan, and cradle. 
If any one found himself destitute of funds to go farther, there was work 
enough to raise them by. Labor was honorable ; and the daintiest dandy, if 
he were honest, could not resist the temptation to work where wages were so 
high, pay so prompt, and employers so flush. 

There were not lacking in San Francisco, grumblers who had tried the 
mines and satisfied themselves that it cost a dollar's worth of sweat and time, 
and living exclusively on bacon, beans, and " slap-jacks," to pick a dollar's 
worth of gold out of rock, or river bed, or dry ground ; but they confessed 
that the good luck which they never enjoyed abode with others. Then the 
di.'^play of dust, slugs, and bars of gold in the public gambling places; the 
sight of men arriving every day freighted with belts full, which they parted 
with so freely fis men only can when they have got it easily ; the testimony 
of the miniature rocks; the solid nuggets brought down from above every 
f( \v days, whose size and value rumor multiplied according to the number of 
her tongues. The talk, day and night, unceasingly and exclusively of 
"gold, easy to get and hard to hold," inflamed all new comers with the desire 
to hurry on and share the chances. They chafed at the necessary deten- 
tions. They nervously feared that all would be gone before they should 

The prevalent impression was that the placers would give out in a year or 
two. Then it behoved him who expected to gain much to be among the 
earliest on the ground. When experiment was so fresh in the field, one 
theory was about as good as another. An hypothesis that lured men perpet- 
ually farther up the gorges of the foot-hills, and to explore the canons of the 
mountain.s, was this: — that the gold which had been found in the beds of 
rivers, or in gulches, through which streams once ran, must have been washed 
down from the places of original deposit farther up the mountains. The 
higher up the gold-hunter went, then, the nearer he approached the source 
of supply. 

To reach the mines from San Francisco, the course lay up San Pablo and 


Suisun bays, and the Sacramento — not then, as now, a yellow, muddy stream, 
but a river pellucid and deep — to the landing for Sutter's Fort; and they 
who made the voyage in sailing vessels, thought Mount Diablo significantly 
named, so long it kept them company and swung its shadow over their path. 
From Sutter's the most common route was across the broad, fertile valley to 
the foot-hills, and up the American or some one of its tributaries; or, ascend- 
ing the Sacramento to the Feather and the Yuba, the company staked off" a 
claim, pitched its tent or constructed a cabin, and set up its rocker, or began 
to oust the river from a portion of its bed. Good luck might hold the impa- 
tient adventurers for a whole season on one bar; bad luck scattered them 
always farther up. 

Roads sought the mining camps, which did not stop to study roads. 
Traders came in to supply the camps, and, not very fast, but still to some 
extent; mechanics and farmers to supply both traders and miners. So, as if 
by magic, within a year or two after the rush began, the map of the country 
was written thick with the names of settlements. 

Some of these were the nuclei of towns that now flourish and promise to 
continue as long as the State is peopled. Others, in districts where the 
placers were soon exhausted, were deserted almost as hastily as they were 
begun, and now no traces remain of them except the short chimney-stack, 
the broken surface of the ground, heaps of cobble-stones, rotting, half-buried 
sluice boxes, empty whisky bottles, scattered playing cards and rusty cans. 

The " Fall of '49 and Spring of '50 " is the era of California history which 
the pioneer always speaks of with warmth. It was the free-and-easy age 
when every body was flush, and fortune, if not in the palm, was only just 
beyond the grasp of all. Men lived chiefly in tents, or in cabins scarcely 
more durable, and behaved themselves like a generation of bachelors. The 
family was beyond the mountains ; the restraints of society had not yet 
arrived. Men threw off the masks they had lived behind and appeared out 
in their true character. A few did not discharge the consciences and con- 
victions they had brought with them. More rollicked in a perfect freedom 
from those bonds which good men cheerfully assume in settled society for 
the good of the greater number. Some afterwards resumed their temperate 
and steady habits, but hosts were wrecked before the period of their license 

Very rarely did men, on their arrival in the country, begin to work at their 
old trade or profession. To the mines first. If fortune favored, they soon 
quit for more congenial employments. If she frowned, they might depart 
disgusted, if they were able ; but oftener, from sheer inability to leave the 
business, they kept on, drifting from bar to bar, living fast, reckless, improvi- 
dent, half-civilized lives ; comparatively rich to-day, poor to-morrow ; tor- 
mented with rheumatisms and agues, remembering dimly the joys of the old 


homestead ; nearly weaned from the friends at home, who, because they were 
ni-vcr heard from, soon became like dead men in their memory; seeing little 
of wonien'and nothing of churches ; self-reliant, yet satisfied that there was 
nowhere any "show" for them; full of enterprise in the direct line of their 
business,^and utterly lost in the threshhold of any other; genial companions, 
nicrbidly craving after newspapers; good fellows, but short-lived." 

Such was the maelstrom which dragged all into its vortex thirty years 
ago ! Now, almost the entire generation of pioneer miners, who remained in 
that business, has passed away, and the survivors feel like men who are lost 
and old before their time, among the new comers, who may be just as old, 
but lack their long, strange chapter of adventures. 

No history of a county in California would be complete without a record 
of the rush to this coast at the time of what is so aptly named the " gold 
fever ;" hence use has been made of the graphic pen-picture quoted above. 

Where there were so many homeless, houseless wanderers, the marvel is 
not so much that thousands should have succumbed to sickness, as that there 
was no ej)idcmic to sweep off the entire reckless population. 

After the gold excitement, 'twas then that the State became settled. In 
the year 1849 there came and located near Occidental, in Bodego township, 
William Howard, whose name is given to the railroad .station at that town ; 
and to Mendocino there came William T. Allen and Hiram W. Smith. In 
the following year immigration was still on the increase. Charlie Hudspeth 
arrived in Bodega; George Miller to Mendocino; to Russian River, J. W. 
Calhoon, Henry J. Paul, and Henry L. Runyon, to Cloverdale, John Dixon ; 
and to Santa Rosa, W. B. Roberts. In the year 1851 towns commenced to 
make a stai't. In Analy township there arrived W. D. Canfield, William 
Abels, William Jones, Edward Thurbur, G. Wolff; to Sonoma came Frank- 
lin Sears, Coleman Talbot, and many others ; to Cloverdale, J. G. Heald ; to 
Santa Rosa, John Adams and Joseph Wright ; while to Petaluma, which had 
then .sprung into existence, there came Robert Douglas, J. H, Lewis, James 
Singley, Lemarcus Wiatt, Tom Lockwood, George B. Williams. In the fol- 
lowing years settlers still poured in ; they found the cultivable portions of the 
soil up to their highest expectations, and so they built habitations, and to-day 
no more flourishing people are to he found in any part of California. 

In the year 1852, as the settlers formed the centers of communities, it was 
found imperative to erect churches and provide schools for the instruction of 
the comparatively few cliildren that had in their tender youth crossed the 
plains with their adventurous parents, or faced the dangers of the deep 
around " the Horn," or ari-ived .scatheless from the effects of a Panama fever. 
Let us note what was done. 

Public Scikjols.— John G. Marvin, the first State Superintendent of 
Public Schools, was enabled to repart in 1852 to the Legislature certain 


information which he had gleaned the previous year in the matter of public 
instruction. With respect to Sonoma county, he stated that the number of 
children was two hundred and fifty; that there was one school at each of 
the following places, Sonoma, Santa Rosa, Analy, Booega, and Mark West ; 
the three former being English and the rest Spanish, which were entirely 
supported by contributions and tuition money. To-day, there are one hun- 
dred and four school districts within the limits of the county, which receive 
an apportionment from the State of nearly eight thousand dollars, and more 
than four thousand from the county. 

Churches. — The Methodist Church. — In the fall of 1849, A. J. Heustis, 
A. M., a local ])reacher from Wisconsin, came to Sonoma with his family, 
and organized a class, preaching occasionally in the town during the greater 
portion of the following year, when, removing to Humboldt Bay, the people 
were without the ministration of the Word until February, 18.51, exceptino- 
one occasion, when Rev. J. Owen, then Presiding Elder for the entire State, 
organized a Quarterly Conference, and promised to send a minister as soon 
as possible. 

This promise was fulfilled a few weeks after, when Rev. S. D. Simonds, 
then but partially recovered from a severe attack of the Panama fever, was 
placed in charge of the work, with instructions to look aftar all our inter- 
ests north of the hay. 

A few weeks previous to this the Rev. Matthew Lassetter, an English 
local preacher, settled in Napa valley, and preached regularly until the fol- 
lowing autumn at the house of Mr. Harbin. 

Bro. Simonds hired a house at Benicia, and with his estimable wife, 
engaged with commendable zeal in the labors assigned him, making appoint- 
ments at the following places: Martinez, Benicia, Suisun, Vallejo, Napa 
City, Harbin's, Kellogg's (in Napa valley), Sonoma, Bodega, and Russian 
River, each to be filled every two weeks, which he generally did. 

To go once around the curcuit required 180 miles of travel. At five of the 
appointments, Suisun, Harbins', Kellogg's, Sonoma and Bodega, Bro. S. 
organized Sunday Schools, which it is believed were well attended during the 
summer months. Sister S. also gathered around her a few young children 
each Sabbath at Benicia giving them faithful instruction. 

On Friday 2nd May. 1851, i\iQ first camp meeting ever held in California 
was commenced almost one mile from Sonoma near Kelsey's garden. Bro. 
J. W, Brier preached the first sermon. At this meeting a number of per- 
sons professed religion and Bro. Owen baptized one adult by pouring. 

In the following September another camp meeting was held in Napa valley 
on the east side of the creek below Yount's mills. The Rev. William Roberts of 
Oregon was present, having come to attend to his duties as Superintendent 
of the Mission Conference held at San Francisco immediately after the close 
of the camp-meeting. 


llcvs. James Carwine and Alexander McLean were appointed at this con- 
ference to the work, the latter remaining but a few months when he was 
put in charge of Plumas circuit. 

In the following May, Rev. J. A. Swaney, one of seven missionaries 
just arrived, was sent by Mr. Owen to assist Mr. Carwine. They labored 
very acceptably and usofully during the conference year. 

Durincr this year the work Avas divided into the Benicia, Napa, and 
Sonoma counties, and at the Annual Conference following, Bodega circuit 
was set off from the Sonoma work, including Petaluma and the Bodega 
country, Russian River, .Anderson valley, and Big River, Rev. A. L. S. Bate- 
man in charge. 

In Feburary, 1854, the Bodega Circuit ceased to exist and of it were formed 
Petaluma and Russian River Circuits, Bro. Bateman being appointed to the 

The Annual Conference held at San Jose commencing August 27, 1856, 
divided the Russian River Circuit and formed the Santa Rosa Circuit as 
recommended, placing R. W. Williamson in charge and Colin Anderson, 

There seems to be a loss of minute business, from the time of the second 
quarterly Conference for the year 1857-8 held at Healdsburg February 22, 
1858, until the first quarterly meeting of the next Conference year held at 
Healdsburg December 4, 1858. Rev. E. Bannister being elder. 

Rev. M. C. Briggs was elder the previous year. 

At the Annual Conference held at Sacramento September, 1858, the Santa 
Rosa Circuit was divided, and the northern part, including the Russian 
River country below the caiion. Dry Creek, Windsor, and Alexander's, was 
constituted the Russian River Circuit. 

At the Conference held at Santa Clara September 12, 1860, the name of 
the circuit was changed to Healdsburg, Rev. J. W. Stump, preacher in 
charge, who had just arrived on the Coast, transferred from the Ohio Con- 

The circuit then consisted of four appointments, Healdsburg, Windsor, 
Geyserville, and Alexander's. 

We have been unable to gather a general history of the other churches as 
complete as the foregoing, full chronicles of the special congregations will, 
however, be found in other places, for most of these annals have been pro- 
vided by the ministers and clergymen themselves, each of whom naturally 
takes a special interest in his own church. 

We will now pass on to other matters which have tended to bring Sonoma 
county to its present state of perfection. 

Agriculture.— That it was not for some time after the settlement of the 
county that its soil was thought to be prolific there is no reason to doubt. 
The priests who first penetrated into these unknown regions were unaware 


of the immense resources which yet remained unrevealed in the bosom of 
mother earth ; they imagined that if aught could be done, it should be so 
attained by means of irrigation, for we find Father Altimira entering in his 
Journal, these remarks : — " We started from Lema on the mornino- of the 
27th, about six o'clock, and explored the plain running east, which is exten- 
sive enough for a Mission, the land being fertile and covered with grass, but 
of little use for plants, requiring irrigation in the summer season, for in that 
season the springs are dried up, as is also the brook running on said plat, or 
plain, called Chocaimoi. " This would appear to have been penned in regard 
to lands, near the old adobe. 

The first agriculturists in the count}'- were indisputably the Russians, 
and though they did not cultivate what is now considered the best wheat 
soil, still, they made large shipments of grain to their fur hunters in Russian 
America, quantities being despatched from Bodega to Sitka. At Ross 
they planted orchards, the trees of which to-day bear heavy crops of fruit, 
while the remains of their rude implements of husbandry have been found 
at both these places. 

In succession to the Muscovite were the Spanish Priests who further devel- 
oped the wonderful fertility of Sonoma. Ten years after the founding of San 
Francisco Solano, an official report is made by them that the mission owns 
three thousand horned cattle, seven hundred horses, four thousand sheep, 
and the harvest that year had yielded three thousand bushels of grain, and 
this was the product of the small tract which they occupied in Sonoma Valley. 

In the present day the vast resources of Sonoma is a matter of notoriety; 
the country around Bodega, Bloomfiekl, and down to Petaluma, is the 
renowned potato district, the northwestern part is principally devoted to 
stock raising, the coast line is the home of the dairy producer, while in all 
the level alluvial plains, grain of every kind grows to a marvellous perfection. 
The wheat yield for this year has exceeded that of any other since 1874, 
while the surplus is expected to amount to upwards of one million and a half 
of bushels. 

The splendid prices realized this year for wool and hops have been a god- 
send to the producers of those staples. For several years past prices have 
ranged low, and a poor market this year would undoubtedly have worked 
the severest hardships with many. Not only are prices high now, but they 
promise to remain so for another season at least. The products this year will 
be all needed for immediate consumption, and hence no surplus will possibly 
remain over to drug the market next season. The best commercial authorities 
state that the production of wool at the East and elsewhere than the Pacific 
Coast, is this year many millions short of actual wants by the factories. This, 
coupled with the fact that a general revival of business is putting in operation 
many factories for years idle, would even indicate that the price of wool will 
remain high, for several years to come. Hops are almost certain to be high 


next year, but the prospects for their remaining so for a longer time than 
that, is not so encouraging as is the case with wool. 

ViNicuLTURF. — Next to the cultivation of cereals, the vine engrosses the 
miiiils of the residents of Sonoma more than any other agricultural produc- 
tion. On account of the adaptability of the soil, Sonoma valley is the center 
of the i^rape-growing interest, although there are several other localities where 
it tlourislies. Here it was that the vine was first planted, and here were 
first taken those measures which made the grape and wine interest one of the 
chiefest importance to Sonoma county. 

If be any credit or any blame attached to the inauguration of this 
industi V, the onus must be borne by the Mission Fathers, for to them is due 
the introduction of the grape, which was that now ordinarily known as the 
Mi.ssion, then popularly supposed to be a seedling from seed sent out 
from Spain, and from which, in a rude way, they manufactured wine ; 
adding spirits thereto to keep them sweet. The early American settlers in 
their cultivation of the grape followed in the beaten track of the Holy 
Fathers, both in regard to the quality and quantity of vines planted, as well 
as in their location. At that time it was believed to be impossible to raise any 
crop without irrigation, therefore vines were only planted where the convea- 
ience of water could be readily obtained and rich soil was always chosen. 
The first person to doubt the correctness of this theory, and who was willing 
to put these doubts to th.c proof was Colonel Agoston Haraszthy, of Sonoma. 
This gentleman was a Hungarian Noble, of a Court lineage, who was expa- 
triated on account of the part he ^^layed, in a political crisis, in his native 
land. After residing for some time in Wisconsin he removed to California in 
1849, and in 1856 came to Sonoma, and devoted his whole attention to vini- 
culture. His biographer tells us : "He founded a Horticultural Society, 
and began importing vines from abroad. He was the first to advocate the 
raising of vines without irrigation — planted the most extensive vineyards, 
and at once put himself at the head of the wine interest. He may with pro- 
piiety be called the Father of Viniculture in California. In 1858 he wrote 
a treatise on the culture of the vine and the manufacture of wine, which was 
published by the State for gratuitous distribution. This publication gave 
the first impulse to this interest, and from that time California became the 
Wine State of the Western Continent. He was the first to adapt the red- 
wood timber to the making of casks for wine. In 1861 he was appointed by 
the Governor of California as a Commissioner to visit the wine countries of 
Europe, which resulted in the importation of three hundred different named 
varieties of grapevines, which have now been planted quite extensively in 
nK)st of the vineyards of the State, from which arc made the most valuable 
wines we now produce. The book written by Col. Haraszthy, entitled ' Grape 
Culture, Winiis and Wine-Making,' is conceded to be one of the best yet 


written. Upon his return from Europe in 1862 he was chosen President of 
the State Agricultural Society, having been Vice-President for three terms 
prior thereto. In 1 863 he organized the Buena Vista Vinicultural Society, 
to which he conveyed his four hundred acres of vines in Sonoma." In 1868 
Col. Haraszthy transferred his domicile to Nicaragua, where he became 
actively engaged in different pursuits. On July 6, 1869, he mysteriously 
disappeared. On that day he left his house to go where he was having a 
saw-mill erected. His footsteps were traced to the river. It is supposed that 
he endeavored to cross the stream by climbinof the branch of a tree, which 
breaking, he fell into the water and was devoured by an aligator. 

But to return to our subject: In the Winter of 1858 Col. Haraszthy put 
into a high tract of land, east of the town of Sonoma, eighty thousand vines, 
the progress and growth of which was keenly watched by all interested in 
viniculture. The experiment succeeded beyond the most sanguine expecta- 
tions, and marked a new era in the cultivation of the grape in California; 
henceforward the rich and heavy bottom lands were abandoned for the hillsides. 

About this period the securing of a wine finer in flavor, by means of the 
introduction of foreign grapes, commenced to be much canvassed. Connois- 
seurs had given as their dictum that the native wines had not the excellence 
of the article produced abroad ; it was either too earthy or too fiery, or too 
sweet and insipid. This was unquestionably owing, partially to the quality 
of the soil and the irrigation of the vine, and in a great measure attributable 
to the want of experience on the part of the grower, for, with farther expe- 
rience and more suitable soil, the original mission grape has been made to 
produce wine of excellent quality. In 1861 the Legis-ature appointed Col. 
Haraszthy, Mr. Schell, and Col. Warren, as a Committee, to inquire into, 
and report upon, the best means of promoting and improving the growth of 
the vine in this State. The former visited Europe, as has been stated above, 
and made selections of different varieties of grapes, Vv^hich he imported ; the 
latter reported upon the condition of viniculture as then existed in California, 
and Mr. Schell upon the culture of the grape in the South American States. 
Col. Haraszthy, on his tour, selected three hundred and fifteen different vari- 
eties of grapes, and brought to this country two hundred thousand rooted 
vines and cuttings. These were distributed to various parts of the State, 
and each variety matured its own peculiar kind of grape; some proved to be 
much superior to others, these were selected, but none have been found that 
in this soil do not maintain their distinctive European qualities; and the 
modes and conditions of wine-making being equal, produces a wine identical 
with what it does in Europe. 

Arpad Haraszthy, son of the Colonel, in the Overland Monthly (January, 
1872), an able magazine, now, alas, among the things that were, contributes 
an article, portions of which we quote, on the advantages possessed by Cali- 
fornia as a wine-growing country: — 


California has one advantage over any wine producing country on the 
globe, and that is the certainty, constancy, and duration of her dry season. 
The grajie is a fruit that needs, above all others, a warm sunshine, without 
interruption, from the time that the blossoms set forth their tender flowers, 
until they gradually develop into its rich, luscious fruit in October. This 
advantage has always existed here, a.i far back as our record extends, and 
no rain or hail ever destroyed the tender fruit. The sure and uninterrupted 
duration of this dry weather secures a crop without a chance of failure, and 
ripens the grape to perfection. One of the most serious drawbacks in all 
other parts of the world is the uncertainty of the seasons and entire variance 
from preceding ones, thus creating a great difference in the quality of the 
wine produced in successive vintages. This difference in quality is sa 
great that it is quite common to find the prices vary from one to two hun- 
dred per cent, in the same district. The products of the renowned vineyards, 
are known to have fluctuated even to a greater ext'^nt. In Europe, they 
only reckon to secure in ten years one good crop of fine quality, but small 
quantity ; while seven vintages are reckoned as being of poor quality, small 
quantity, and total failures. In our State, the variation in quality seldom 
amounts to five per cent, while the most disastrous years have not lessened 
the crop below the ordinary yield more than twenty-five per cent in quan- 
tity. This very variation in quantity can be fully known three months pre- 
vious to the vintage, thus allowing the producer ample time to secure his 
casks, and furnishing him positive knowledge as to the number required. In 
other countries, even fourteen days before the vintage, there is no certainty 
of a crop, a wind, a rain, or a hail-storm is apt to occur at any moment and 
devastate the entire vintage. All is uncertainty there ; nor has the vintner 
any po.ssible means of positively ascertaining how many casks he must pro- 
vide. In abundant years in the old countries, the exchange has often been 
made of so many gallons of wine for an equal number of gallons' capacity of 
casks. The disadvantages of being forced to secure such immense quantities 
of casks in so limited a period are two easily perceived, and we certainly can 
not appreciate our own advantage too much in being very differently sit- 
uated. Another great benefit derived from the long continuance of the dry 
weather, is the exemption from weeds in our vineyards after the final plow- 
ing. Thus all the nourishment and strength of the soil go wholly to their- 
destination, the vine, and hence the vigorous appearance that even the most 
delicate imported varieties acquire even in our poorest soils. They neces- 
sarily bear much more. This circumstance will also explain, in a measure, 
why our cultivation dues not cost as nmch per acre as that in European coun- 
tries, though oiu- labor is so much higher. The advantage ofour dry weather 
does not end here : it precludes the possibility of continued mildew, and 
allows the vintner to leave his vines unstakcd, the bunches of grapes actually 
lying, and securely ripening, upon the very ground, without fear of frost or 


rotting. In this condition, the grapes mature sooner, are sweeter, and, it is 
believed, possess more flavor. 


Above and beyond the ability and advantage we have of producing all 
kinds of grapes to perfection, of making from them wines that are pleasant, 
inviting to the taste, and which will keep, with but little skill and care, for 
years, whose limit has not yet been found, we still have a greater advan- 
tage over European vintners in the cheapness of our cultivation. Labor, 
material, and interest are all very high with us ; but, nevertheless, the 
setting out and cultivation of an acre of vineyard costs less in California than 
it does in France. For this we are as much indebted to our improved means 
of cultivation as to the nature of our climate. All labor, in the majority of 
the wine districts of Europe, is done by hand. We use the horse and plow, 
while they use the prong-hoe and spade, and they actually dig and hoe up 
their entire vineyards, with few exceptions. After our spring cultivation is 
over, we need not go into our vineyards, and, having no summer rains, 
weeding is not necessary, and still their freeness from weeds and clean 
appearance strike the stranger with surprise. Owing on the contrary, to the 
wet season of Europe, the vine-dressers are constantly kept among the vines, 
trying to give them a clean appearance, but in spite of all their efforts, they but 
imperfectly succeed, and their vineyards never possess that appearance of 
high and perfect cultivation that is so apparent in our own. 

California Wines. — The following article is produced from the San Fran- 
cisco Chronicle: — • 

It is obvious that in the nature of things the Comstock Lode which now 
absorbs all our superfluous coin, cannot last forever. There is one argument 
against it as an investment which ought to be fatal to it, and that is the 
amount of silver which has already been drawn from its bowels. All scien- 
tific men believe that fresh developments may be made, but the chances 
against their being general are simply enormous. Many holders of stock 
believe that any discovery in any mine must advance the price of others, 
and it has hitherto done so without a doubt. But the fatal argument of 
the amount of silver that has been realized must weigh upon men's minds 
and must tend to prevent any general rise. The discovery of silver in one mine 
is in reality an argument against other discoveries in other parts of the lode, 
upon general principles of logic, and aside from any pseudo scientific theories 
of silver-mining. There is this certainty in all investments in mining stock — 
that such a placing of money cannot be permanent. The odds are against 
success ; but even should success come, the investor must watch his invest- 
ment, or, after being raised to the seventh heaven, he will be lowered to the 
uttermost depths. The merchant cannot be watching his stock, he has his 
own affairs to look after. The mechanic has his bench, the servant his 
duties, and they are all in the hands of men who naturally desire to make 


money wliatever happens. Hence the situation is unreal. Even if success- 
ful, the bej[jinning is big and the end small. It is an investment that grows 
back^vards, a man that dwarfs into an emljryo. And there is a wide-spread 
general belief that fair play is seldom shown upon the Comstock, though 
this may be only the excuse and shift of dealers to account for failures for 
which they are then^selves responsible. They get up accounts of success 
before it comes, and profit alike by the inflation and the collapse. Then 
when the success does arrive tardily some eight months afterwards, they 
have a story of foul play at the mine which, perhaps, is entirely fictitious. 
But this much is certain, that if all were honest, if all were fair on the Corn- 
stock and exchange, the investment would be a lottery and not an invest- 
ment. And every man owes it to his family to make such investments as 
shall be perpetual and grow with the growth of the State. 

Now this is the exact condition of California wine culture. All those 
w ho have examined the subject are satisfied that the wine is superior on the 
averao-e to any other wine of any other country, not even excepting France. 
This industry has fought its way from small beginnings, until it commences 
to push its way into the front rank. It was once a little cloud not bigger 
than a man's hand, and now it looms large, and is destined, in the opinion of 
many, to cover all California. And it has numberless advantages over 
other industries, which men begin to realize. Everything which is connected 
with it receives a permanent benefit, for instead of being compelled to dimin- 
ish and disappear, like mining, it constantly increases and enlarges and 
waxes strong. The more men are engaged in growing grapes the more 
mouths have to be fed by California farmers, and they know full well that 
the f'reat profit of growing wheat is in the market on the other side of the hill, 
and not the other side of Cape Horn. Commercially speaking, there is no 
possibility of over production in wine, for immediately that a nation embra- 
ces wine-making it becomes wine-consuming also. France that has by its 
system of almost infinite subdivision of lands compelled the peasant pro- 
prietor to raise grapes whether the soil be suitable or not, is not able to 
supply the home demand, although vines are planted to the injurious exclu- 
sion of other products because they pay far better than anything else. And 
the time will certainly come when all America will be wine-consuming, 
and whisky drinking be a thing of the past. To-day in the restaurants 
of San Francisco native wine can be had at an almost nominal charge, 
and with our rapidity of progress it cannot be doubted that the style of our 
restaurants will spread to Chicago and St. Louis, thence to Cincinnati and 
Indiana, thence to New York, Philadelphia and Boston. The whole of the 
United States will be covered as by a golden net with establishments where 
the good cheap wine of California can be drunk. At present California 
drinks about three million gallons of her own wine annually, and will this 
year export more than two millions and a half to New York. But, unfor- 
tunately, in New York the wine is bottled and sold as French. 


If the capital which is absorbed by the ever-thirsty Comstock, that gapes 
like a dusty sponge, could be turned toward the wine interest, this condition 
of our export business would be materially changed. Had our wine-handlers 
the capital, our best wines would be bottled and kept for several years, 
until mature, and would be sold by Californian agents in all the large cities 
of the East in open competition with -the French; and our average grade 
wines would be sold even cheaper than they are now, so as to place them 
within the reach of all Eastern restaurants. At present this is the course 
pursued on a very limited scale in California; but with our restricted capital, 
we cannot extend the sphere of our operations beyond our own State. Hence 
California wine is under a great disadvantage, and her dealers suffer a loss 
of prestige and profit. The New York dealers buy a cheap average of our 
wines — -that is to say, fair wines about a year old— and pass them off upon 
the public for French superior wines. So immense and wholesale is the 
swindling perpetrated in the French wine ports, Cette, Marseilles and Bor- 
deaux, that the public is actually benefitted by the New York trickery. 
For though these wines which masquerade as superior French wines are in 
reality inferior California wines, yet they are far better than the French 
vins de cargaisons or export wines. There is no attempt on the part of the 
friends of California wine to claim equality with the French chateau wines^ 
but it has been demonstrated by analysis, based upon the invoices of wine 
in the United States Consular offices of the ports named, that these fine wines 
do not come to America. If any American wants them he must go to the 
vineyards and buy the vintage over the heads of other buyers, but these fine 
wines are not exported from France on commission, as nine teen-twentieths 
of the French wine that comes to America actually is. The wine is notori- 
ously fabricated from bad wines, both white and red, flavored in imitation^ 
sweetened with brown sugar, strengthened with alcohol distilled at Hamburg 
from potatoes, and colored with fuchsine, one of the petroleum colors. This 
delectable compound is brought, down to the correct claret pitch with water, 
and the whole comes in cask to New York, accompanied by cases filled with 
empty bottles, assorted packets of grand labels, straw, corks and everything 
necessary to give the wine the air of having been bottled in France. The 
known price of this vin de cargaison is from six to seven cents a gallon. 
Now, our California wines that take the place of this villainous stufi" are pure 
and good, but they have not been given the time to mature, and are conse- 
quently often crude and acrid. A peach is delicious, but an unripe peach is 
by no means a delicate morsel. So it is with wine. The better it is in 
quality, the longer it takes to ripen. Wines that have a low level of quality 
soon reach it,- for they have not far to go ; wines that are very superior have 
far to go, and it takes them a corresponding length of time. 

It is hard that one of the worst enemies of California wine is an enemy 
within the gates — a household foe. Our wealthy men in general affect to dis- 


dain Cdlifornia wine, and speak with rapture of French. It is really a mat- 
tor for just complaint that the leading California industry — for such it truly 
ijj—.should be slandered by the very men who are in honor bound to main- 
tain and assist it. California patriotism is notorious ; yet it is a fact that 
the very men who claim that whatever is done or made in California is bet- 
ter than anvtlun«,' made or done elsewhere, make an exception against our 
wine. Siu'^ular anomaly ! They brag of things that are doubtful, and they 
denv that which is certain ! If this sentiment is based upon the cheapness 
of California wine, then there is a depth of snobbishness exhibited which the 
mind recoils from and refuses to fathom. Can anything more revoltingly 
pui-se-proud be imagined than a man who insists upon buying a bad foreign 
article because it is dear, and who despises and refuses a good home article 
because it is cheap ? If these men had been born in the purple, if they had 
drunk French claret all their lives, one would condone their offense against 
patriotism, and explain their prejudices by the supposition that their palates 
were so depraved by the constant use of what was bad, that they had lost 
the power of discriminating what was good. But this apology will not hold, 
because we know well enough that these millionaires strengthened their tis- 
sues in the old days of their struggles against poverty with corn whisky, 
and the use of claret is only a device born of millions, and a pretense of 
habits^ aristocratic, and luxurious, to which they are in reality strangers. 
These men drink claret and sigh for lager, they degustate Burgundy and 
wish to heaven that cider was a fashionable beverage. It would be a sign 
of true nobility to drink what they liked without the assumption of tastes 
which are foreign to them. But if they must drink wine, let them drink 
California wine, and then they will at least have the consolation of patriotism. 
They would, however, be conferring a real benefit on the community if 
they would do what the aristocrats of Europe set them the example by 
doing. Wealthy men all over the world are exceedingly choice in the wines 
they drink, and have found by experience that the only way to have a good 
artich; is to make a cellar. They first construct underneath their palatial 
mansions proper receptacles for the wine, and then they devote themselves 
to the grand task of stocking them. This cannot be done by rushing into 
the market and ottering any price for, let us say, claret of 1858, For, by the 
system pursued for the last hundred and fifty years, almost all the 1858 wine 
went to these private cellars the year it was made. In fact, it was bought 
before it was made, and then was laid down in the bins to ripen until 
thoroughly mature. Nor was it broached until all the wine of 184G, the 
preceding grand vintage, was all consumed. Then 1858 was attacked, 
and when that was gone 18G7 was brought to light. By this method the 
wealthy have wine that is absolutely perfect^ and the first cost is not great. 
The expense of a properly constructed cellar, of competent butlers and 
cellar-men, is no doubt large, but the result is perfect wine, and this is not 



to be had in the market. There are speculators who, at the death of wine 
connoisseurs who have no near heirs, or at the failure and bankruptcy of 
sporting nobles, buy up such fragments of wine stocks as may be for sale, 
but the amount is infinitesimal. Formerly the wealthy of our Eastern cities 
did have cellars of Madeira, and American Madeira was notoriously superior 
to any other, but since the failure of that wine American cellars have almost 
ceased to exist. To the California millionaire fortune now gives the high 
privilege of reinstituting the cellar system, stocked not with a single loreign 
wine, but with all the generous resources of our magnificent vineyards. We 
do not yet know of what California is capable. We have not fairly tried 
the quality of Zinfindel, but there is a shrewd belief among the initiated that 
the rival of the Chateau wines of the Gironde does exist in this vine. It 
is thought that Zinfindel, planted on the most precipitous slopes and fairly 
matured, will be the equal, perhaps more than the equal, of Chateau Lafitte, 
■Chateau Margaux, or Braun Moutoun. No dealer has time or capital to 
make this attempt. The wine handlers of San Francisco, with their small 
•capital, have done marvels, but they cannot do this, for their cellars are 
occupied with wines that come and go. This thing is for the rich. Here 
is their opportunity to be patriotic. 

It must be understood that the fortunes and profits of the wine business are 
to be found rather in the general consumption than in the elevation of special 
brands. But what is wanted is to attract to our enormous stretches of foot- 
hills, so admirably calculated for the culture of the vine, olive, and fig, con- 
tinuous streams of intelligent, well-to-do immigrants. At first the vine- 
grower had also to make wine, and this necessity was a bar to his migration, 
because sensible men understand how expensive and how difiicult is the busi- 
ness. But at this juncture the wine trade has so developed in this State that 
grape-growing and wine-making are distinct pursuits. He who grows 
grapes only is as certain of a sale for them as is ttie wheat cultivator. One 
may, therefore, boldly say to the teeming millions of the East, " Come to 
California and we will make you rich. Here in the golden grape is the true 
El Dorado. Here is a heavenly climate, a delightful land, abundance of all 
meats, profusion of all fruits, no public debt of any amount, no crushing 
taxes and a superb future." For the grape-grower has the certainty of com- 
petence and the possibility of collossal wealth. His vineyard may turn out 
one of the favored spots which produce the nectar wme. The Chateau wines 
of France are only such favored spots. The grapes which grow there are the 
same as those which produce the ordinary wine. But Nature, in her whim- 
sical prodigality, gives to a place here and a place there certaiu facilities and 
advantages which we cannot discover by any analysis, though we may know 
their results. As these spots exist in France, so we know that they exist 
here, and any one of these is a silver mine that is never exhausted, but be- 
comes more valuable as time goes on. If the wealthy men of California 


would become interested in our wine, and would, instead of decrying it, form 
cellars anil a.ssist in finding out by fully maturing the different wines the 
advantages of the ditterent localities, then the reputation of our vintages 
would become so great that immigrants would come by hundreds of thou- 
sands. We have now such a mass of knowledge with regard to grape culture 
that no one need go astray. Information and brotherly assistance await every 
man who will help to build up California's grand industry. But we must 
repeat that we ought to have no enemies within our gates. 

Squatting Troubles. — For the benefit of our readers we quote the following 
lucid statement of facts in regard to the squatting disturbances near Healds- 
burf which appeared in the Sonoma County Democrat of June 19, 1862 : — 

" The rancho Sotoyome, upon which the lands in dispute are situate, was. 
o-ranted by the Mexican Government to Henry D. Fitch in 1844. We are 
told by attorneys now in attendance upon the District Court that a title 
more perfect in all respects was never presented to the courts for adjudi- 
cation. Mr. Fitch died in 1849, leaving several children, the plaintiff Mrs. 
Bailhache among the number. The rancho was confirmed by the courts. 
and in April, 1858, a patent issued therefor from the United States Govern- 
ment. Previous to this, and while the title to the rancho was pending before 
the United States Courts, the rancho was divided into small tracts, and sold 
under an order of the Probate Court of this county. At that sale Mrs. Bail- 
hache became the purchaser of the lands in dispute (some fourteen hundred 
acres ) as her interest in the estate of her father. After the issuance of the 
patent for the rancho to the heirs of H. D. Fitch, Mrs. Bailhache brought a 
suit in ejectment against the parties in possession of the premises claimed by 
her, and after long and patient litigation, she finally, in October, 1859, 
obtained judgment for the restitution of the premises, against three of the 
parties in poases.sion. In^une, 1860, a judgment by confession in open court 
was entered against the balance of the occupants, with a stipulation that it 
should not be enforced until the first of December following. In July, 1860, 
a writ of restitution was issued out of the District Court aofainst Messrs. 
Bice, Miller and Neely, the parties against whom the judgment was obtained 
in October, 1859, Mdien they, for a mere nominal sum, entered into a lease, 
by the terms of which they agreed to deliver up the (|uiet and peaceable pos- 
ses-sion of the premises occupied by them on the first of December following. 

" On the first of December, 1860, demand was made for the premises in 
accordance with the terms of the stipulation, and leases, and proposals made 
to sell or lease the premises. No ari-angement seems to have been made, 
and in January, 1861, a writ of restitution was placed in the hands of the 
Sheriff against one C. C. Clark. It appears Clark was put out, the plaintiff 
put in po.ssession, and on the same night the plaintiff was ousted by an armed 
force, and Clark returned. About this time suit was brought on the leases, 


upon which the plaintiff again recovered judgment and small damao-es. It 
was upon the execution issued in this last case that the farce of selling some ' 
stock for ten cents was enacted by Deputy Sheriff Campbell, last winter. At 
the February term of the District Court the plaintifi" recovered judgment 
against the defendants Bice, Miller, and Neely, for some eleven hundred dollars, 
the value of rents and profits of the lands held by them. To the execution 
in this last judgment, the resistance was made last week. And to the execu- 
tion of the writ of restitution the resistance is now made. 

" From the foregoing facts it appears that the defendants in this matter have 
chosen to resort to law for the settlement of their rights — that they have had 
no standing in court — and have had repeated judgments against them. It 
appears further, that they, by their own terms, should have delivered up the 
possession of the property long ago. That they have had opportunity to buy 
or to lease, and have had the use and occupation of the land at least four 
years, against the title of the plaintiff On their part, we are informed, they 
say that the title of the plaintifi* is invalid in consequence of some irregu- 
larity in the probate sale. Admit that it is imperfect, the courts have deter- 
mined that it is good against them, and resistance to that decree will not give 
them a title. 

" Many hardships have no doubt been worked upon settlers in this State; 
but we can find no apology for the action of the defendants in this matter. 
They litigated themselves out of court, have enjoyed the use of the land for 
years free of taxation, and now that the plaintiff asks simply what the court 
says is hers, if the}^ cannot buy the lands at prices which they can afford to 
pay, like true men and law-abiding citizens, they should leave the premises, 
without compelling the officer of the court to resort to force to remove them, as 
he is certain to do, if they persist. Have not these men some .one among their 
number capable of weighing the great responsibility they assume in armed 
resistance to the law ? It is more serious than the settlement of any disputed 
rights between the parties. The whole community, county and State, become 
interested in the result, and looking beyond any grievances the ])arties them- 
selves may think they have suffered, must come to the support of the law 
as the only safety we have as a people, in determining and protecting our 
rights in person and property. Though these men may be successful for a day, 
they cannot derive any permanent rights or benefits, and finally must yield 
with greater loss to themselves." 

On the 15th July, the Sheriff, with two hundred and thirty of a posse 
comitatus, proceeded to the spot, but were unable to gain any end, as is 
shown in the subjoined affidavit made by prominent citizens, who were pres- 
ent on the occasion : " State of California, County of Sonoma. — The under- 
signed, citizens of Sonoma county, being each duly sworn, depose and say — 
that they were of the posse comitatus summoned by J. M. Bowles, Sheriff of 
said county, to assist him (the Sheriff) in the execution of certain writs of 


restitution or possession in favor of Josephine Bailhache, and against J. N. 
Stapp, Alexander Skaggs, Thomas L. Forsee, Cornelius Bice, Robert Neely, 
James Miller, and A. M. Green, and were present with said Sheriff and j)osse 
on the 15th day of July, 18G2, when an attempt was made to execute said 
writs. That upon the approach of said Sheriff and 2^osse to the premises of 
the said Cornelius Bice, they found drawn up in line in front of the house 
situated \ipon the premises, of which possession was to be given, a body of 
men, numbering about forty, armed with guns. That upon the Sheriff and 
his posse coming up to them and informing them that he was there for the 
purpose of executing said writs, the said body of armed men declared that 
they were there for the purpose of resisting, and would, with all their force, 
resist and prevent, if they had the force to do so, the execution of any and 
all of said writs, and forbade the Sheriff or his posse to enter the gate to the 
yard in which they were standing, with their guns presented towards the 
Sheriff and posse. That the Sheriff more than once commanded them to 
disperse and permit him peaceably to perform his duty and execute the 
writs, and that they refused to do so, and reiterated their determination to 
forcibly prevent their execution. That the posse of the Sheriff was unarmed, 
and from actual observation and intercourse with them then and there, 
deponents know that most of them were unwilling, and a great many of them 
absolutely refused to risk an encounter with the said body of armed men. 
Deponents further say that, from their information, they believe that the 
said body of armed men in front of said house was not more than one-sixth 
of the whole body of armed men that had assembled in that immediate 
vicinity for the purpose of resisting the execution of these writs, and that 
the remainder of said body were within such convenient distance to those 
in front of the house as to render them assistance upon the occurrence of any 
conflict. Deponents further say that it would have been rash and danger- 
ous to life, and, in their opinion, a useless sacrifice of unarmed citizens, to 
have made any further attempt than was made to execute the said writs 
then and there, and they believe that they cannot be executed by such a 
posse of citizens as the Sheriff" can summon in the county, and believe they 
can be executed only by the assistance of military power." In order to carry 
out the law the Emmet Rifles and Petaluma Guards, under the command of 
Captains Baylis and Hewlett, respectively, were detailed for this duty, and 
proceeded to Healdsburg, where they, with a posse of civilians, proved them- 
selves able to cope with the rebellious squatters. Skaggs, Stapp, Miller, and 
others were tried before the District Court for contempt, on October 24th, 
and each fined five hundred dollars, and sentenced to five days' imprison- 
ment in the county jail. But here the question did not end. On February 
9, 1802, Dep\ity-Sheriff J. D. Binns, with a 2'>osse, served a writ of restitution 
upon Cornelius Bice, who had still remained in occupation, when he, with his 
family, were removed and J. N. Bailhache put in possession. That night the 


premises were burned, by parties unknown. On the following evening 
Robert Ferguson was wounded by a gun-shot, while moving some rails from 
the premises of one of the defendants, from the effects of which he died on 
the loth. 

Railroads. — Of all the means which tend to cause the rapid settlement 
of a country, perhaps there are none which produce such quick results as the 
railroad. So soon as it is learned that the fiery horse is snorting through 
a hitherto unknown territory, so sure are travelers to make their appearance, 
and as the numbers of these increase, more certain is it that permanent 
occupiers will follow, trading posts be opened, and around their nucleus before 
the lapse of many weeks will a town spring up. As the transportation of 
freights is facilitated, so will produce increase, and as crops multiply, still 
more certain it is that peace and plenty will reign. 

The want of a rapid means of transportation had long been felt in Sonoma 
county, and though many lines of railroads from all parts of the sur- 
rounding districts had been mooted, it was not until the first year of this 
decade that a line of cars became un fait accompli. We will now consider the 

San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad — This line which traverses 
the entire length of the Petaluma, Santa Rosa, and Russian River valleys, 
was commenced in the year 1869, and was completed to its present terminus 
at Cloverdale in 1872. As a road, not one in the entire State is more com- 
plete in its appointments, while from its incipience to the present time it has 
progressed with the county, and reflects much credit upon its builders and 
upon its management. 

The builder of the line, and the President of the company is Colonel Peter 
Donahue. His attention was first called to the work by the Hon. A. P. 
Overton, now a prominent citizen of Santa Rosa and formerly of Petaluma. 
Colonel Donahue, with that keen business foresight for which he is so eminent 
among his compeers, at once saw the necessity which existed for such a roa' 1 , 
took in hand, and pushed it to its completion with that iron will which knows 
not let nor hindrance. Of Colonel Donahue's labors, Mr. R. A. Thompson 
says : " To that enterprise, which has placed Colonel Donahue in the fore- 
most rank of the business men of the great metropolis of the Pacific coast, 
we owe our excellent facilities for communication with San Francisco. When 
others faltered or drew back, he pressed to the front. His business sagacity 
and capital proved the " open sesame " which smoothed and made straight 
our highway to the sea, over which the varied products of Sonoma county 
are transported ( a rich tribute ) to his adopted city, San Francisco." 

Colonel A. A. Bean, a most accomplished gentleman, is the manager of 
the line. 

North Pacific Coast Railroad.— The following is from Mr. Thompson's 
remarkably interesting and correct work above quoted : — 


" The North Pacific Coast Railroail extends from a point in Marin county, 
opposite San Francisco, throuj^^h that county into Sonoma, and terminates 
at Duncan's mill, on Russian river. Milton S. Latham is President of the 
company, W. F. Russell is Secretary and general agent, John W. Dougherty 
is general manager, W. B. Price is Auditor and general passenger agent, C 
B. Mansfield is assistant superintendent, and J. W. Fillmore, train despatcher. 

" The road was first opened January 1875. Freight cars cross the bay of 
San Francisco on barges to the opposite shore at Saueelito, the land terminus 
of the road, a distance of six miles ; or, reversing the order, they carry the 
freight laden cars from the terminus to the city. Each barge has a capacity 
for twelve loaded cars, making a great saving in transporting freight." 

" The road has a second terminus on the bay of San Francisco, at San 
Quentin, by a branch road, which leaves the main line two miles north of 
San Rafael. The Saueelito terminus k used for freight business, while the 
San Quentin terminus is used principally for the passenger business. This 
latter terminus is connected with San Francisco, a distance of about nine 
miles, by two elegant ferry boats, built in New York exclusively for this line, 
and for travel between the city of San Francisco and San Rafael. 

" The road is a narrow-gauge, being three feet between the rails ; leaving 
San Rafael, the road runs through Marin county, passing Ross valley, by 
Fairfax and Pacheco, to the summit, known as White Hill, at the head of 
Ross valley. The grade in this ascent is one hundred and twenty-one feet to 
the mile, and so doubles back upon itself that in one instance the tracks are 
not one hundred yards apart after traversing a distance of three-fourths 
of a mile. 

" At the summit the road passes through a tunnel thirteen hundred feet 
long, and descends into the valley of San Geromino creek to Nicasio, and 
from there to Tomales. The route to this point is through a splendid dairy 
country, and, for all those rare beauties of scenery peculiar to California, it 
can nowhere be surpassed. 

" For a year and a half the northern terminus of the road was at Tomales, 
fifty-four miles from Saueelito. The entrance to Sonon)a county was barred 
as it w^ere, by a wall of solid rock, through which it was necessary to cut a 
tunnel seventeen hundred feet in length. The men who formed this 
company were not to be deterred by obstacles even as formidable as this 
rocky barriei- ; they pierced it, and soon the hills which enclosed the fertile 
valleys of southwestern Sonoma echoed the steam-whistle of the approaching 

" The road was fini.shed to its destined terminus on Russian river in the 
winter of l(S7G-7. Just before reaching Valley Ford the road crosses the 
Eatero Americano, and enters Sonoma county, passing Valley Ford, a pretty 
village; but just why its church should have been built across the line in 
Marin county, is beyond our ken. Steaming north, we pass Bodega Corners 


depot, and next Freestone. Just beyond Freestone the road enters the 
redwood timber belt, ascends Salmon creek by a steep grade to Howard's 
Station, crossing there the summit of the divide between the waters which 
fall, on the south, into Bodega bay, and on the north, into Russian river. 
Just before reaching Howard's the road passes over one of the highest brido-es 
west of the Mississippi river. The bridge is one hundred and thirty-seven 
feet high. At Howard's we have fairly entered the redwood timber fields, 
and begin to realize the ultimate aims of the projectors of this enterprise, 
and the business it is destined to develop. Up to the fall of 1876 there were 
only three small saw-mills on or near the line of the road, and the great 
expense of hauling made them available only for the local trade. It has been 
but nine months since the road was completed, and there are now (1877) on 
the line of the road six large saw-mills, sending to market daily one hundred 
and seventy -five thousand feet of lumber, besides great quantities of shingles, 
laths, pickets, cord-wood, tan-bark, and charcoal. 

"Streeten's mill is owned by Latham & Streeten; has a capacity of fifteen 
thousand feet per day ; has about one thousand acres of land ; employs forty 
men. The Russian River Land and Lumber Company is owned by Governor 
M. S. Latham, the largest owner of timber-land in this section, having ten 
thousand acres in one body. From Streeten's mill to Duncan's, with the 
exception of two miles, the road pas-ses through its land. It owns all the 
timber-land on the old Bodega Rancho that lies in Ocean township. Its two 
mills— the Tyrone mill and the Moscow mill (at Moscow) — have each a 
capacity of forty thousand feet per day. Each mill employs from eighty to 
ninety men, and in the logging for both mills about sixty cattle are employed. 
The logs are hauled to mill on small locomotives, or tramways laid with 
railroad iron. The lumber, as at all the six saw-mills, is loaded directly on 
the cars, and not rehandled until delivered at the wharf in San Francisco. 
The saving of labor, expense, and breakage, from this fact alone, will at once 
be appreciated by any one familiar with the lumber business. 

" The next mill below is one of the mills of the Madrona Land and Lumber 
Company, near the intersection of Howard creek with Russian river. This 
company has about one thousand acres of land, and the mill has a capacity 
of twenty thousand feet per day, employing fifty men. A branch tract runs 
three-fourths of a mile up the Russian river to another mill of this company, 
having a capacity of twenty-five thousand feet per day, and employing sixty 

"Following down the Russian river we pass the Moscow mill (already 
mentioned), and cross the river on' the four-hundred-foot bridge to Duncan's 
mill. Mr. A. Duncan, the senior proprietor, is the oldest lumberman on this 
river. He owns four thousand acres of land, principally on Austin creek, 
which empties into Russian river opposite Moscow. Duncan's mill has a 
capacity of thirty-five thousand feet per day, and employs seventy-five men. 


" It is estimated that the lands owned by these parties will produce six 
hundred million feet of lumber. 

" Immediately upon the completion of the road, the southern terminus of 
the northern coast stages for Stewart's Point, Valhalla, Mendocino City,. 
Point Arena, and Navarra Ridge, was changed to Duncan's mill, making a 
great saving in time for all the northwest coast. 

" A descri{)tion of this road would be incomplete without referring to the 
great inducements it offers to pleasure-seekers and sportsmen. It is not Bk 
sufficiently strong assertion to say that no route of eighty miles out of San 
Francisco offers such a variety of beautiful scenery. Moscow and Duncan's 
Mill, (opposite the river,) are two charming spots, and as picturesque as any 
in the State. The ocean winds, tempered by the distance of seven miles up 
the Russian river, prevail all through the summer. Here are to be found 
the finast fishing and shooting. Austin creek is one of the notable troui 
streams in the State ; quail abouml ; deer are still in the forests and glades, 
Salmon can be caught in l&rp-e numbers in the river." 

SonoTiui Valley Railroad. — Several attempts have been made to overcome 
the disadvantages to which Sonoma is subjected, yet, though the obstacles in 
the way are not only not insuperable, but also not great, the schemes have 
invariably come to naught. Now, however, there is a prospect of better 
things. A shorter route has been devised, embracing a railroad to overcome 
the sinuosities and shallows of Sonoma creek (which in its course resembles 
the Mississippi river) and a shorter line by vessel. The most favorable thing 
to be said of the present project is that it is not only devised, but that the 
execution of the project has actually begun. The scheme is this: A narrow- 
gauge railroad is to be constructed from Sonoma to Sears' Point, some four- 
teen miles. At that point a wharf is to be extended out to a depth of four- 
teen feet at low-water mark. Between there and the city a fast steamer is to 
ply. The entire distance between Sonoma and San Francisco, it is promised, 
will be made inside of two hours and a half, and two round trips will be 
made daily. Instead of, as now, three trips a week, fourteen will be made 
each way ; and instead of each trip requiring from four to seven hours, but 
two and a half will be necessary. Stage-coaching will be done aw^ay with, 
teaming of fr^-ight will be greatly lessened, loss of time on sand-bars will 
be greatly saved, communication will be increased, and Sonoma wull no 
longer be isolated. 

The construction of the railway has been begun at Norfolk, a point on the 
creek between McGill's and Embarcadero, and extended some four miles to 
the village boundary. Thence it will be continued as fast as practicable to 
the heart of the village.* The right of w^ay has been obtained on the plan 
that the Sonomans shall raise funds sufficient to recoup individuals for what- 
ever damage shall be done to their property. Only one property-holder 

•Since writing the above, we have to announce the arrival of the iron-horse into the town of Sonoma. 



stands out, and, if necessary, his opposition will be overcome by the purchase 
of his small holding. Simultaneously with the extension of the road into 
the village, the road will be pushed from Norfolk — a draw-bridge will here 
be necessary — across the reclaimed lands to the base of the foothills, and 
thence some six miles to Sears' Point. The construction of this road requires 
no great obstacles to be overcome. The greatest has already been sur- 
mounted, the building of the track over some three miles of unreclaimed tule 
land. There are no cuts of any consequence to be made, there is virtually 
no grade, and there is an abundance of gravel for ballasting easily accessible. 
The proposed road, in fact, presents few difficulties, and they will be easily 
mastered. The Sonoma Valley Railroad will certainly soon be a fact. Then 
all that will remain to give the country through which it passes the vitality 
which it lacks and needs, is that the promise of frequent and quick trips 
across the bay shall be kept. This, there is scarcely a doubt, will be done. 
This much accomplished, it is next proposed to place Sonoma and Santa 
Rosa in railroad communication. The effect of this will be to throw open 
the whole of Sonoma valley to further settlement, to increase the value of the 
lands and to stimulate the already great wine, brandy, and raisin production. 
We will now draw this portion of our work to a close, and for any matter 
which may not be found on the foregoing pages we would refer the reader to 
the histories of the townships which will be found farther on. We have en- 
deavored not to rob county history for the benefit of township history; in 
many cases, however, it has been impossible to follow this rule, therefore the 
annals of some of the latter are much fuller than others; this may or may 
not be a fault; at any rate when certain portions have been omitted in one 
place they will be found in the other. In conclusion, we append the follow- 
ing beautiful lines by Bayard Taylor, as fully portraying the past, present, 
and future of Sonoma county: — 

O TAiR young land, the youngest, fairest far Thy human children shall restore the grace 

Of which our world can boast, — (xone with thy fallen pines: 

Whose guardian planet. Evening's silver star, The wild, barbaric beaiity of thy face 

Illumes thy golden coast, — Shall round to classic lines. 

How art thou conquered, tamed in all the pride And Order, Justice, Social Law shall curb 
Of savage beauty still ! Thy untamed energies ; 

How brought, panther of the splendid hide, And Art, and Science, with their dreams auperb, 
To know thy master's will! Replace thine ancient ease. 

No more thou sittest on thy tawny hills r^^^ marble, sleeping in thy mountains now, 

In indolent repose; gj^all live in sculptures rare; 

Or pour st the crystal of a thousand rills rj^ native oak shall crown the sage's brow,— 

Down from thy house of snows. rpj^y bay, the poet's hair. 

Butwherethewild-oatswrapp'd thy knees ingold, ^j^^^^ 1^ ^. 

The ploughman drives his share, rr^, ii • 1 1 j-v, ■ -i 

And where, through canyons deep, thy streams, ^^^T/^-^^^^'-Jul'^ ^^f' ' . ^ivinP 
are rolled * -^ t-' J ^^^j Music, with her eloquence divine, 

mi • 1 ' • u„ Persuade thy sons to toil. 

The miner s arm is bare. "■ ^ 

Yet in thy lap, thus rudely rent and torn, Till Hesper, as he trims his silver beam, 
Anobler seed shall be: No happier land shall see. 

Mother of midity men, thou shalt not mourn And Earth shall find her old Arcadian dream 
Thy lost vfrginity! Restored again in thee! 



n"3 CAUSE — ITS rnotiREss — ri's conclitsion. 

Sonoma being the spot whereon were enacted most of the deeds of the 
intrepid band of Republicans known to fame as the Bear Flag party, no 
work, purporting to be a history of that county, would be complete without 
a sketch of the causes which led to the taking up of arms by the " Independ- 
ents," and the further measures adopted by them. To do this, it will be 
necessary to tread upon ground already ti-aveled o\'er, and although the tale 
may be fresh in the minds of a few of our readers, the legends attached thereto 
be green in the hearts of the successors to some of the active participants in 
those events, yet there are many who have not read a succinct and con- 
nected account of the doings of those times, and to them is this especial 
chapter dedicatetl. 

In the early part of this century California would appear to have found 
extreme favor in the jealous eyes of three great powers. We have elsewhere 
shown what the Russians did on the coast, and how they actually gained a 
foothold at Bodega and Fort Ross, in this county. In the year 1818 Gov- 
ernor Sola received a communication from Friar Marquinez, of Guadalajara, 
in Old Spain, wkerein he informs His Excellency of the rumors of war 
between the United States and Spain, while, in February of the following 
year. Father Jose Sanchez, writes to the same official that there is a report 
abroad of the fitting out of an American expedition in New Mexico. Both 
of these epistles remark that California is the coveted prize. Great Britain 
wanted it, it is said, for several reasons, the chief of which was, that in the 
possession of so extended a coast line she would have the finest harbors in the 
world for her fleets. This desire would appear to have been still manifested 
in bS40, for we find in February of that year, in the New York Express, the 
fuUowmg : " The Californias. — The rumor has reached New Orleans from 
Mexico of the cession to England of the Californias. The cession of the two 
provinces would give to Great Britain an extensive and valuable territory in 
a part of the world where she has long been anxious to gain a foothold, 
besides securing an object still more desirable — a spacious range of sea-coast 
on the Pacific, stretching more than a thousand miles from the forty-second 
degree of latitude .south, sweeping the i)eninsula of California, and embracing 
the harbors of that gvdf, the finest in North America." 

These rumors, so rife between the years 1842 and 184G, necessitated the 
maintenance of a large and powerful fieet by both the Americans and 
British on the Pacific Ocean, each closely observing the other. The first 


move in the deep game was made by the United States in September, 1842, 
by Commodore Ap Catesby Jones. He became possessed of two newspapers 
which would appear to have caused him to take immediate action. One of 
these, published in New Orleans, stated that California had been ceded by 
Mexico to Great Britain in consideration of the sum of seven millions of 
dollars; the other, a Mexican publication, caused him to believe that war had 
been declared between the two countries. The sudden departure of two of 
the British vessels strengthened him in this belief, and, that they were en 
route for Panama to embark soldiers from the West Indies for the occupa- 
tion of California. To forestall this move of " perfidious Albion," Commo- 
dore Jones left Callao, Peru, on September 7, 1842, and crowded all sail 
ostensibly for the port of Monterey ; but when two days out his squadron 
hove to, a council of the Captains of the Flag-ship, " Cyane" and " Dale" was 
held, when the decision was come to that possession should be taken of Cali- 
fornia at all hazards, and abide by the consequences, whatever they might 
be. The accompanying letter f lom an officer of the " Dale," dated Panama 
September 23, 1842, tells its own story : " We sailed from Callao on the 7th. 
of September in company with the " United States" and " Cyane " sloop, but 
on the tenth day out, the 17th, separated, and bore up for this port. Just 
previous to our departure two British ships-of-war, the razee " Dublin,' 
fifty guns, and the sloop-of-war "Champion," eighteen guns, sailed thence on 
secret service. This mysterious movement of Admiral Thorn is elicited a 
hundred comments and conjectures as to his destination, the most probable 
of which seemed to be that he was bound for the northwest roast of Mexico, 
where it is surmised that a British settlement (station) is to be located in 
accordance with a secret convention between the Mexican and English Gov- 
ernments, and it is among the on dits in the squadron that the frigate 
''United States," "Cyane" and "Dale" are to rendezvous as soon as possible 
at Monterey to keep an eye on John Bull's movements in that quarter-' 
These rumors were all strengthened by the fact that eight hundred troops 
had been embarked at Mazatlan in February, 1842, by General Micheltorena, 
to assist the English, it was apprehended, to carry out the secret treat}^ 
whereby California was to be handed over to Great Britain. Of these 
troops, who were mostly convicts, Micheltorena lost a great number by deser- 
tion; and after much delay and vexation, marched out of Mazatlan on July 
25, 1842, with only four hundred and fifty men, arriving at San Diego on 
August 25th. Between Los Angeles and Santa Barbara, with his army 
reduced to but three hundred from desertion, at 11 o'clock on the night of 
October 24th, he received the astounding intelligence that Commodore Jones 
had entered the port of Monterey, with the frigate " United States " and 
corvette " Cyane," landed an armed force, hauled down the Mexican flag, 
hoisted the American in its place, and issued a proclamation declaring Cali- 
fornia to be henceforth belonging to the United States. These startling 


occurrences took place on October 19, 1842. On the 28th, the Commodore 
retiectecl on his latest achievement, and becoming convinced that an error 
had been committed, ho lowered the American ensign, replaced it with that 
of Mexico, and on the following day saluted it, sailed for Mazatlan, and 
reported his proceedings to Washington. 

On hearing of the capture of Monterey, the Mexican general withdrew to 
the Mission of San Fernando, and there remained for some time, when he 
finally, on the horizon being cleared, transferred his staff to Los Angeles, and 
there entertained Commodore Jones on January 19, 1843. 

The recall of Jones was demanded by the Mexican Minister at Washing- 
ton, which was complied with, and Captain Alexander J. Dallas instructed 
to relieve him of the command of the Pacific squadron. Dallas at once pro- 
ceeded to Callao, via Panama, to assume his new functions, and on arrival 
took the " Erie," an old store-ship, and proceeded in search of the Commodore^ 
who had in the meantime received intelligence of the turn affairs had taken, 
and kept steering from port to port, and finally touching at Valparaiso> 
Chili, he sailed for home around Cape Horn. The reign of Captain Dallas 
was short ; he died on board the frigate " Savannah " at Callao, June 3, 
1844, and was succeeded by Commodore John Drake Sloat. 

Betweeft the years 1844 and 1846, the American and British fleets keenly 
watched each other, and anxiously awaited the declaration of war between 
Mexico and the United States. In this time the revolution which drove 
General Micheltorena and his army from California, had broken out and 
been quelled; while the Oregon boundary and the annexation of Texas were 
questions which kept the naval authorities at fever heat. 

Let us now leave these American and British sailors with their mighty 
ships jealously watching the movements of each other, to consider the 
doings of one who before long was to take a prominent part in the affairs of 

In the month of March, 1845, Brevet Captain John Charles Fremont 
departed from Washington for the purpose of organizing a third expedition 
for the topographical survey of Oregon and California, which having done, 
he left Bent's Fort, on or about the lUth of April, his command consisting of 
sixty-two men, six of whom were Delaware Indians. It is not our wish 
here, nor indeed have we the space, to tell of the hardships endured, and the 
perilous journeys made by Fremont, Kit Carson, Theodore Talbot, and others 
of that band, whose wanderings have formed the theme of many a ravishing 
tale ; our duty will only permit of defining the part taken by them in regard 
to our especial subject. 

About June 1, 1846, General Jose Castro, with Lieutenant Francisco de 
Arci, his Secretary, left the Santa Clara Mission, where they had ensconced 
themselves after pursuing Fremont from that district, and passing through 
Yerba Buena (San Francisco) crossed the bay to the Mission of San Rafael, 


and there collected a number of horses which he directed Arci to take to 
Sonoma, with as many more as he could capture on the way, and from there 
proceed with all haste to the Santa Clara Mission by way of Knight's Land- 
ing and Sutter's Fort. These horses were intended to be used against Fre- 
mont and Governor Pio Pico by Castro, both of whom had defied his 
authority. On June 5th, Castro moved from Santa Clara to Monterey, and 
on the 12th, while on his return, was met by a courier bearing the intelli- 
gence that Lieutenant Arci had been surprised and taken prisoner on the 
10th by a band of adventurers, who had also seized a large number of the 
horses which he had in charge for the headquarters at Santa Clara. Here 
was a dilemma. Castro's education in writing had been sadly neglected — 
it is said he could only paint his signature — and being without his amanu- 
ensis, he at once turned back to Monterey, and on June 12th dictated a letter, 
through ex-Governor Don Juan B. Alvarado, to the Prefect Manuel Castro, 
saying that the time had come when their differences should be laid aside, 
and conjoint action taken for the defence and protection of their common 
country, at the same time asking that he should collect all the men and 
horses possible and send them to Santa Clara. He then returned to his head- 
quarters, and on the I7th promulgated a soul-stirring proclamation to the 

When Lieutenant Arci left Sonoma with the cahallada of horses and 
mares, crossing the dividing ridge, he passed up the Sacramento valley to 
Knight's Landing, on the left bank of the Sacramento river, about fifteen 
miles north of the present city of Sacramento. [This ferry was kept by 
William Knight, who had left Missouri May 6, 1841, arrived in California 
November 10, 1841, received a grant of land and settled at Knight's Land- 
ing, Yolo county of to-day. He died at the mines on the Stanislaus river, in 
Nov. 1849.] When Lieutenant Arci reached the ferry or crossing, he met 
Mrs. Knight, to whom, on account of her being a New Mexican by birth, and 
therefore thought to be trustworthy, he confided the secret of the expedition. 
Such knowledge was too much for any ordinary feminine bosom to contain. 
She told her husband, who, in assisting the officer to cross his horses, gave 
him fair words so that suspicion might be lulled, and then bestriding his 
fleetest horse, he made direct for Captain Fremont's camp at the confluence 
of the Feather and Yuba rivers, where he arrived early in the morning 
of June 9th. Here Knight, who found some twenty settlers that had 
arrived earlier than he, discussing matters, communicated to Captain 
Fremont and the settlers that Lieutenant Arci had, the evening before, the 
8th, crossed at his landing, bound to Santa Clara via the Cosumne river; 
that Arci had told Mrs. Knight, in confidence, that the animals were intended 
to be used by Castro in expelling the American settlers from the country, 
and that it was also the intention to fortify the Bear river pass above the 
rancho of William Johnson, thereby putting a stop to all emigration; a 


move of Castro's which was strengthened by the return to Sutter's Fort, on 
June 7th, of a force that had gone out to chastise the Mokelumne Indians, 
who had threatened to burn the settlers' crops, incited thereto, presumably, 
by Castro. 

Fremont, while encamped at the Buttes, was visited by nearly all the 
settlers, and from them gleaned vast stores of fresh information hitherto 
unknown to him. Among these were, that the greater proportion of foreign- 
ers in the country had become Mexican citizens, and married ladies of the 
country, for the sake of procuring land, and through them had become pos- 
sessed of deep secrets supposed to be known only to the prominent Califor- 
nians. Another was that a convention had been held at the San Juan Mis- 
sion to decide which one of the two nations, America or Great Britain, should 
guarantee protection to California against all others for certain privileges 
and considerations. 

Lieutenant Revere says: "I have been favored by an intelligent member 
of the Junta with the following authentic report of the substance of Pico's 
speech to that illustrious body of statesmen : — 

" Excellent Sirs : To what a deplorable condition is our country reduced ! 
Mexico, professing to be our mother and our protectress, has given us 
neither arms nor money, nor the material of war for our defense. She is 
not likely to do anything in our behalf, although she is quite willing to afflict 
us with her extortionate minions, who come hither in the guise of soldiers ' 
and civil officers, to harass and oppress our people. We possess a glorious 
country, capable of attaining a physical and moral greatness corresponding 
with the grandeur and beauty which an Almighty hand has stamped on the 
face of our beloved California. But although nature has been prodigal, it 
cannot be denied that we are not in a position to avail ourselves of her bounty. 
Our population is not large, and it is sparsely scattered over valley and moun- 
tain, coverinrj an immense area of virgin soil, destitute of roads and traversed 
with difficulty; hence it is hardly possible to collect an army of any consider- 
able force. Our people are poor, as well as few, and cannot well govern 
themselves and maintain a decent show of sovereign power. Although we 
live in the midst of plenty, we lay up nothing ; but, tilling the earth in an 
imperfect manner, all (nirtime is required to provide subsistence for ourselves 
and our families. Thus circumstanced, we find ourselves suddiiiily threatened 
by hordes of Yankee emigrants, who have already begun to flock into our 
country, and whose progress we cannot arrest. Already have the wagons of 
that perfidious people scaled the almost inaccessible summits of the Sierra 
Nevada, crossed the entire continent, and penetrated the fruitful valley of 
the Sacramento. What that astonishing people will next undertake I cannot 
say ; but in what ever enterprise they einbai-k they will be sure to prove 
8ucces.sfiil. Already are these adventurous land-voyagers spreading them- 
selves far and wide over a country which seems suited to their tastes. They 


are cultivating farms, establishing vineyards, erecting mills, sawing np lum- 
ber, building workshops, and doing a thousand other things which seem 
natural to them, but which Californians neglect or despise. What then are 
we to do ? Shall we remain supine while these daring strangers are over- 
running our fertile plains and gradually outnumbering and displacing us ? 
Shall these incursions go on unchecked, until we shall become strangers in 
our own land ? We cannot successfully oppose them by our own unaided 
power; and the swelling tide of emigration renders the* odds against us more 
formidable every day. We cannot stand alone against them, nor can we 
creditably maintain our independence even against Mexico ; but there is 
something we can do which will elevate our country, strengthen her at all 
points, and yet enable us to preserve our identity and remain masters of our 
own soil. Perhaps what I am about to suggest may seem to some, faint- 
hearted and dishonorable. But to me it does not seem so. It is the last 
hope of a feeble people, struggling against a tyrannical government which 
claims their submission at home, and threatened by bands of avaricious 
strangers from without, voluntarily to connect themselves with a power 
able and willing to defend and preserve them. It is the right and the duty 
of the weak to demand support from the strong, provided the demand be 
made upon terms just to both parties. I see no dishonor in this last refuge 
of the oppressed and powerless, and I boldly avow that such is the step that 
I would have California take. There are two great powers in Europe, which 
seem destined to divide between them the unappropriated countries of the 
world. They have large fleets and armies not unpractised in the art of war. 
Is it not better to connect ourselves with one of those powerful nations, 
than to struggle on without hope, as we are doing now ? Is it not better that 
one of them should be invited to send a fleet and an ariny, to defend and pro- 
tect California, rather than we should fall an easy prey to the lawless adven- 
turers who are overrunning our beautiful country ? I pronounce for annexa- 
tion to France pr England, and the people of California will never regret 
having taken my advice. They will no longer be subjected to the trouble 
and grievous expense of governing themselves; and their beef and their grain, 
which they produce, in such abundance, would find a ready market among 
the new comers. But I hear some one say : ' No monarchy ! ' But is not 
monarchy better than anarchy ? Is not existence in some shape, better than 
annihilation ? No monarch ! and what is there so terrible in a monarchy ? 
Have we not all lived under a monarchy far more despotic than that of 
France or England, and were not our people happy under it ? Have not the 
leading men among our agriculturists been bred beneath the royal rule of 
Spain, and have they been happier since the mock republic of Mexico has 
supplied its place ? Nay, does not every man abhor the miserable abortion 
christened the republic of Mexico, and look back with regret to the golden 
days of the Spanish monarchy ! Let us restore that glorious era. Then may 


our people "^^o quietly to their ranchos, and live there as of yore, leading a 
thoucrhtless and merry life, untroubled by politics or cares of State, sure of 
what is their own, and safe from the incursions of the Yankees, who would 
soon be forced to retreat into their own country. " 

It was a happy thing for Califi^rnia, and, as the sequel proved, for the views 
of the government of the United States, a man was found at this juncture 
whose ideas were mo/e enlightened and consonant with the times than those 
of the rulers of his country, both civil and military. Patriotism was half 
his soul ; he therefore could not silently witness the land of his birth sold to 
any monarchy however old; and he rightly j udged that although foreign pro- 
tection might postpone, it could not avert that assumption of power which 
was beginning to make itself felt. Possessed at the time of no political power, 
and having had few early advantages, still his position was so exalted, and 
his character so highly respected by both the foreign and native population, 
that he had been invited to participate in the deliberations of the Junta. 
This man was Don Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo. Born in California, he com- 
menced his career in the army as an alferes, or ensign, and in this humble 
grade, he volunteered, at the suggestion of the Mexican government, with a 
command of fifty soldiers, to establish a colony on the north side of the bay 
of San Francisco, for the protection of the frontier. He effectually subdued 
the hostile Indians inhabiting that then remote region, and laid the founda- 
tion of a reputation for integrity, judgment, and ability, unequalled by any 
of his countrymen. Although quite a young man, he had already filled the 
highest offices in the province, and had at this time retired to private life 
near his estates in the vicinity of the town of Sonoma. He did not hesitate 
to oppose with all his strength the views advanced by Pico and Castro. He 
spoke nearly as follows : — 

" I cannot, gentlemen, coincide in opinion with the military and civil 
functionaries who have advocated the cession of our country to France or 
England. It is most true, that to rely any longer upon Mexico to govern 
and defend us, would be idle and absurd. To this extent I fully agree with 
my distinguished colleagues. It is also true that we possess a noble country, 
every way calculated from position and resources, to become great and 
powerful. For that ver}' reason I would not have her a mere dependency 
upon a loreign monarchy, naturally alien, or at least indifferent, to our 
interests and our welfare. It is not to be denied that feeble nations have in 
former times thrown themselves upon the protection of their powerful neigh- 
bors. The Britons invoked the aid of the warlike Saxons, and fell an easy 
prey to their protectors, who seized their lands, and treated them like slaves. 
Long before that time, feeble and distracted provinces had appealed for aid 
to the all-con(|ucring arms of imperial Rome; and they were at the same time 
protected and subjugated by their grasping ally. Even could we tolerate 
the idea of dependence, ought we to go to distant Europe for a master? 




What possible sympathy could exist between us and a nation separated from 
us by two vast oceans? But waiving this insuperable objection, how could 
we endure to come under the dominion of a monarchy? For, althouo-h 
others speak lightly of a form of Government, as a freeman, I cannot do so. 
We are republicans — badly governed and badly situated as we are — still we 
are all, in sentiment, republicans. So far as we are governed at all, we at 
least profess to be self-governed. Who, then, that possesses true patriotism 
will consent to subject himself and his children to the caprices of a foreign 
King and his official minions? But it is asked, if we do not throw ourselves 
upon the protection of France or England, what shall we do? I do not come 
here to support the existing order of things, but I come prepared to propose 
instant and effective action to extricate our country from her present forlorn 
condition. My opinion is made up that we must persevere in throwinof off 
the galling yoke of Mexico, and proclaim our independence of her forever. 
We have endured her official cormorants and her villainous soldiery until we 
can endure no longer. All will probably agree with me that we ought at 
once to rid ourselves of what may remain of Mexican domination. But some 
profess to doubt our ability to maintain our position. To my mind there 
comes no doubt. Look at Texas, and see how long she withstood the power 
of united Mexico. The resources of Texas were not to be compared with 
ours, and she was much nearer to her enemy than we are. Oar position is so 
remote, either by land or sea, that we are in no danger from Mexican inva- 
sion. Why, then, should we hesitate still to ass rt our independence? We 
have indeed taken the first step, by electing our own Governor, but another 
remains to be taken. I will mention it plainly and distinctly — it is annex- 
ation to the United States. In contemplating this consummation of our 
■destiny, I feel nothing but pleasure, and I ask you to share it. Discard old 
prejudices, disregard old customs, and prepare for the glorious change which 
awaits our country. Why should we shrink from incorporating ourselves 
with the happiest and freest nation in the world, destined soon to be the 
most wealthy and powerful? Why should we go abroad for protection when 
this great nation is our adjoining neighbor? When we join our fortunes to 
hers, we shall not become subjects, but fellow citizens, possessing all the 
rights of the people of the United States, and choosing our own federal and 
local rulers. We shall have a stable government and just laws. California 
will grow strong and flourish, and her people will be prosperous, happy, and 
free. Look not, therefore, with jealousy upon the hardy pioneers, who scale 
our mountains and cultivate our unoccupied plains; but rather welcome them 
as brothers, who come to share with us a common destiny." 

Such was the substance of General Vallejo's observations ; those who 
listened to him, however, were far behind in general knowledge and intelli- 
gence His arguments failed to carry conviction to the greater number of 
his auditors, but the bold position taken by him was the cause of an imme- 


diate adjournment of the Junta, no result having been arrived at concerning 
the weio-hty affairs on which they had met to deliberate. On his retiring from 
the Junta he embodied the views he had expressed in a letter to Don Pio 
Pico, and reiterated his refusal to participate in any action having for its end 
the adoption of any protection other than that of the United States. In this 
communication he also declared that he would never serve under any Gov- 
ernment which was prepared to surrender California to an European power ; 
he then returned to his estates, there to await the issue of events. 

We left William Knight at Fremont's camp, where he had arrived on the 
mornino" of June 9, IS^G, imparting his information to that officer and the 
twenty settlers who had there assembled. At 10 A. M., of that day, a party 
of eleven men, under the oldest member, Ezekiel Merritt, started in pursuit 
of Lieutenant Arci and his horses. On arrival at Hock farm they were 
joined by two more, and having crossed the American river at Sinclair's, 
reached the rancho of Allen Montgomery, sixty miles from Fremont's camp, at 
the Buttes, towards evening, and there supped. Here they received the 
intelligence that Lieutenant Arci had reached Sutter's Fort on the 8tb, and 
had that morning resumed his march, intending to camp that night at the 
rancho of Martin Murphy, twent}^ miles south, on the Cosumne river. 
Supper finished and a short rest indulged in, the party were once more in the 
saddle, being strengthened by the addition of Montgomery and another man, 
making the total force fifteen. They proceeded to within about five miles 
of Murphy's, and there lay concealed till daylight, when they were again 
on the move, and proceeded to within half a mile of the camp. Unperceived, 
they cautiously advanced to within a short distance, and then suddenly 
charging, secured the Lieutenant and his party, as well as the horses. 
Lieutenant Arci was permitted to retain his sword, each of his party was 
given a horse wherewith to reach Santa Clara, and a person traveling with 
him was permitted to take six of the animals which he claimed as private 
property; the Lieutenant was then instructed to depart, and say to his chief, 
General Castro, that the remainder of the horses were at his disposal when- 
ever he should wash to come and take them. The Americans at once 
returned to Montgomery's, with the horses, and there breakfasted; that night, 
the 10th, they camped twenty-seven miles above Sutter's, on the rancho of 
Nicolas Allgier, a German, not far from the mouth of Bear river, and, in the 
morning, ascertaining that Fremont had moved liis camp thither from the 
r>uttes, they joined him on the 11th, at 10 A. M., having traveled about one 
liundred and fifty miles in forty-eiglit hours. 

On arriving at Fremont's camp it was found that the garrison had been 
considerably augmented by the arrival of more settlers, who were all 
ardently discu.ssing the events of the last two days, and its probable results. 
After a full hearing it was determined by them that, having gone so far, 
their only chance of safety was in a rapid march to the town of Sonoma to 


effect its capture, and to accomplish this before the news of the stoppage of 
Lieutenant Arci and his horses could have time to reach that garrison. It 
was felt that should this design prove successful all further obstacles to the 
eventual capture of the country would have vanished. The daring band 
then reorganized, still retaining in his position of captain, Ezekiel Merritt. 
At 3 P. M., June 12th, under their leader, they left Fremont's camp for 
Sonoma, one hundred and twenty miles distant, and traveling all that night, 
passed the rancho of William Gordon, about ten miles from the present town 
of Woodland, Yolo county, whom they desired to inform all Americans that 
could be trusted, of their intention. At 9 A, M., on the 13th, they reached 
Captain John Grigsby's, at the head of Napa valley, and were joined by 
William L. Todd, William Scott and others. Here the company, which 
now mustered thirty-three men, was reorganized, and addressed by Doctor 
Kobert Semple. Not desiring, however, to reach Sonoma till daylight, they 
halted here till midnight, when they once more resumed their march, and 
before it was yet the dawn of June 14, 1846, surprised and captured the 
garrison of Sonoma, consisting of six soldiers, nine pieces of artillery, and 
some small arms, etc., "all private property being religiously respected; and 
in generations yet to come their children's children may look back with 
pride and pleasure upon the commencement of a revolution which was 
carried on by their fathers' fathers upon principles as high and holy as the 
laws of eternal justice." 

• Their distinguished prisoners were General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Victor Prudon, Captain Don Salvador Mundo Vallejo, 
brother to the General, and Mr. Jacob Primer Leese, brother-in-law to the 

We would now lay before the reader the account of this episode, as 
described by General Vallejo, at the Centennial exercises, held at Santa Rosa, 
July 4, 1876 :— 

" I have now to say something of the epoch which inaugurated a new era 
for this country. A little before dawn on June 14, 1846, a party of hunters 
and trappers, with some foreign settlers, under command of Captain Merritt, 
Doctor Semple, and William B. Ide, surrounded my residence at Sonoma, and 
without firing a shot, made prisoners of myself, then Commander of the 
northern frontier ; of Lieutenant-Colonel Victor Prudon, Captain Salvador 
Vallejo, and Jacob P. Leese. I should here state that down to October, 1845, 
I had maintained at my own expense a respectable garrison at Sonoma, 
which often, in union with the settlers, did good service in campaigns against 
the Indians ; but at last, tired of spending money which the Mexican Govern- 
ment never refunded, I disbanded the force, and most of the soldiers 
who had constituted it left Sonoma. Thus in June, 1846, the Plaza was 
entirely unprotected, although there were ten pieces of artillery, with other 
arms and munitions of war. The parties who unfurled the Bear Flag were 


well aware that Sonoma was without defense, and lost no time in taking 
advantage of this fact, and carrying out their plans. Yeais before I had 
vircT(mtly represented to the Government of Mexico the necessity of stationing 
a .sufficient force on the frontier, else Sonoma would be lost, which would be 
equivalent to leaving the rest of the country an easy prey to the invader. 
What think you, my friends, were the instructions sent me in reply to my 
rejx'ated demands for means to fortify the country ? These instructions were 
that I should at once force the immigrants to recross the Sierra Nevada, and 
depart from the territory of the Republic. To say nothing of the inhuman- 
ity of these orders, their execution was physically impossible — first, because 
the immigrants came in Autumn, wdien snow covered the Sierra so quickly 
as to make a return impracticable. Under the circumstances, not only I, 
but Comandante General Castro, resolved to provide the immigrants with 
letters of security, that they might remain temporarily in the country. We 
always made a show of authority, but w^ell convinced all the time that we- 
had no power to resist the invasion which was coming upon us. With the 
fi-ankness of a soldier I can assure you that the American immigrants never 
had cause to complain of the treatment they received at the hands of either 
authorities or citizens. They carried us as prisoners to Sacramento, and kept 
us in a calaboose for sixty days or more, until the authority of the United 
States made itself respected, and the honorable and humane Commodjre 
Stockton returned us to our hearths." 

On the seizure of their prisoners the revolutionists at once took steps to 
appoint a captain who w^as found in the person of John Grigsby, for Ezekiel 
Merritt wished not to retain the permanent command ; a meeting was then 
called at the barracks, situated at the north-east corner of the Plaza, under 
the presidency of William, B. Ide, Doctor Robert Semple being secretary. 
At this conference Semple urged the independence of the country, stating 
that having once commenced they must proceed, for to turn back was certain 
deatVi. Before the dissolution of the convention, however, rumors were rife 
that secret emissaries were being dispatched to the Mexican rancheros, to 
inform them of the recent occurrences, therefore to prevent any- attempt at a 
rescue it was deemed best to transfer their prisoners to Sutter's Fort, where 
the danger of such would be less. 

Before transferring their prisoners, how^ever, a treaty, or agreement was 
entered into between the captives and captors, which will appear in the 
annexed documents kindly furnished to us by General Vallejo and which 
have never befi)re been given to the public. The lirst is in English, signed 
by the princii)al actors in the revolution and reads: — 

" We, the undersigned, having resolved to establish a government upon 
Republican principles in connection with others of our fellow-citizens, and 
having taken up arms to support it, we have taken three Mexican ofticers as 
prisoners ; General M. G. Vallejo, Lieut. Col. Victor Prudon, and Captain D. 


Salvador Vallejo, having formed and published to the world no regular plan 
of government, feel it our duty to say that it is not our intention to take or 
injure any person who is not found in opposition to the cause, nor will we 
take or destroy the property of private individuals further than is necessary 
for our immediate support. Ezekiel Merritt, 

R. Semple, 
William Fallon, 
Samuel Kelsey." 
The second is in the Spanish language and reads as follows : — 
" Conste pr. la preste. qe. habiendo sido sorprendido pr. una numeros a fuerza 
armada qe. me tomo prisionero y a los gefes y officiales que. estaban de 
guarnicion en esta plaza de la qe. se apodero la espresada fuerza, habiendola 
encontrado absolutamte. indefensa, tanto yo, como los S. S. Officiales qe. 
suscribero comprometemos nue stra palabra de honor, de qe. estando bajo las 
garantias de prisionero da guerra, no toraaremos las armasni a favor ni contra 
rcpetida fuerza armada de quien hemos recibiro la intimacion del momto. y un 
escrito fuinado qe. garantiza nuestras vidas, familias de intereses, y los de toto 
el vecindario de esta jurisdn. mientras no hagamos oposicion. Sonoma, Junio, 
14 de 1846, M. G. Vallejo. " 

VcR. Prudon. Salvador Vallejo. 

But tu proceed with our narrative of the removal of the general, his brother 
and Prudon to Sutter's Fort. A guard consisting of William B. Ide, as 
captain. Captain Grigsby, Captain Merritt, Kit Carson, William Ha; grave, 
and tive others left Sonoma for Sutter's Fort with their prisoners upon horses 
actually supplied by General Vallejo himself. We are told that on the first 
night after leaving Sonoma with their prisoners, the revolutionists, with sin- 
gular inconsistency, encamped and went to sleep without setting sentinel or 
guard ; that during the night they were surrounded by a party under the 
command of Juan de Padilla, who crept up stealthily and awoke one of the 
prisoners, telling him that there was with him close at hand a strong and 
well-armed force of rancheros, who, if need be, could surpris and slay the 
Americans before there was time for them to fly to arms, but that he, Padilla^ 
before giving such instructions awaited the orders of General Vallejo, whose 
rank entitled him to the command of any such demonstration. The general 
was cautiously aroused and the scheme divulged to him, but with a self-sac- 
rifice which cannot be too highly commended, answered that he should go 
voluntarily with his guardians, that he anticipated a speedy and satisfactory 
settlement of the wdiole matter, advised Padilla to return to his rancho and 
disperse his bind, and positively refused to permit any violence to the guard, 
as he was convinced that such would lead to disastrous consequences, and 
probably involve the rancheros and their families in ruin, without accom- 
plishing any good result. Lieutenant Revere says of this episode: — 

" This was not told to me by Vallejo, but by a person who was present, 


and it tallies well with the account given by the revolutionists themselves, 
several of whom informed me that no guard was kept by them that night, 
and that the prisoners might have easily escaped had thc^y felt so inclined. 
The same person also told me that when Vallejo was called out of bed and 
made a prisoner in his own house, he requested to be informed as to the 
plans and objects of the revolutionists, signifying his readiness to collect and 
take command of a force of his countrymen in the cause of independence." 

Having traveled about two-thirds of the way from Sutter's Fort, Captain 
Merritt and Kit Carson rode on ahead with the news of the capture of 
Sonoma, desiring that arrangements be made for the reception of the 
prisoners. They entered the fort early in the morning of June 16th. 
That evening the rest of the party, with their prisoners came and were 
handed over to the safe-keeping of Captain Sutter, who, it is said, was 
severely censured by Captain Fremont for his indulgence to them. 

Mr. Thomas C. Lancey, the author of several interesting letters on this 
subject, which appeared in TJte Pioneer during the year 1878, remarks: — 

"There have been so many questions raised during this year (1878) in 
relation to the date of tlie hoisting of the ' Bear Flag,' who made it and 
what material it was manufactured from, as well as the date of the capture 
of Sonoma, and the number of men "yho marched that morning, that I shall 
give the statements of several who are entitled to a hearing, as they were 
actors in that drama. 

" The writer of this (Mr. Lancey) was here in 184G, and served during the 
war, and has never left the country since, but was not one of the ' Bear Flag 
party,' but claims, from his acquaintance with those who were, to be able to 
form a correct opinion as to the correctness of these dates. Dr. Robert Semple, 
who was one of that party from the first, says, in his diary, that they entered 
Sonoma at early dawn on the 14th of June, 184G, thirty-three men, rank and 
file. Wm. B. Jde, who was chosen their commander, says in his diary the same. 
Capt. Henry L. Ford, another of this number, says, or rather his historian, 
S. H. W., of Santa Cruz, who I take to be the Rev. S. H. Willey, makes 
him say they captured Sonoma on the 12th of June, with thirty-three men. 
Lieut. Wm. Baldridge, one of the party, makes the date the 14th of June, 
and number of men twenty-three. Lieut. Joseph Warren Revere, of the U. 
S. ship ' Portsmouth,' who hauled down the ' Bear flajj ' and hoisted the 
American flag, on the 9th of July, and *t a later date commanded the 
garrison, says, the place was captured on the 14th of June." To this list is 
now added the documentary evidence produced above, fixing the date of the 
capture of General Vallejo and his ofKcers, and thereforo the taking of 
Sonoma, as June 14, LS4G. 

On the seizure of the cita<k'l of Sonoma, the Independents found floating 
from the flagstaff-head the flag of Mexico, a fact Avhich had escaped notice 
during the bustle of the morning. It was at once lowered, and they set to 


work to devise a banner which they should claim as their own. They were 
as one on the subj ect of there being a star on the groundwork, but they tax 
their ingenuity to have some other device, for the "lone star" had been 
already appropriated by Texas. 

So many accounts of the manufacture of this insignia have been pub- 
lished that we give the reader those quoted by the writer in The Pioneer : — 

"A piece of cotton cloth," says Mr. Lancey, "was obtained, and a man by 
the name of Todd proceeded to paint from a pot of red paint a star in the 
corner. Before he was finished Henry L. Ford, one of the party, proposes to 
paint on the center, facing the star, a grizzly bear. This was unanimously 
agreed to, and the grizzly bear was painted accordingly. When it was done 
the flas: was taken to the flag-staff, and hoisted amid the hurrahs of the little 
party, who swore to defend it with their lives." 

Of this matter Lieutenant Revere says; "A flag was also hoisted bearing 
a grizzly bear rampant, with one stripe below, and the words ' Republic of 
California,' above the bear, and a single star in the union." This is the 
evidence of the officer who hauled down the Bear flag and replaced it with 
the Stars and Stripes on July 9, 1846. 

The Western Shore Gazetteer has the following version: "On the 14th of 
June, 1846, this little handful of men proclaimed California a free and inde- 
pendent republic, and on that day hoisted their flag, known as the 'Bear 
flag;' this consisted of a strip of worn-out cotton domestic, furnished by Mrs. 
Kelley, bordered with red flannel, furnished by Mrs. John Sears, who had 
fled from some distant part to Sonoma for safety upon hearing that war had 
been thus commenced. In the center of the flag was a repiesentation of a 
bear, en passant, painted v/ith Venetian red, and in one corner was painted 
a star of the same color. Under the bear were inscribed the words ' Republic 
of California," put on with common writing ink. This flag is preserved by 
the California Pioneer Association, and may be seen at their rooms in San 
Francisco. It was designed and executed by W. L. Todd." 

The Sonoma Dertiocrat under the caption, A True History of the Bear 
Flag, tells its stor}; : " The rest of the revolutionary party remained in 
possession of the town. Among them were three young men, Todd, Benjamin 
Duell and Thomas Cowie. A few days after the capture, in a casual conver- 
sation between these young men, the matter of a flag came up. They had 
no authority to raise the American flag, and they determined to make one. 
Their general idea was to imitate, without following too closely their national 
ensign. Mrs. W. B. Elliott had been brought to the town of Sonoma by her 
husband from his ranch on Mark West creek for safety. The old Elliott 
cabin may be seen to this day on Mark West creek, about a mile above the 
Springs. From Mrs. Elliott, Ben Duell got a piece of new red flannel, some 
white domestic, needles, and thread. A piece of blue drilling was obtained 


elsewhere. From this material, without consultation with any one else, these 
tlnve young men made the Bear Flag. Cowic had been a saddler. Duel! 
ha<l also served a short time at the .same trade. To form the flag Duell and 
Cowie sewed together alternate strips of red, w^hite, and blue. Todd drew 
in the upper corner a star and painted on the lower a rude picture of a 
gi-izzly bear, which was not standing as has been sometimes represented, but 
was drawn with head down. The bear was afterwards adopted as the design 
of the great seal of the State of California. On the original flag it was .so 
rudely executed that two of those who saw it raised have told ua that it 
looked moi-e like a hog than a bear. Be that as it may, its meaning was 
plain — that the revolutionary party would, if necessary, fight their way 
through at all hazzards. In the language of our informant, it meant that 
there was no back out; they mtended to fight it out. There were no 
halyards on the flag-staft' which stood in front of the barracks. It was 
again reared, and the flag which was soon to be replaced by that of the 
llepublic for the first time floated on the breeze." 

.Besides the above quoted authorities, John S. Hittell, historian of the 
Society of California Pioneers, San Francisco, and H. H. Bancroft, the Pacific 
Coast liistorian, fixed the dates of the raising of the Bear flag as June 12th 
and June 15th, respectively. William Winter, secretary of the Association 
of Territorial Pioneers of California, and Mr. Lancey questioned the correct- 
ness of these dates, and entered into correspondence with all the men known 
to be alive wdio Avere of that party, and others who were likely to throw any 
light on the subject. Among many answers received, w^e quote the following 
portion of a letter from James G. Bleak : — 

" St. George, Utah, 16th of April, 1878. 
" To Wi/limn Winter, Esq., Secretary of Association ' Territorial Pioneers of 
California' — 
" Dear Sir : — Your communication of 3d instant is placed in my hands by 
the widow of a departed friend — James M. Ide, son of William B. — as I have 
at present in my charge some of his papers. In reply to your question ask- 
ing for ' the correct date' raising the 'Bear flag' at Sonoma, in 1846, I 
will quote from the writing of William B. Ide, deceased : ' The said Bear 
flag (was) made of plane (plain) cotton cloth, and ornamented with the red 
flannel of a shirt from the back of one of the men, and christened by the 
* California Republic,' in red paint letters on both sides; (it) was raised upon 
the standard where had floated on the breezes the Mexican flag aforetime; it 
was the 14th June, '46. Our whole number was tAventy-four, all told. The 
mechanism of the flag was performed by William L. Todd, of Illinois. The 
grizzly bear was chosen as an emblem of strength and unyielding resistance.' " 
The ibllowing testimony conveyed to the Los Angeles Express from the 
artist of the flag, we now produce as possibly the best that can be found : — 

" Los Angeles, January 11th, 1878. 
" Your letter of the 9th Lost, came duly to hand, and in answer I have to say 


in regard to the making of the original Bear flag of California, at Sonoma, in 
1846, that when the Americans, who had taken up arms against the Spanish 
regime, had determined what kind of a flag should be adopted, the following 
persons performed the work : Granville P. Swift, Peter Storm, Henry L. 
Ford and myself ; we procured in the house where we made our head-quarters, 
a piece of new unbleached cotton domestic, not quite a yard wide, with strips 
of red flannel about four inches wide, furnished by Mrs. John Sears, on the 
lower side of the canvas. On the upper left hand corner was a star, and in 
the center was the image made to represent a grizzly bear passant, so common 
in this country at the time. The bear and star were painted with paint made 
of linseed oil and Venetian red or Spanish brown. Underneath the bear were 
the words ' California Republic' The other persons engaged with me got 
the materials together, while I acted as artist. The forms of the bear and 
star and the letters were first lined out with pen and ink by myself, and the 
two forms were filled in with the red paint, but the letters with ink. The 
flag mentioned by Mr. Hittell with the bear rampant, was made, as I always 
understood, at Santa Barbara, and was painted black. Allow me to say, 
that at that time there was not a wheelwright shop in California. The flag 
I painted I saw in the rooms of the California Pioneers in San Francisco, in 
1870, and the secretary will show it to any person who will call on him at 
any time. If it is the one that I painted, it will be known by a mistake in 
tinting out the words 'California Republic' The letters were first lined out 
with a pen, and I left out the letter ' I,' and lined out the letter ' C ' in its 
place. But afterwards I lined out the letter ' I ' over the ' C,' so that the 
last syllable of ' Republic ' looks as if the two last letters were blended. 

" Yours respectfully, Wm. L. Todd." 

The San Francisco jE'yemn^' Pos^ of April 20, 1874, has the following: 
' General Sherman has just forwarded to the Society of California Pioneers 
the guidon which the Bear Company bore at the time of the conquest of 
California. The relic is of white silk, with a two-inch wide red stripe at the 
bottom, and a bear in the center, over which is the insci'iption: " Republic 
of California." It is accompanied by the following letter from the donor : — 

"Society of California Pioneers, San Francisco, California — Gentle- 
men : At the suggestion of General Sherman I beg leave to send to your 
Society herewith a guidon formerly belonging to the Sonoma troop of the 
California Battalion of 1846 for preservation. This guidon I found among 
the effects of that troop when I hauled down the Bear Flag and substituted 
the flag of the United States at Sonoma, on the 9th of July, 1846, and have 
preserved it ever since. Very respectfully, etc. 

"Jos. W. Revere, Brigadier-Oeneral. 

"Morristov^, N. J., February 20, 1874." 

The garrison being now in possession, it was necessary to elect officers, 
therefore, Henry L. Ford was elected First Lieutenant ; Granville P. Swift, 


Firsfc Sergeant ; and Samuel Gibson, Second Sergeant. Sentries were posted, 
and a system of military routine inaugurated. In the forenoon, while on 
parade, Lieutenant Ford addressed the company in these words : " My coun- 
trymen! We have taken upon ourselves a very responsible duty. We have 
entered into a war with the Mexican nation. We are bound to defend each 
other or be shot ! There's no half-way place about it. To defend ourselves, 
we must have discipline. Each of you has had a voice in choosing your 
officers. Now the}' are chosen they must be obeyed ! " To which the entire 
band responded that^ the authority of the officers should be supported. The 
words of William B. Ide, in continuation of the letter quoted above, throw 
further light upon the machinery of the civil-military force: " The men were 
divided into two companies of ten men each. The First Artiller}^ were busily 
engaged in putting the c-^nnons in order, which were charged doubly with 
grape and canister. The First Rifle Company were busied in cleaning, 
repairing and loading the small arms. The Commander, after setting a 
guard and posting a sentinel on one of the highest buildings to watch the 
approach of any persons who might feel a curiosity to inspect our operations, 
directed his leisure to the establishment of some system of finance, whereby 
all the defenders' families might be brought within the lines of our garrison 
and supported. Ten thousand pounds of flour were purchased'on the credit 
of the government, and deposited with the garrison. And an account was 
opened, on terms agreed upon, for a supply of beef, and a few barrels of salt, 
constituted our main supplies. Whisky was contj-abanded altogether. After 
the first round of duties was performed, as many as could be spared off guard 
were called together and our situation fully explained to the men by the 
commanders of the garrison. 

" It was full}^ rej^rcsented that our success — nay, our very life, depended 
on the magnanimity and justice of our course of conduct, coupled with 
sleepless vigilance and care. (But ere this we had gathered as many of the 
surrounding citizens as was possible, and placed them out of harm's way, 
between four strong walls. They were more than twice our number.) The 
commander chose from these strangers the most intelligent, and by the use 
of an interpreter went on to explain the cause of our coming together. Our 
determination to offer equal protection and equal justice to all good and 
virtuous citizens; that we had not called them there to rob them of any 
portion of their property, or to disturb them in their social relations one 
with another; nor yet to desecrate their religion." 

As Avill be learned from the foregoing the number of those who were under 
the protection of the Bear flag within Sonoma had been considerably increased. 
A mes.senger had been dispatched to San Francisco to inform Captain Mont- 
gomery, of the U. S. ship " PortsTiiOuth," of the action taken by them, he 
further stating, that it was the intention of the insurgents never to lay down 
their arms until the independence of their adopted country had been estab- 


lished. Another message was dispatched about this time, but in a different 
direction. Lieutenant Ford, finding that the magazine was short of powder, 
sent two men, named Cowie and Fowler, to the Sotoyome rancho, owned by H. 
D. Fitch, for a bag of rifle powder. The former messenger returned, the latter, 
never. Before starting they were cautioned against [proceeding by traveled 
ways; good advice, which, however, they only followed for the first ten miles 
of their journey, when they struck into the inain thoroughfare to Santa Rosa. 
At about two miles from that place they were attacked and slaughtered by 
a party of Californians. Two others were dispatched on special duty, they, 
too, were captured, but were treated better. Receiving no intelligence from 
either of the parties, foul play was suspected, therefore, on the morning of the 
20th of June, Sergeant Gibson was ordered, with four men, to proceed to the 
Sotoyome rancho, learn, if possible, the whereabouts of the missing men, and 
procure the powder. They went as directed, secured the ammunition, but got 
no news of the missing men. As they were passing Santa Rosa, on their 
return, they were attacked at daylight by a few Californians, and turning 
upon their assailants, captured two of them, Bias Angelina, and Barnadino 
Garcia alias Three-fingered Jack, and took them to Sonoma. They told of 
the taking and slaying of Cowie and Fowler, and that their captors were Ramon 
Mesa Domingo, Mesa Juan Padilla, Ramon Carrillo, Barnardino Garcia 
Bias Angelina, Francisco Tibran, Ygnacio Balensuella, Juan Peralta, Juan 
Soleto, Inaguan Carrello, Marieno Merando, Francisco Garcia, 1 gnacio Stig- 
ger. The story of their death is a sad one. After Cowie an 1 Fowler had 
been seized by the Californians, they encamped for the night, and the follow- 
ing morning determined in council what should be th'c fate ot their captives. 
A swarthy New Mexican, named Mesa Juan Padilla, and Three-fingered 
Jack, the Californian, were loudest in their denunciation of the prisoners as 
deserving of death, and unhappily their counsels prevailed. The unfortu- 
nate young men were then led out, stripped naked, bound to a tree with a 
lariat, while, for a time, the inhuman monsters practised knife-throwing at 
their naked bodies, the victims the while praying to be shot. They then 
commenced throwing stones at them, one of which broke the jaw of 
Fowler. The fiend. Three-fingered Jack, then advancing, thrust the end of 
his riata (a rawhide rojje) through the mouth, cut an incision in the throat, 
and then made a tie, by which the jaw was dragged out. They next pro- 
ceeded to kill them slowly with their knives. Cowie, who had fainted, had 
the flesh stripped from his arms and shoulders, and pieces of flesh were cut 
from their bodies and crammed into their mouths, they being finally dis- 
emboAveled. Their mutilated remains were afterwards found and buried 
where they fell, upon the farm now owned by George Moore, two miles 
north of Santa Rosa. No stone marks the grave of these pioneers, one of 
whom took so conspicuous a part in the event which gave to the Union the 
great State of California. 


Three-fingered Jack was killed by Captain Harry Love's Rangers, July 
17 , 1853, at Pinola Pa^^s, near the Merced river, with the bandit, Joaquin 
Marietta; while Ramon Oarrillo met his death at the hands of the Vigi- 
lantes, between Los Angeles and San Diego, May 21, 18G4. At the time 
of his death, the above murder, in which it was said he was implicated, 
became the subject of newspaper comment, indeed, so bitter were the 
remarks made, that on June 4. 1864, the Sonomq, Democrat published a letter 
from Julio Carrillo, a respected citizen of Santa Rosa, an extract from which 
we reproduce :— 

" But I wish more particularly to call attention to an old charge, which I 
presume owes its revival to the same source, to-wit : That my brother, 
Ramon Carrillo, was connected with the mui'der of two Americans who had 
been taken prisoners by a company commanded by Juan Padilla in 1846. 

" I presume this charge first originated from the fact that my brother had 
been active in raising the company which was commanded by Padilla, and 
from the further fact that the murder occurred near the Santa Rosa farm, 
then occupied by my mother's family. 

" Notwithstanding these appearances, I have proof which is incontestible, 
that my brother was not connected with tliis affair, and was not even aware 
that these men had been taken prisoners until after they had been killed. 
The act was disapproved of by all the native Californians at the time, except- 
ing those implicated m the killing, and caused a difference which was never 
entirely healed. 

" There are, as I believe, many Americans now living in this vicinity, who 
were here at the time, and who know the facts I have mentioned. I am 
ready to furnish proof of what I have said to any who may desire it. " 

The messenger despatched to the U. S. ship " Portsmouth" returned on the 
I7th in company with the First Lieutenant of that ship, John Storny Miss- 
room and John E. Montgomery, son and clerk of Captain Montgomery, who 
despatched by express letters from that officer to Fremont and Sutter. These 
arrived the following day, the 18th, and the day after, the 19th, Fremont 
came to Sutter's with twenty-two men and Jose Noriega of San Jose and 
Vicente Peralta as prisoners. 

At Sonoma on this day, June 18th, Captain William B. Ide, with the con- 
sent of the garrison, issiicd the following: — 

" A proclamation to all persons and citizens of the District of Sonoma, 
requesting them to remain at peace and follow their rightful occupations 
without fear of molestation. 

" The comander-in-chief of the troops assembled at the fortress of Sonoma 
gives his inviolaljle i)l('(lge to all persons in California, not found underarms, 
that they shall not be disturbed in their persons, their property, or social rela- 
tion ., one with another, by men under his command. 

" He also solemnly declares his object to be : — first, to defend himself and 


companions in arms, who were invited to this country by a promise of lands 
on which to settle themselves and families; who were also promised a Repub- 
lican Government; when, having arrived in California, they were denied the 
privilege of buying or renting lands of their friends, who, instead of being 
allowed to participate in or being protected by a Republican Government, 
were oppressed by a mihtary despotism ; who were even threatened by pro- 
clamation by the chief officers of the aforesaid despotism with extermination 
if they should not depart out of the country, leaving all their property, arms 
and beasts of burden; and thus deprived of their means of flight or defense, 
were to be driven through deserts inhabited by hostile Indians, to certain 

" To overthrow a government which has seized upon the property of the 
missions for its individual aggrandizement ; which has ruined and shamefully 
oppressed the laboring people of California by enormous exactions on goods 
imported into the country, is the determined purpose of the brave men who 
are associated under my command. 

" I also solemnly declare my object, in the second place, to be to invite all 
peaceable and good citizens of California who are friendly to the maintenance 
of good order and equal rights, and I do hereby invite them to repair to my 
camp at Sonoma without delay to assist us in establishing and perpetuatin<y 
a Republican Government, which shall secure to all civil and religious lib- 
erty; which shall encourage virtue and literature ; which shall leave unshack- 
led by fetters agriculture commerce and manufactures. 

"I further declare that I rely upon the rectitude of our intentions, the favor 
of heaven and the bravery of those who are bound and associated with me 
by the principles of self preservation, by the love of truth and the hatred of 
tyranny, for my hopes of success. 

"I furthermore declare that I believe that a government to be prosperous 
and happy must originate with the people who'^are friendly to its existence; 
that the citizens are its guardians, the officers its servants, its glory 
its reward. 

"William B. Ide. 

"Headquarters, Sonoma, June, 18, 1846." 

The Pioneer says captain William B. Ide was born in Ohio, came over- 
land, reaching Sutter's Fort in October 1845. June 7, 1847, Governor Mason 
appointed him land surveyor for the northern district of California, and same 
month was Justice of the Peace at Cache Creek. At an early day he got a 
grant of land which was called the rancho Barranca Colorado, just below Red 
Creek in Colusa county, as it was then organized. In 1851 he was elected 
county treasurer, with an assessment roll of three hundred and seventy-three 
thousand two hundred and six dollars. Moved with the county seat to Mon- 
roeville, at the mouth of Stoney Creek, September 8, 1851, he was elected 
County Judge of Colusa county, and^practised law, having a license. Judge 


Ide died of small-pox at Monroeville on Saturday, December 18, 1852, aged 
fifty years. 

Let us for a moment turn to the doings of Castro. On June 17th, he issued 
two proclamations, one to the new, the other to the old citizens and foreigners. 
Appended are translations : — 

" The citizen Jose Castro, Lieutenant-Colonel of Cavalry in the Mexican 
Army, and acting General Commandant of the Department of California. 

" Fellow Citizens: — The contemptible policy of the agents of the United 
States of North America in this Department has induced a number of 
adventurers, who, regardless of the rights of men, have designedly com- 
menced an invasion, possessing themselves of the town of Sonoma, taking 
by surprise all the place, the military commander of that border, Col. Don 
Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, Lieutenant-Colonel Don Victor Prudon, Captain 
Don Salvador Vallejo and Mr. Jacob P. Leese. 

" Fellow countrymen, the defense of our liberty, the true religion which 
our fathers possessed, and our independence calls upon us to sacrifice our- 
selves rather than lose those inestimable blessings. Banish from your hearts 
all petty resentments. Turn you and behold yourselves, these families, these 
innocent little ones, which have unfortunately fallen into the hands of our 
enemies, dragged from the bosoms of their fathers, who are prisoners among 
foreigners and are calling upon us to succor them. There is still time for 
us to rise en masse, as irresistible as retribution. You need not doubt but 
that Divine Providence will direct us in the way to glory. You should not 
vacillate because of the smallness of the garrison of the general head- 
quarters, for he who will first sacrifice himself will be your friend and fellow 
citizen., " Jose Castro. 

" Headquarters, Santa Clara, June 17, 1846." 

" The citizen Jose Castro, Lieutenant-Colonel of Cavalry in the Mexican 
Army and Acting Commandant of the Department of California. 

" All foreigners residing among us, occupied with their bu.siness, may rest 
assured of the protection of all the authorities of the Department while 
they refrain entirely from all revolutionary movements. 

" The general comandancia under my charge will never proceed with vigor 
against any persons ; neither will its authority result in mere words, wanting 
proof to support it. Declarations shall be taken, proofs executed, and the 
liberty and rights of the laborious, which is ever commendable, shall be pi'O- 

" Let the fortunes of war take its chance with those ungrateful men, who, 
with arms in their hands, have attacked the country, without recollecting 
that they were treated by the undersigned with all the indulgence of which 
he is so characteristic. The imperative inhabitants of the department are 
witness to the truth of this. I have nothing to fear;*my duty leads me to 


death or victory. I am a Mexican soldier, and I will be free and independ- 
ent, or I will gladly die for those inestimable blessings. 

"Jose Castro. 
" Headquarters, Santa Clara, June 17, 1846." 

On June 20th, a body of about seventy Californians, under Captain Jose 
Joaquin de la Torre, crossed the bay of San Francisco, and being joined by 
Correo and Padea, marched to the vicinity of San Raphael, while General 
Castro had, by the utmost pressure, raised his forces to two hundred and 
fifty men, most of them being forced volunteers. Of this system of recruit- 
ing Lieutenant Revere says : " I heard that on a feast day, when the 
rancheros came to the mission in their ' go-to-meeting' clothes, with their 
wives and children, Castro seized their horses, and forced the men to volun- 
teer in defense of their homes, against los salvages Americanos. Castro, at 
the head of his army, on the evening of the 27th of June, marched out of 
Santa Clara, and proceeding around the head of the Bay of San Francisco, as 
far as the San Leandro creek, halted on the rancho of Estudillo, where we 
shall leave them for the present. 

Captain J. C. Fremont having concluded that it had become his duty to 
take a personal part in the revolution which he had fostered, on June 21st 
transferred his impedimenta to the safe keeping of Captain Sutter at the I'ort, 
and recrossing the American river, encamped on the Sinclair rancho, where 
he was joined by Pearson B. Redding and all the trappers about Sutter's 
Fort, and there awaited orders. On the afternoon of the 23d, Harrison 
Pierce, who had settled in the Napa valley in 1843, came into their camp, 
having ridden the eighty miles with but one change of horses, which he 
procured from John R. Wolfskill, on Putah creek, now Solano county, and 
conveyed to Fremont the intelligence that the little garrison at Sonoma was 
greatly excited, consequent on news received that General Castto, with a 
considerable force, was advancing on the town and hurling threats of recap- 
ture and hanging of the rebels. On receiving the promise of Fremont to 
come to their rescue as soon as he could put ninety men into the saddle, 
Pierce obtained a fresh mount, and returned without drawing rein to the 
anxious garrison, who received him and his message with every demonstra- 
tion of joy. Fremont having found horses for his ninety mounted rifles 
left the Sinclair rancho on June 23d — a curious-looking cavalcade, truly. 
One of the party writes of them : — 

" There were Americans, French, English, Swiss, Poles, Russians, Prussians, 
Chileans, Germans, Greeks, Austrians, Pawnees, native Indians, etc., all riding 
side by side and talking a polyglot lingual hash never exceeded in diversibility 
since the confusion of tongues at the tower of Babel. 

" Some wore the relics of their home-spun garments, some relied upon 
the antelope and the bear for their wardrobe, some lightly habited in buck- 
skin leggings and a coat of war-paint, and their weapons were equally 


''Thrre Avas the grim oUl hunter with his long heavy rifle, the farmer with 
his tloubU -barreled shot-gun, the Indian with his bow and arrows; and otheis 
with liorsL -pistols, revolvers, sabres, ships' cutlasses, bowie-knives and 'pepper- 
boxes' (Allen's revolvers)." 

Thouo-h the Bear Flag army was incongruous in iJei'sonnel, as a body it 
was composed of the best fighting material. Each of them was inured to 
hardship and privation, self-reliant, fertile in resources, versed in woodcraft 
and Indian fighting, accustomed to handle firearms, and full of energy and 
daring. It was a band of hardy adventurers, such as in an earlier age 
wrested this land from the feebler aborigines. With this band Fremont 
arrived at Sonoma, at two o'clock on the morning of June 25, 1846, having 
made forced marches. 

The reader may not have forgotten the capture and horrible butchery of 
Cowie and Fowler by the Padilla party. A few days thereafter, while 
William L. Todd (the artist of the Bear flag) was trying to catch a horse at 
a little distance from the barracks at Sonoma, he was captured by the same 
gang, and afterwards falling in with another man, he too was taken prisoner. 
The party several times signified their intention of slaying Todd, but he 
fortunately knowing something of the Spanish tongue was enabled to make 
them understand that his death would seal General Vallejo's doom, which 
saved hirn. He and his companion in misftirtune, with whom he had no 
opportunity to converse, but who appeared like an Englishman — a half fool 
jjnd common loafer — were conveyed to the Indian rancherie called Olimpoli, 
some eight miles from Petaluma. 

For the i)urposeof liberating the prisoners and keeping the enemy in check 
until the airival of Captain Fjeinont, Lieutenant Ford mustered a squad, 
vai-iously stated at from twenty to twenty-three men, among whom were 
Granville P. Swift, Samuel Kelsey, William Baldridge, and Frank Bedwell, 
and on June 23d, taking with them the two prisoners Bias Angelina and 
ThrtMi-fingered Jack from Sonoma, marched for where it was thought the 
Caliiornians had established their headquarters. Here they learned Irom 
some Indians, under considerable military pressure, that j^the Californian 
troops had left three hours before. They now partook of a hasty meal, and, 
with one of the Indians as guide, proceeded towards the Laguna de San 
Antonio, and that niglit halted within half a mile of the enemy's camp. At 
dawn they charged the place, took the only men they found there prisoners, 
their number was four, the remainder having left for San Rafael. 

Leaving four men here to guard their prisoners and horses. Ford, with 
fourteen men, started in pursuit of the enemy. Leaving the lagoon of San 
Antonio, and having struck into the road leading into San Rafael, after a quick 
ride of four miles, they came in sight of tiie house where the Californians 
had passed the night with their two prisoners, Todd and his companion, and 
were then within its walls enjoying themselves. Ford's men were as ignor- 



ant of their proximity, as the Californians were of theirs. However, when 
the advance guard arrived in sight of the corral, and perceiving it to be full 
of horses, with a number of Indian vaqueros around it, they made a brilliant 
dash to prevent the animals from being turned loose. While exulting over 
their good fortune at this unlooked for addition to their cavalry arm, they 
were surprised to see the Californians rush out of the house and mount their 
already saddled quadrupeds. It should be said that the house was situated 
on the edge of a plain, some sixty yards from a grove of brushwood. In a 
moment Ford formed his men into two half companies and charged the 
enemy, who, perceiving the movement, retreated behind the grove of trees. 
From liis position Ford counted them and found that there were eighty-five. 
Notwithstanding he had but fourteen in his ranks, nothing daunted he 
dismounted his men, and taking advantage of the protection offered by the 
bruslnvood prepared for action. The Californians observing this evolution 
became emboldened and prepared for a charge ; on this, Ford calmly awaited 
the attack, giving stringent orders that his rear rank should hold their fire 
until the enemy were well up. On they came with shouts, the brandishing 
of swords, and the fiash of pistols, until within thirty yards of the Ameri- 
cans, whose front rank then opened a withering fire and emptied the saddles 
of eight of the Mexican soldiery. On receiving this volley the enemy 
wheeled to the right-about, and made a break for the hills, while Ford's rear 
rank played upon them at long range, causing three more to bite the earth, 
and wounding' two others. The remainder retreated helter-skelter to a hill 
in the direction of San Rafael, leaving the two prisoners in the house. 
Ford's little force having now attained the object of their expedition, secured 
their prisoners-of-war, and going to the corral where the enemy had a large 
drove of horses, changed their jaded nags for fresh ones, took the balance, 
some four hundred, and retraced their victorious steps to Sonoma, where they 
were heartily welcomed by their anxious countrymen, who had feared for 
their safety. 

We last left Captain Fremont at Sonoma where he had arrived at 2 A. M. 
of the 25th. June. After giving his men and horses a short rest, and receiv- 
ing a small addition to his force, he was once more in the saddle and started 
for San Rafael, where it was said Castro had joined de la Torre with two 
bundled and fifty men. At four o'clock in the afternoon they came in sight 
of the position thought to be occupied by the enemy. This they approached 
cautiously until quite close, then charged, the three first to enter being Fre- 
mont, Kit Carson, and J. W. Marshall, ( the future discoverer of gold, ) but 
they found the lines occupied by only four men. Captain Torre having left 
some three hours previously. Fremont camped on the ground that night, 
and on the following morning, the 26th, despatched scouting parties, while 
the main body remained at San Rafael for three days. Captain Torre had 
departed, no one knew whither, he left not a trace, but General Castro 


was seen, from the commanding hills behind, approaching on the other side 
of the bay. One evening a scout brought in an Indian on whom was found a 
letter from Torre to Castro., purporting to inform the latter that he should, 
that night, concentrate his forces and march upon Sonoma and attack it in 

the morning. 

Captain Gillespie and Lieutenant Ford held that the letter was a ruse designed 
for the purpose of drawing the American forces back to Sonoma, and thus 
leave an avenue of escape open for tlie Calif ornians. Opinions on the subject 
were divided ; however, by midnight every man of them was in Sonoma. It 
was afterwards known that they had passed the night within a mile of Cap- 
tain de la Torre's camp, who, on ascertaining the departure of the rev>-lu- 
tionists effected his escape to Santa Clara via Saucelito. 

On or about the 26th, of June, Lieutenant Joseph W. Kevere, of the sloop 
of-war " Portsmouth, " in company with Dr. Andrew A. Henderson and a 
boat load of supplies, arrived at Sutter's Fort ; there arriving also on the 
same day a party of men from Oregon who at once cast their lot with the 
" Bear Flao- " party, while on the 28th, another boat with Lieutenants Wash- 
ington and Bartlett put in an appearance. 

Of this visit of Lieutenant Revere to what afterwards became Sacramento 
city, he says : — 

' On arriving at the ' Embarcadero ' (landing) we were not surprised to 
find a mounted guard of ' patriots,' who had long been apprised by the 
Indians that a boat was ascending the river. These Indians were indeed 
important auxiliaries to the Revolutionists, during the shoi't period of strife 
between the parties contending for the sovereignty of California. Having 
been most cruelly treated by the Spanish race, murdered even, on the 
slightest provocation, when their oppressors made marauding expeditions for 
servants, and when captured compelled to labor for their unsparing task- 
masters, the Indians throughout the country hailed the day when the hardy 
strangers from beyond the Sierra Nevada rose up in arms against the hijus 
del pais (sons of the country). Entertaining an exalted opinion of the skill 
and prowess of the Americans, and knowing from experience that they were 
of a milder and less sanguinary character than the rancheros, they antici- 
pated a complete deliverance from their burdens, and assisted the revolution- 
ists to the full extent of their humble abilities. 

" Emerging from the woods lining the river, we stood upon a plain of 
immense extent, bounded on the west by the heavy timber which marks the 
course of the Sacramento, the dim outline of the Sierra Nevada appearing 
in the distance. We now came to some extensive fields of wheat in full 
bearing, waving gracefully in the gentle breeze, like the billows of the sea, 
and saw the white-washed walls of the fort, situated on a small eminence 
commanding the approaches on all sides. 

" We were met and welcomed by Captain Sutter and the ofiicer in com- 


mand of the garrison; but the appearance of things indicated that our recep- 
tion would have been very different had we come on a hostile errand. 

" The appearance of the fort, with its crenated walls, fortified gate- way and 
bastioned angles ; the heavily-bearded, fierce-looking hunters and trappers, 
armed with rifles, bowie-knives and pistols; their ornamented hunting-shirts 
and gartered leggings; their long hair, turbaned with colored handkerchiefs; 
their wild and almost savage looks and dauntless and independent bearing ; 
the wagons filled with golden grain ; the arid, yet fertile plains ; the 
caballados driven across it by wild, shouting Indians, enveloped in clouds of 
dust, and the dashing horsemen scouring the fields in every direction ; all 
these accessories conspired to carry me back to the romantic East, 'and I could 
almost fancy again that I was once more the guest of some powerful Arab 
chieftain, in his desert stronghold. Everything bore the impress of vigilance 
and preparation for defense, and not without reason, for Castro, then at the 
Pueblo de San Jose, with a force of several hundred men, well provided with 
horses and artillery, had threatened to march upon the valley of the Sacra- 

" The fort consists of a parallelogram, enclosed by adobe walls fiLfteen feet 
high and two thick, with bastions or towers at the angles, the walls of 
which are four feet thick, and their embrasures so arranged as to flank the 
curtain on all sides. A good house occupies the center of the interior area, 
serving for officers' quarters, armories, guard and state rooms, and also for a 
kind of citadel. There is a second wall on the inner face, the space between 
-it and the outer wall being roofed and divided into workshops, quarters, etc., 
and the usual offices are provided, and also a well of good water. Corrals 
for the cattle and horses of the garrison are conveniently placed where they 
can be under the eye of the guard. Cannon frown from the various em- 
brasures, and the ensemble presents the very ideal of a border fortress. It 
must have ' astonished the natives ' when this monument of the whiteman's 
skill arose from the plain and showed its dreadful teeth in the midst of 
those peaceful solitudes. 

" I found during this visit that General Yallejo and his companions were 
rigorously guarded by the ' patriots, ' but I saw him and had some conver- 
sation with him, which it was easy to see excited a very ridiculous amount of 
suspicion on the part of his vigilant jailors, whose position, however, as revo- 
lutionists was a little ticklish and excited in them that distrust which in 
dangerous times is inseparable from low and ignorant minds. Indeed they 
carried their doubts so far as to threaten to shoot Sutter for being polite to 
his captives. " 

Fremont having with his men partaken of the early meal, on the morning 
of the 27th June returned to San Rafael, having been absent only twenty- 
four hours. 

Castro, who had been for three days watching the movements of Fremont 


iVoiii the otlirr side of tlir bay, sent tliree men, Don Joso Reyes Berreysa, 
(a retiivtl Sergeant of the Presidio 0()nii)any of San Francisco,) and Ramon 
and Francisco de Haro (twin sons of Don Francisco de Haro, Alcalde of San 
Francisco in 1838-39), to reconnoiter, who landed on what is now known as 
Point San Quentin. On landing they were seized, with their arms, and on 
them were found written orders from Castro to Captain de la Torre, (who it 
was not known had made his escape to Santa Clara,) to kill every foreign man, 
woman, and child. These men were shot on the spot; first as spies, second in 
retaliation for the Americans so cruelly butchered by the Californians. Gen. 
Castro, f(;aring that he might, if caught, share the fate of his spies, left 
the rancho of the Estudillos, and after a hasty mavcli arrived at the Santa 
Clara Mission on June 29, 1846. 

Captain William D. Phelps, of Lexington, Mass., who was lying at Sauce- 
lito with his bark, the " Moscow," remarks, says Mr. Lancey : — 

" When Fremont passed San Rafael in pursuit of Captain do la Torre's 
party, I had just left them, and he sent me word that he would drive them 
to Saucelito that night, when they could not escape unless they got my boats. 
I hastened back to the ship and made all safe. There was a large launch 
lying near the beach ; this was anchored further off, and I put provisions on 
board to be ready for Fremont should he need her. At night there was not 
a boat on the shore. Torre's party must shortly arrive and show fight or 
surrender. Towards morning we heard them arrive, and to our surprise they 
w^erc seen passing with a small boat from the shore to the launch ; (a small 
boat had ai rived from Yerba Buena during the night which had proved their 
salvation.) I dispatched a note to the commander of the ' Portsmouth,' 
sloop-of-war, then lying at Yerba Buena, a cove (now San Francisco), inform- 
ing him of their movements, and intimating that a couple of his boats could 
easily intercept and capture them. Captain Montgomery replied that not 
having received any official notice of war existing he could not act in the 

"It was thus the poor scamps escaped. They pulled clear of the ship and 
thus e.scaped supping on grape and canister which we had prepared for them. 

" Fremont arrived and camped opposite my vessel, the bark ' Moscow,' the 
following night. They were early astir the next morning when I landed to 
visit Captain Fremont, and were all variously employed in taking care of 
their horses, mending saddles, cleaning their arms, etc. I had not up to this 
time seen Fremont, but from reports of his character and exploits my imag- 
ination had painted him as a large sized, martial looking man or personage, 
towering above his companions, whiskered and ferocious looking. 

"I took a survey of the party, but could not discover any one who looked, 
as I thought, the captain to look. Seeing a tall, lank, Kentucky-looking 
chap (Doctor R. Semple), dressed in a greasy deer-skin hunting shirt, with 
trowsers to match, and which terminated just below the knees, his head 


surmounted by a coon-skin cap, tail in front, who, I supposed, was an officer, 
as he was giving orders to the men. I approached and asked if the captain 
was in camp. He looked, and pointed out a slender-made, well-prop rtioned 
man sitting in front of a tent. His dress was a blue woolen shirt of some- 
what novel style, open at the neck, trimmed with white, and with a star on 
each point of the collar (a man-of-war's man's shirt), over this a deer-skin 
hunting shirt, trimmed and fringed, which had evidently seen hard times or 
service, his head unincumbered by hat or cap, but had a light cotton hand- 
kerchief bound around it, and deer-skin moccasins completed the suit, which 
if not fashionable for Broadway, or for a presentation dress at court, struck 
me as being an excellent rig to scud under or fight in. A few minutes' con- 
versation convinced me that I stood in the presence of the King of the Rocky 
Mountains." ' 

Captain Fremont and his men remained at Saucelito until July 2d, when 
they lelt for Sonoma, and there prepared for a more perfect organization, 
their plan being to keep the Californians to the southern part of the State 
until the emigrants then on their wa,y had time to cross the Sierra Nevada 
into California. On the 4th the National Holidiiy was celebrated with due 
pomp; Avhile on the 5th, the California Battalion of Mounted Riflemen, two 
hundred and fifty strong, was organized. Brevet-Captain John C. Fremont, 
Second Lieutenant of Topographical Engineers, was chosen Commandant ; 
First Lieutenant of Marines, Archibald H. Gillespie, Adjutant and Ins; ector, 
with the rank of Captain. S&ya Fremont : — 

" In concert and in co-operation with the American settlers, and in the 
brief space ot thirty days, all was accomplished north of the bay of San 
Francisco, and independence declaied on the 5th of July. This was done at 
Sonoma where the American settlers had assembled. I was called by my 
position and by the general voice to the chief direction of aftairs, and on the 
6th of July, at the head of the mounted riflemen, set out to find Castro. 

" We had to make the curcuit of the head of the bay, crossing the Sacra- 
mento river (at Knight's Landing). On the 10th of July, when within ten 
miles of Sutter's Fort, we received ( by the hands of William Scott ) the joy- 
ful intelligence that Commodore John Drake Sloat was at Monterey and 
had taken it on the 7th of Julj^ and that war existed between the United 
States and Mexico. Instantly we pull down the flag of Independence 
( Bear Flag ) and ran up that of the United States amid general rejoicing anfi 
a national salute of twenty-one guns on the morning of the 11th, from Sut- 
ter's Fort with a brass four pounder, called, "Sutter. " 

We find that at two o'clock on the morning of July 9 th. Lieutenant Joseph 
Warren Revere, of the "Portsmouth, " left that ship in one of her boats, and 
reaching the garrison at Sonoma, did at noon of that day haul down .the 
Bear Flag and raise in its place the stars and stripes; and at the same iimc 
forwarded one to Sutter's Fort by the hands of William Scott an ! ano her 


to Captain Stephen Smith at Bodega. Thus ended what was called the 
Bear Fhif^ War. 

Tlie following is the Mexican account of the Bear Flag- war : — 
"About a year before the commencement of the war a band of adventurers, 
proceeding from the United States, and scattering over the vast territory of 
California, awaited only the signal of their Government to take the first step 
in the contest for usurpation. Various acts committed by these adventurers 
in violation of the laws of the country indicated their intentions. But unfor- 
tunately the authorities then existing, divided among themselves, neither 
desired nor knew how to arrest the tempest. In the month of July, 1846, 
Captain Fremont, an engineer of the U. S. A., entered the Mexican territory 
with a few mounted riflemen under the pretext of a scientific commission, and 
solicited and obtained from tlie Commandant-General, D. Jose Castro, per- 
mission to traverse the country. Three months afterwards, on the 19th of 
May (June 14th)) that same force and their commander took possession by 
armed force, and surprised the important town of Sonoma, seizing all the 
artillery, ammunition, armaments, etc., which it contained. 

"The adventurers scattered along the Sacramento river, amounting to 
about 400, 100 men having joined their force. They proclaimed lor them- 
selves and on their own authority the independence of California, raising a rose- 
colored flag with a bear and a star. The result of this scandalous proceeding 
was the plundering of the property of some Mexicans and the assassination 
of others — three men shot as spies by Fremont, who, faithful to their duty 
to the country, wished to make resistance. The Commandant-General 
demanded explanations on the subject of the Commander of an American 
shij>.of-war, the Portsmouth, anchored in the Bay of San Francisco; and 
although it was positively known that munitions of war, arms and clothing 
were sent on shore to the adventurers, the Commander, J. B. Montgomery, 
replied that ' neither the Government of the United States nor the subalterns 
had any part in the insurrection, and that the Mexican authorities ought, 
therefore, to punish its authors in conformity with the laws.' " 

NOTK. — We find Uiat it is still a modt cjuestion as to who actually brought the first news of the war to Fremont. 
The honor is claimed by IJarry Bee and .John Daubenbiss, who arc stated to have gone by Livermorc and there met 
the Kullant c<ilMnel; but the above quoted obserxations purjiort to be Colonel Fremont's own. 




The Organization of the County. — The first organization of counties 
in the United States originated in Virginia, her early settlers becoming pro- 
prietors of vast amounts of land, living apart in patrician splendor, imperious 
in demeanor, aristocratic in feeling, and being in a measure dictators to the 
laboring portion of the population. It will thus be remarked that the mate- 
rials for the creation of toAvns were not at hand, voters being but sparsely 
distributed over a great area. The county organization was, moreover, in 
perfect accord with the traditions and memories of the judicial and social 
dignities of Great Britain, in descent from whom they felt so much glory. 
In 1634 eight counties were established in Virginia, a lead which was fol- 
lowed by the Southern and several of the Northern States, save in those of 
South Carolina and Louisiana, where districts were outlined in the former, 
and parishes, after the manner of the French, in the latter. 

In New England, towns were formed before counties, while counties were 
organized before States. Originally, the towns, or townships, exercised all 
the powers of government swayed by a State. The powers afterward 
assumed by the State governments were from surrender or delegation on the 
part of towns. Counties were created to define the jurisdiction of Courts of 
Justice. The foi-mation of States w^as a union of towns, wherein arose the 
representative system ; each tow^n being represented in the State Legislature, 
or General Court, by delegates chosen by the freemen of the towns at their 
stated meetings. The first town meeting of which we can find any direct 
evidence, was held by the congregation of the Plymouth Colony, on March 
23, 1621, for the purpose of perfecting military arrangem_ents. At that 
meeting a Governor was elected for the ensuing year ; and it is noticed as a 
coincidence, whether from that source or otherwise, that the annual town 
meetings in New England, and nearly all the other States, have ever since 
been held in the Spring of the year. It was not, however, until 1635, that 
the township system was adopted as a quasi corporation in Massachusetts. 

The first legal enactment concerning this system provided that whereas : 
" Particular towns have many things which concern only themselves, and the 
ordering of their own affairs, and disposing of business in their own towns ; 
therefore the freemen of every town, or the major part of them, shall only 
have power to dispose of their own lands and woods, with all the appurten- 
ances of said towns ; to grant lots and to make such orders as may concern 
the well ordering of their own towns, not repugnant to the laws and orders 


established by the General Court. They might also impose tines of not more 
than twontv shillinirs, and choose their own pai'ticular officers, as constables, 
surveyors ior the highways, and the like." Evidently this enactment relieved 
the General Court of a mass of municipal details, without any danger to the 
powers of that body in controlling general measures of public policy. Prob- 
ably, also, a demand from the freemen of the towns was felt, for the control 
of their own home concerns. 

The New England colonies were first governed by a "General Court," or 
Leo-islature, compo.sed of a Governor and small council, which court con- 
sisted of the most influential inhabitants, and possessed and exercised, 
both legislative and judicial powers, which were limited only by the 
wisdom cf the holders. They made laws, ordered their execution, elected 
their own officers, tried and decided civil and criminal causes, enacted all 
manner of municipal regulations ; and, in fact, transacted all the business of 
the colony. 

This system which was found to be eminently successful, became generab 
as territory Avas added to the Republic, and States formed. Smaller divisions 
were in turn inaugurated and placed under the jurisdiction of special officers, 
whose numbers w^ere increased as time developed a demand, until the sys- 
tem of Township organization in the United States is a matter of just pride 
to her people. 

Let us now con.sider this topic in regard to the especial subject under review: 

On the acquisition of California Dy the government of the Unit;d States, 
under a treaty of peace, friendship, limits, and settlement with the Mexican 
Republic, dated Guadalupe Hidalgo, February 2, 1848, the boundaries of the 
State were d(;fined. This treaty was ratified hy the President of the United 
States, on March IG, 1848; exchanged at Queretaro, May 30th, an<l finally 
promulgated July 4th, of the same year, by President Polk, and attested by 
Secretary of State, James Buchanan. In 1849 a Constitutional Convention 
was assembled in Monterey, and at the close of the session, on October 12th> 
a proclamation calling upon the people to form a government was issued "to 
designate such officei-s as they desire to make and execute the laws ; that their 
choice may be wisely made, and that the government so organized may 
secure the pm-inanent welfare and hapj-iness of the peo[)le of the new State, 
is the sincere and eainest wish of the jn-esent executive, who, if the Consti- 
tution be ratified, will with pleasure, surrender his powers to whomsoever the 
people may designate as his successor." This historical document bore the 
signatures of "B. Riley, Bvt. Brig. General U. S. A., and Governor of Cali- 
fornia, and official— H. W. Halleck, Bvt. Capt. and Secretary of State." 

In accoidance with Section foiirteen of Article twelve of the Constitution 
it was provided that the State be divided into counties, and Senatoiial and 
Assenddy districts, while the first session of the Leo-islature, which bciran at 
San, on December 15, 1849, passed, on February 18, 1850, "An Act 


subdividing the State into counties and establishing seats of justice therein." 
This act was finally confirmed, April 25, 1851, and directed the boundaries 
of Sonoma county to be as follows : — 

" Beginning on the sea-coast, at the mouth of Russian river, and following 
up the middle of said river to its source in the range of mountains called 
Mayacmas ; thence in a direct line to the northwestern corner of Napa county; 
thence down and along the western boundary of Napa county to its termina- 
tion in Carnero mountains ; thence in a direct line to the nearest point of 
Carnero creek ; thence down said creek to its entrance into Napa river ; thence 
down the middle of Napa river to its mouth, excluding the island called 
Signor, or Mare Island; thence due south to the north line of Contra Costa 
county ; thence down th.e middle of said bay to the corner of Marin county J 
thence following the boundary of said county to Petaluma creek; thence up 
said creek, following the boundary of Marin county, to the ocean, and three 
miles therein; thence in a northerly direction parallel with the coast to a 
point opposite the mouth of Russian river, and thence to said river which 
was the place of beginning." It was ordered that Sonoma should be the seat 
of justice. 

Prior to this time the county had been included in the District of Sonoma, 
a div!,sion which had originated with the Mexican authorities during their 
power, and that included all the counties now between the bay of San Fran- 
cisco and the Oregon line, west of the Sacramento river ; it had not been 
interfered with on the accession of American rule, but retained the official 
designation given to it by the Spaniards. 

On April 11, 1850, An Act of the Legislature was passed organizing a 
Court of Sessions, which defined its composition as follows : — 

The Court consisted of the County Judge, who should preside at its ses- 
sions, assisted by two Justices of the Peace of the county as Associate Jus- 
tices, they being chosen by their brother justices from out of the whole 
number elected for the county. The duties imposed upon this organization 
were multifarious. They made such orders respecting the property of the 
county as they deemed expedient, in conformity with any law of the State, 
and in them were vested the care and preservation of said property. 
They examined, settled, and allowed all accounts chargeable against the 
county ; directed the raising of such sums for the defraying of all expenses 
and charges against the county, by means of taxation on property, real and 
personal, such not to exceed, however, the one-half of the tax levied by the 
State on such property; to examine and audit the accounts of all officers 
having the care, management, collection, and disbursement of any money 
belonging to the county, or appropriated by law, or otherwise, for its use 
and benefit. In them was the power of control and management of public 
roads, turnpikes, fences, canals, roads and bridges within the county, where 
the law did not prohibit such jurisdiction, and make such orders as should be 


requisite and necessary to carry such control and nianagenu-nt into effect; 
to divide the county into townships, and to create new townships, and change 
the division of the same as the convenience of the county should require. 
They established and changed election pi-ecincts; controlled and managed 
the property, real and personal, l)elonging to the county, and purchased and 
received donations of property for the use of the county, with this proviso, 
that they should not have the power to purchase any real or personal 
propert}', except such as should be absolutely necessary for the use of the 
county. To sell and cause to be conve^'ed, any real estate, goods, or chattels 
belonging to the county, appropriating the funds of such sale to the use of 
the same. To cause to be erected and furnished, a Court-house, jail, and 
other buildings, and to see that the same are kept in repair, and otherwise to 
perform all such other duties as should be necessary to tlie full discharge of 
the powers conferred on such court. Terms were ordered to be held on the 
second Monday of February, April, June, August, October, and December, 
with quarterly sessions on the third Monday of February, May, August, and 
November of each year. 

No records are to be found of how the county Avas partitioned at this date ; 
but it is presumed that it had been divided into four tow^nships, viz:Petaluma, 
Sonoma, Russian River, and Bodega. At any rate, we know that, in 1856, 
the county was apportioned into the townships of Sonoma, Vallejo, Petaluma, 
Analy, Santa Rosa, Russian River, Mendocino, Washington, Bodega, within 
the present boundaries, and Ukiali and Big River, in what is now Mendocino 

By the Act of April 25, 1851, Mendocino w^as .ordered to be attached, for 
judicial and revenue purposes, to Sonoma county, j.intil a county government 
should be organized; but it was not until March 11, 1859, that an Act was 
passed by the Legislature defining its boundaries and fixing its duties, the 
same enactment defining its southern boundary, and consequently the north- 
ern linut of Sonoma as the Valhalla river. 

Though a thorough search of the archives of Sonoma has been made, no 
trace of the boundary lines of townships can be found until the year 18G7, 
when the county was partitioned as follows : — 

Amibj. — Commencing at the junction of the Laguna with Mark West 
creek ; thence down Mai'k West creek to Russian river ; thence dowai Russian 
river to the mouth of " Dutch Bill's creek;" thence up said creek to its inter- 
section with the quarter-section line dividing Section 27, T. 7 N., R. 10 W.; 
thence east on said cpiarter-section line to the range line between townships 
nine and te-n west; thence south to the south line of the Jonive rancho; thence 
east one half mih;; thence south on quarter-section line to the north line 
of tiie Rancho Canada de Pocolome ; thence westerly on the north line of 
said rancho to the range line aforesaid; thence due south on said line to the 
Estero Americano or county line ; thence southeasterly along the county line 


to the Rancho Laguna de San Antonio ; thence northeasterly on the 
northerly line of said rancho to the easterly line of the Blucher Rancho; 
thence north along the east line of Blucher Rancho, to the southwest corner 
of Lot No. 28 of the Rancho Roblas de la Miseria ; thence due east to the 
Cotate line ; thence on the Cotate line to its most westerly corner ; thence 
northeasterly on the Cotate line to the middle of Section twenty-two ; thence 
west one-half mile to the Petaluma and Santa Rosa road ; thence north to- 
the Laguna ; thence down said Laguna to the place of beginning. 

Bodega. — Commencing at the mouth of " Dutch Bill's creek " on Russian 
River ; thence up said creek to its intersection with the quarter-section 
line dividing Section 27, T. 7 N., R. 10 W.; thence east on said quarter-sec- 
tion line to the range line between Townships nine and ten west ; thence 
south on said range line to tlie south line of the Jonive Rancho ; thence east 
one half mile ; thence south, on quarter-section line to the north line of the 
Ranciio Canada de Pocolome ; thence Vv'esterly along the north line of said 
Rancho to the range line aforesaid ; thence due south along said range line to 
the Estero Americano, or county line ; thence down said Estero Americano to 
the Pacific Ocean ; thence up the coast northerly to the mouth of Pv.ussian 
river ; thence up said river to the place of beginning. 

Cloverdale. — Commencing at the north-easterly corner of Sonoma 
county ; thence south-westerly on a straight line to the most nort1 (My corner of 
the Tzabaco Rancho ; thence along the line of the Tzabaco Ranelio across Rus- 
sian river to the most southerly corner of the Rancho Musalar-on ; thence in a 
westerly direction following the line of the Tzabaco Rancho lu the top of the 
divide between Russian river and Dry creek ; thence in a north-westerly direc- 
tion following the top of said divide to the Pricliett mountain; thence nearly 
west to the junction of Smith creek with Dr3'' creek ; thence north-easterly fol- 
lowing the divide between said creeks to a point due south of the junction of 
Peter's creek with Dry creek ; thence due north to the said junction ; thence 
northerly following Peter's creek to the county line; thence following the 
county line easterly to the place of beginning. 

Mendocino. — Commencing on the north-easterly line of the Sotoyome 
Rancho, at or near the mill of Lam phier and Alexander; thence south-west- 
erly along the road leading from said mill to Russian river; thence up said 
river to the north line of Township nine north, Range nine west, being at 
or near the north-east corner of Section three west, along said township line 
to the Tzabaco Rancho line ; thence north-easterly along said rancho line to 
the north-east corner of the Conolly Tract ; thence north-westerly along the 
line separating the sold from the unsold portion of the Tzabaco Rancho ( said 
line being at or near the summit of the divide separating Russian river and 
Dry creek ) to the northerly line of vsaid Rancho ; thence following the top of 
divide between Dry creek and Russian river north-westerly to the top of 


Pritchett mountain ; thence nearly west to the junction of Smith creek with 
the main Dry creek; thence nortli-westerly following the divide between said 
creeks to a point due south of the junction of Peter's creek with Dry creek; 
thence north to the said junction; thence northerly following Peter's creek to 
the county line; thence on the county line westerly to the head waters of 
the Valhalla, nearly north of Richardson's Rancho ; thence following said 
stream down to its junction with the first tributary west of Flat Ridge; 
thence following said tril)utary in a south-easterly direction to its source 
nearest Mount Tom ; thence to the top of Mount Tom ; thence due south 
to a branch of the middle fork of the Valhalla south of Reagan's or Hawk 
Ridge; thence up said branch to the top of the ridge dividing the waters 
of Dry creek from the waters of the middle Valhalla; thence along «aid 
divide in a southerly direction to the head Avaters of the middle Valhalla; 
thence along said divide in a southerly direction to tlie head waters of the 
east branch of Austin's creek ; thence down said creek to Russian river; 
thence up siiid river to Bed well's upper line, excluding him ; thence east- 
erly on said Bedwell's upper line to the Sotoyome Rancho line ; thence 
nortlicrly and westerly along the rancho line to the place of beginning. 

Santa Rosa. — Commencing at the junction of the Laguna with Mark 
West creek ; thence up said creek to its intersection with the county line 
about two miles south of Porter's; thence south-easterly on the coutity line 
to its intersection with main Sonoma creek; thence down Sonoma creek to 
its intersection with the south-easterly line of Los Guilicos Rancho about 
one and one-half miles south-easterly from Adler's house; thence ibllowing 
said line north sixty degrees west to the range line between six and seven 
west about half a mile west of Adler's house; thence south on said range 
line to the south-east corner of the north-east quarter of Section 24, T. G N., 
R. 7 W. ; thence due west on quarter-section lines dividing sections 24, 23, 
22, 21, 20, 19 of T. (i N., R. 7 W, and sections 24, 23, 22 of T. 6 N., R.' 8 
W., to the Santa Rosa and Petaluma road via Gossages; thence north on 
said road to Laguna bridge; thence down the Laguna to its junction with 
Mark West creek. 

Sonoma. — Commencing on the county line where the main Sonoma creek 
cro.sses the line ; thence down said creek to its intersection of the south- 
easterly line of the Los Guihcos Rancho, about one and one-half miles south- 
easterly from Adler's house; thence following said line north, sixty degrees 
west, to the range line between Townships six and seven, about one-half 
mile west of Adler's house south on said range line to its intersection with 
the base line of Rowe's survey of the Petaluma Rancho near J. W. 
McKamy's; thence southerly along said l)ase line to Dennis Murray's north 
line; thence easterly and southerly along Murray's boundary lines excluding 
Murray to Mrs. Nancy Hinkston's lands; thence easterly and sf>utherly along 


said Mrs. Hinkston's northerly and easterly lines to J. McDevitt's land • 
thence easterly to J. McDevitt's most northerly corner; thence southerly 
along the easterly lines of J. McDevitt and P. H. Pharris to the north- 
westerly line of Lot No. 50 of the Bihler purchase; thence southerly 
about one-third of a mile to the most westerly corner of said Lot; thence 
southerly on the south-westerly line of Lots Nos. 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 
56, 57, 58 of the Bihler purchase; thence in the same direction to the mouth 
of Sonoma creek; thence up said Sonoma creek to the mouth of the Huichica 
creek; thence up Huichica creek to the county line; thence along the 
county line to the place of beginning. 

Fetaluma. — Commencing at the most southerly corner of the Cotate 
Rancho; thence north-westerly on the south-westerly line of said Rancho to 
the most easterly corner of Lot No. 30 of the Rancho Roblar de la Miseria; 
thence west, on the southerly line of Lots Nos. 30 sftid 38 to the west line of 
said rancho, near the south-east corner of C. E. Bartlett's land; thence south 
on the west line of the Roblar Rancho to the Rancho Laguna de San Anto- 
nio; thence south-westerly on the northerly line of the Rancho Laguna de 
San Antonio to the county line ; thence following the county line south- 
easterly to the Petaluma creek; thence up Petaluma creek to the most west- 
erly corner of Lot No. 812 of the Petaluma Rancho, being the most westerly 
corner of said Rancho; thence north-easterly along the line of said Rancho 
to the place of beginning. 

Vallejo. — Commencing at the north-east corner of the south-east quarter 
of section 24, T. 6 N., R. 7 W. ; thence south on said range to its intersec- 
tion with the base line of Rowe's survey of the Petaluma Rancho, near J. W. 
McKamy's; thence southerly along said base line to Dennis Murray's north 
line; thence easterly and southerly along Murray's lines, including Murray's, 
to Mrs. Nancy Hinkston's land; thence easterly and southerly along said 
Hinkston's northerly and easterly line to J. McDevitt's land; thence east 
erly to McDevitt's most northerly corner ; thence southerly along the east- 
erly lines of McDevitt's and P. H. Pharris' to the north-westerly line of Lot 
No. 50 of the Bihler purchase ; thence south-westerly about one-third of a 
mile to the most westerly corner of said lot ; thence southerly on the south- 
easterly line of lots Nos. 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 of the Bihler pur- 
chase ; thence in the same direction to the mouth of Sonoma creek ; thence 
following San Pablo bay around to the mouth of Petaluma creek; thence up 
said creek to the north-westerly corner of lot No. 312 of Petaluma Rancho ; 
thence northerly on the Petaluma Rancho line to the most southerly corner 
of the Cotate Rancho ; thence north-westerly on said rancho line to its inter- 
section with the quarter-section line dividing Section 22, T. 6 N., R. 8 W; 
thence east on quarter-section line dividing Sections 22, 23, 24 of said 
township, and 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 of T. 6 N., R. 7 W., to place of begin- 


Russian River. — Coniniencing at the junction of Mark West creek and 
Russian River ; thence up Mark West creek to its intersection with the 
range line between Townships seven and eight, about one mile south of Tar- 
water's house; thence north along said range line to the north-east corner of 
the south-east quarter of Section one ; thence due west one and one-half 
miles to the center of Section two ; thence north to the line of the Malcoines 
Rancho ; thence on said rancho line north to its intersection with main Bed- 
well's creek ; thence down said creek to the Sotoyouie Rancho line ; thence 
westerly on said line to the northerly line of F. Bed well's land; thence on 
sai<l Bedwell's line, including hhn to Russian river; thence down said river 
to the place of beginning. 

Washington. — Commencing at the northerly corner of Sonoma county; 
thence south-westerly og a straight line to the most northerly corner of Tza- 
baco rancho, thence with said rancho line south-westerly across Russian river 
to the most southerly corner of the Rancho de Musalacon ; thence westerly 
along the line of said Tzabaco Rancho to its intersection on or near the top of 
the divide between the waters of Russian river and Dry creek, with the line 
separating the unsold portion of said Tzabaco rancho from the farms on Dry 
creek ; thence along said separating lines in a south-easterly direction nearly 
on the summit of said divide to the line between Tzabaco and Sotoyome Ran- 
chos at the north-east corner of the Conolly tract ; thence south-westerly along 
the dividing line between said ranchos to the township line, between town- 
ships nine and ten, north ; thence along said township line due east to Russian 
river; thence down said river to the ford at the most western corner of J. 
Wood's land; thence along the road leading from said ford in a north-easterly 
direction to the line of the Sotoyome rancho where it crosses Sausal creek 
near what was formerly Jordan's mill, thence up the main and eastern branch 
of said Sausal creek to its source a short distance east from the house of Young, 
thence due east to the county line ; thence north-westerly along the county 
line to the place of beginning. 

St. Helena. — Commencing on the north-easterly line of the Sotoyome 
rancho where Sausal creek crosses the same, thence up the main and eastern 
branch of Sausal creek to its source a short distance east of the house of Young, 
thence <lue east to the county line ; thence south-easterly along said county 
line about fifteen miles to its intersection with Mark West creek, about two 
miles south of Porter's, thence following down Mark West creek, westerly to 
the eastern line of Township 8 N., R. 8 W. ; thence north on said township 
line to the north-east corner of the south-east quarter of Section one, near 
Tarwater's ; thence due west one and one-half miles to the centre of Section two ; 
thence north to the line of Malacomes Rancho; thence on said Rancha 
line north to its intersection with the Sotoyome Rancho line; thence 
northerly and westerly along said rancho line to the place of beginnuig. 


Salt Point. — Commencing on the coast of the Pacific Ocean at the mouth 
of the Valhalla river ; thence north-easterly on the county line to its inter- 
section with one of the tributaries of the north fork of the south Valhalla, 
being the north-west corner of Mendocino township ; thence following said 
stream down to its junction with its first tributary west of Flat Ridge; thence 
up said tributary in a south-easterly direction to its source nearest Mount 
Tom ; thence to the top of Mount Tom ; thence due south to a branch of the 
middle fork of the south Valhalla, south of Reagan's or Hawk Ridge ; thence 
up said branch to the top of the ridge dividing the waters of Dry creek 
from the watei's of the middle Valhalla; thence along said divide in a south- 
erly direction to the head waters of the east branch of Austin's creek to Rus- 
sian river; thence down to the mouth of the Valhalla, or place of beginning. 

Some years later a further change in townships took place, and those of 
Ocean and Redwood established, while portions of St. Helena were absorbed 
by Mendocino and Santa Rosa, and the balance given the name of Knight's 
Valley, making the townships of the present day to be fourteen in number, 
viz. : — Analy, Bodega, Cloverdale, Knight's Valley, Mendocino, Ocean, Peta- 
luma, Redwood, Russian River, Washington, Salt Point, Santa Rosa, Sonoma, 

In the year ]855 a change had come o'er the spirit of the governmental 
dream of the county. The Court of Sessions was abolished and an act 
passed on March 20th, entitled "An Act to create a Board of Supervisors in 
the counties in this State, and to define their duties aud powers." For better 
reference the ninth section of the above act is quoted in full : — 

"The Board of Supervisors shall hav-e power and jurisdiction in their 
respective counties ; First, To make orders respecting the property of the 
county, in conformity with any law of this State, and to take care of and 
preserve such property. Second, To examine, settle, and allow all accounts 
legally chargeable against the county, and to levy, for the purposes prescribed 
by law, such amount of taxes on the assessed value of real and personal 
property in the county, as may be authorized by law: 'provided the salary of 
the County Judge need not be audited by the Board ; but the County Aud- 
itor shall, on the first judicial day of each month, draw his warrant on the 
County Treasurer in favor of the County Judge for the amount due such 
Judge as salary, for the month preceeding. Third, To examine and audit 
the accounts of all officers having the care, management, collection or dis- 
bursement of any money belonging to the county, or appi'opriated by law, or 
otherwise, for its use and benefit. Fourth, To lay out, control and manage 
public roads, turnpikes, ferries, and bridges within the county, in all cases 
where the law does not prohibit such jurisdiction, and to make such orders 
as may be requisite and necessary to carry its control and management into 
effect. Fifth, To take care of and provide for the indigent sick of the 
county. Sixth, To divide the county into townships, and to change the 


divisions of the same, and to create new townships, as the convenience of the 
county may require. Seventh, To estabUsh and change election precincts, 
and t(^ ajipoint ins])cctors and judges of elections. Eighth, To conti-ol and 
manage, the property, real and personal, belonging to the county, and to 
receive l>y donation any property for the use and benefit of the county. 
Ninth, To lease or to purchase any real or personal property necessary for 
the use of the county; in'ovided no purchase of real property shall be made 
unless the value of the same be previously estimated by three disinterested 
persons, to bo appointed for that purpose by the County Judge. Tenth, To 
.sell at public auction, at the Court House of the county, after at least thirty 
days ]-»revious public notice, and cause to be conveyed, any property belong- 
mg to the county, appropriating the proceeds of such sale to the use of the 
same. Eleventh, To cause to be erected and furnished, a court house, jail, 
and such other public buildings as may be necessary, and to keep the same 
in repair; provided that the contract for building the court house, jail, and 
such other public buildings, be let out at least after thirty days' previous 
public notice, in each case, of a readiness to receive proposals therefor, to 
the lowest bidder, who will give good and sufficient security for the comple- 
tion of any contract which he may make respecting the same; but no bid 
shall be accepted which the Board may deem too high. Twelfth, To control 
the prosecution and defense of all suits to which the county is a party. 
Thirteenth, To do any and perform all such other acts and things as may be 
strictly necessary to the full discharge of the powers and jurisdiction confer- 
red on the Board." 

To these various duties, in themselves of a most difficult nature, were 
added the onerous responsibilities of canvassers of election returns, the 
investigation of bonds required to be given by newly-elected officers, and a 
general superintendence of all monetary transactions in which the county, 
through her officers, has any interest. 

In the year 18.51, on the organization of the county, the county seat was 
located at the town of Sonoma, then the most prosperous city north of the 
bay of San Francisco, but in 1854, a bill was passed in the Legislature 
authorizing its removal to Santa Rosa, which was done without delay and 
before the Sonomans could fairly realize the effects of the contemplated 
change. The Sonoma Bidletin of April 8, 1854, says: "The first intimation 
we had of the pco],)lc's desire to move the county seat from Sonoma to 
Santa Rosa was through the legislative proceedings of March 28th, which 
informs us that a Inll had been introduced and passed for that purpose." 
The bill provided that a vote of the people should l)e taken on the question 
of removal, and the election took place on September Gth. The issue of the 
above-named periodical, printed on the 14th of that month, thus touchingly 
alludes to the result: " The county seat — that's a gone or going case ! The 
«p-country people worked furiously against us, and have come out victori- 

A -^ 



ous. What majority the new seat got we are not aware; but whatever it 
is, why it is as it is, which ineontestible truth consoles us!" The archives 
were removed on the 22d September, and steps immediately taken for the 
permanent location of the county seat at Santa Rosa, a full record of which 
will be found in our history of that city. 

As soon as the organization of Santa Rosa as the capital of Sonoma county 
was complete, the erection of public buildings was forthwith commenced. 
The Court House was built in the year 1859; while in 1871-2 the neat and 
substantial Hall of Records was constructed, a description of which we here 
produce : 

The Hall of Records. — The outside size of the building is about thirty 
feet by sixty feet, and the interior is in one room of good proportions, twenty- 
six feet by fifty-six feet, or thereabouts in size on the floor. The principal 
entrance at one side, facing the public square, leads through a small vesti- 
bule. Thence entering the main room we find on the right hand a space 
railed ofl", ample in size for the Recorder and Auditor's private office. This 
space contains a Recorder's receiving desk, close by the rail, protected by 
glass and walnut framing. Adjoining -this is the Auditor's desk, similarly 
fitted up. To the rear of them and against the wall are the racks, with 
pigeon holes and book spaces for the two departments of the office, having 
glazed paneled doors in front, each with drawers underneath for miscellane- 
ous papers. 

There is also close by a small standing desk on pivots, useful for the pur- 
pose of receiving the signatures of persons on the outside of the rail. 

At the other extreme end of the building, on the same side, is a similar 
space, appropriated to the use of the copying department, fitted up with a 
standing desk and a private desk, similarly railed off. 

Between the two compartments named is a large map table, with two 
drawers, moving through from side to side, opening both sides of the table, 
giving an opportunity to examine the contents of both drawers at one and 
the same time. 

The desk containing the racks for holding the books of public record for 
real estate and mortgage transactions stands a little to the left or opposite 
«ide of the building. It is about thirty-four feet long, with a row of racks 
on each side of this piece of furniture running the full length of it. Every 
space for a book is divided by ornamental divisions from the one adjacent. 
The front edge of each at the bottom has a roller of manzanita wood, thus 
facilitating the handling of the heavy books, at the same time protecting 
their edges from undue wear. This is an invention of Mr. A. P. Petit, the 
architect, and though simple answers its purpose admirably. 

The whole of the furniture is exceedingly appropriate to its purpose, 

juaking one of the best fitted-up halls for public records of the State. 

The furniture is of black walnut, solid and elegant. The panels of the 



doors and desks of plate glass. All receptacles have the best tumbler locks, 
and the ^vhole a credit to all parties concerned. The cabinet-makers were 
Johnson & Best, of San Francisco. 

In addition to these buildings, Sonoma county possesses two institutions of 
which she mav well be proud; these are the hospital and county farm. Both 
are under the direct control of Dr. J. B. Gordon, are well managed, and 
retlect much credit upon himself and his assistants. Below we produce a 
sketch of the county hospital : — 

County Hospifal. — This building was completed and handed over to the 
Board of Supervisors in the month of December, 1866. It is situated in that 
portion of the city of Santa Rosa known as Green's addition, and is fully 
equal to any public building of its kind, outside of San Francisco, to be 
found in the State. 

The foundation is composed of cement; lime and gravel manipulated and 
rammed into trenches, two feet wide and eighteen inches deep; on the east 
side is a cellar, ten by fourteen feet, eight feet deep, walled with brick, stairs 
leadino- to pantry. The size of the bu-ilding is forty-six feet, front and rear, 
by forty-two feet deep, with building in rear twenty by twenty-five feet, 
used as wash and wood house. Tlie first floor is set up four feet above 
grade of lot. The first story is twelve feet high, the second eleven feet all 
clear. First story contains a hall, eight feet wide, through the center of the 
baildinf ; on the east side is a ward for females, with bath room adjoining, 
supplied with warm and cold water; on the west side is a dining room, and 
three rooms for the use of the managers of the institution ; a flight of stairs, 
with moulded handrail, and balustrade of mahogany, leads from below to the 
second story, which contains also a hall corresponding with that below; on 
the east of this a ward, extending the whole length of the building, and 
affbrdino- acconmiodation for seventeen patients, and divided in center by 
foldino- doors ; on the west of the hall is the physician's office, a dark ward 
for the blind, wash room, laundry and bath-room ; in the center of hall, over 
the stairs, is a dome and skylight for ventilation. Every window is supplied 
with inside blinds. On the south front is a porch, eight feet wide, from, 
base; each story, with neat cornice, supported by open antirs, with neat cap and 
on rear end of building six patent water-closets, three for each story, supplied 
with water from a tank containing two thousand gallons, conveyed by means 
of patent windmill. The building is covered with tin, standing groove, well 
painted ; cornice of building has projection of three and a half feet, supported 
by brackets, while the whole is of the villa order of architecture. The size 
of the lot is one hundred and eighty feet east and west, four hundred and 
sixty feet north and south in clear. It is inclosed by picket and board fence 
on all sides, in a most sul>stantial manner. The total cost of the structure 
was eight thousand eight hundred dollars, while that of the lot was four 


hundred and fifty, a considerable portion of the latter sum being donated by- 
citizens of Santa Rosa. 

Postojfices. — One of the first signs of a thorough county organization 
is the establishment throughout its length and breadth of a system to facili- 
tate the transmission of correspondence from point to point; to attain this 
object is the causT* of postoffices. To set at rest any doubt which may remain 
in the minds of the residents of Sonoma as to who were the first postmasters 
at the different stations in the county, the accompaning information has been 
•most courteously furnished us by the Postoffice Department at Washino-ton. 

" Postoffice Department, Office of the First A.ssistant P. M. General, Wash- 
ington, D. C, Oct. 3, 1879.— Alley Bowen & Co. Santa Rosa, Gal.— Your 
communication of Sept. 3, 1879 — in which you ask for the date of the estab- 
lishment of the postoffices and postmasters to present dat.^, in Sonoma Co., 
Gal. — has been received at this department. In answer to your inquiry, 
please find the following, as shown by the records of this department. 

James H. Man, 
Acting 1st. Asst. P. M. Gen'l. 

Sonoma, established November 8, 1879, Lilburn W. Boggs, postmaster; Pet- 
aluma, February 9, 1852, • Garrett W. Keller; Bodega, February 20, 1852, 
Joseph M. Miller ; Santa Rosa, April 23, 1852, Donald McDonald; Smith's 
Ranch, September 29, 1854, Stephen Smith; Russian River, November 1, 
1854, Harmon J. Heald, changed to Healdsburg April 14, 1875; Windsor, 
August 81, 1855, Seiver Lewis; Bloomfield, July 12, 1856, Horace Lamb; 
Stony Point, April 13, 1857, Parmenas N. Woodworth; Two Rocks, July 17, 
1857, Clark A. Hough; Cloverdale, August 15, 1857, John A. Hartman; 
Pacific Home, June 15, 1858, William W. Fergusson, discontinued April 19, 
1860; Lakeville, January 31, 1859, Joshua Chadbourne; Analy, August 7, 
1860, Lewis M. Miller ; Albany, February 25, 1862, Elijah Brookhire, dis- 
continued, April 13, 1864; Duncan's Mills, December 20, 1862, Thomas 
Beacon; Timber Cove, February, 24, 1863, Fred'k Helmke; Fisherman's Bav, 
July 10, 1863, Andrew J. Fisk; Glairville, January 5, 1865, David Odell; 
Mark West, October 25, 1865, Henry G. Giamini; Sebastopol, October 2, 1867, 
John Dougherty ; Ocean View, March 25, 1870, Hugh Marshall; Occidental, 
December 7, 1876, Andrew J.Blaney ; Fort Ross, May 23, 1877, George W. 
Call; Tyrone, July 18, 1877, Hiram C. Smith. 

The Political History of Sonoma County.— Owing to the absence of 
the archives the early history of Sonoma county is enveloped in consider- 
able darkness. 

Prior to the acquisition of California by the Government of the United 
States, the large District of Sonoma, which included all the territory between 
the Sacramento river and the ocean, and Oregon and the Bay of San Francisco, 
was under the rule of the Mexican Government, and was divided into Pre- 


fectiuvs, ainonablo to a (Iraiul Council at Sonoma, tlie lioklcrs of office being 
ilesignateil by tlie Spanish name of Alcalde. 

The Hrst civil officer, we are told by Mr. R. A. Thompson, was John Nash, 
■who was commis-sioned by General Kearny as Alcalde of Sonoma. He had 
ft most exalted idea of the dignity of his office; assumed ministerial as well 
as judicial ])owers; signed himself "Chief Justice of California," and having 
been removed by the Military Governor, he refused to recognize the authority 
and held on to the office. Lieutenant Sherman — now General Sherman — 
captured him and took him before Governor Mason, at Monterey, who repri- 
manded and released him. This first civil officer of Sonoma — " Chief Justice 
Nash " as he called himself, and " Squire Nash " as his neighbors called 
him — w^as a iJ-ood natured, illiterate but honest man. When the rumors of 
gold reached Sonoma, Squire Nash was employed by a number of persons to 
<T0 to the mines, take observations and report. This was in 1848 ; he returned 
wath gold dust to the value of eight hundred and thirty seven dollars. He 
then went to Mormon Island with a party of Sonoma miners, and died 
there that winter. He was succeeded in his office by Lilbnrn W. Boggs, 
Ex-Governor of Missouri, a man eminently capable of exercising the func- 
tions belonging to that position. 

Between the years 1846 and 1849 the county remained under the control 
of the military. Let us see what was the state of the political horizon 
durino- that time. According to Tuthill — as to civil law, the country was 
utterly at sea. It had a governor in the person of the commandant of the 
military district it belonged to, but no government. While the war lasted 
California, as a conquered province, expected to be governed by military 
officers who, by virtue of their command of the Department, bore sway over 
all the territory that their Department embraced. But after peace had come 
and the succession of military governors was not abated, a people who had 
been in the habit of governing themselves, under the same flag and the same 
constitution, chafed that a simple change of longitude should deprive them 
of their inalienable rights. 

General Persefer F. Smith, who assumed command on arriving by the 
California, the first steamship that reached San Francisco (February 28, 
1849), and General Riley, who succeeded him (April 13, 1849), would have 
been acceptable governors enough, if the people could have discovered any 
where in the Constitution that the President had power to govern a territory 
by a simple order to the commandant of a military department. The power 
was obvious in time of war, but in peace it was unprecedented. Left entirely 
to themselves, the people could have organized a squatter sovereignty, as 
Oregon had done, and the way into the sisterhood of States was clear. 

They felt that they had cause for complaint, but in truth they were too 
busy to nurse their grievance and make much of it. To some extent they 
formed local governments, and had unimportant collisions with the military. 


But, bus}^ as they were, and expecting to return home soon, they humored 
their contempt for politics, and left public matters to be shaped at Washing- 
ton. Nor was this* so unwise a course under the circumstances, for the thing 
that had hindered Congress from giving them a legitimate constitutional 
government was the ever-present snag in the current of American political 
history, the author of most of our woes, the great mother of mischief on the 
western continent — slavery. 

When it was found that Congress had adjourned without doing anything 
for California, Brigadier General Riley, by the advice, he said, of the Presi- 
dent and Secretaries of State and of War, issued a proclamation, which was 
at once a call for a Convention, and an official exposition of the Administra- 
tion's theory of the anomalous relations of California and the Union. He 
strove to rectify the impression that California was governed by the military 
arm of the service; that had ceased with the termination of hostilities. 
What remained was the civil government, recognized by the existing laws 
of California. These were vested in a Governor, who received his appoint- 
ment from the supreme government, or, in default of such appointment, the 
office was vested in the commanding military officer of the department, a 
Secretary, a departmental or Territorial Legislature, a Superior Court with 
four judges, a Prefect and Sub-prefect and a Judge of the first instance for 
each district, Alcaldes, local Justices of the Peace, ayuntamientos, or Town 
Councils. He moreover recommended the election, at the same time, of 
delegates to a Convention to adopt either a State or Territorial Constitution, 
which, if acquiesced in by the people, would be submitted to Congress for 

In June 1849- a proclamation was issued announcing an election to be held 
on the 1st of August, to appoint delegates to a general convention to form a 
State Constitution, and for filling the offices of Judge of the Superior Court, 
prefects, sub-prefects, and First Alcalde or Judge of the first instance, such 
appointments to be made by General Riley after being voted for. The dele- 
gates elected to the Convention from Sonoma were General Vallejo, Joel 
Walker, R. Semple. L. W. Boggs was elected but did not attend. 

The manifesto calling the Constitutional Convention divided the electoral 
divisions of the State into ten districts; each male inhabitant of the county, 
of twenty-one years of age, could vote in the district of his residence, and the 
delegates so elected were called upon to meet at Monterey, on September 1, 
1849. The number of delegates was fixed at thirty-seven, five of which 
were appointed to San Francisco. 

As was resolved, the Convention met at Monterey c.n the date above 
named, Robert Semple of Benicia, one of the delegates from the district of 
Sonoma, being chosen president. The session lasted six weeks; and, not- 
withstanding an awkward scarcity of books of reference and other necessary 
aids, much labor was performed, while the debates exhibited a marked degree 


of ability. In framing the original Constitution of Califoi-nia, slavery was 
forever prohibited within the jurisdiction of the State ; the boundary ques- 
tion between Mexico and the United States was set at; rest; provision for 
the morals and education of tlie people was made; a Seal of State was 
adopted with the motto Eureka, and many other matters discussed. 

In August General Riley issued commissions to Stephen Cooper, ai)pointing 
him Judge of First District, and C. P. Wilkins Prefect of the district of 
Sonoma, while one of General Riley's last appointments before the adoption 
of the Constitution, was that of Richard A. Maupin, well remembered among 
Sonoma's old residents, to be Judge of the Superior Tribunal, in place of 
Lewis Dent, resigned. Another well known pioneer who was at the Con- 
vention from Sacramento county was Major Jacob R. Snyder, a resident of 
Sonoma till his death. 

We hnd that the " Superior Tribunal of California " existed at Monterey 
in 1849; for, in September of that year a "Tariff of fees for Judiciary Offi- 
cers" was published, with the following order of the Court: "That the 
several officers mentioned in this order shall be entitled to receive for their 
services, in addition to their regular salary, if any, the following fees, and 
none others, until the further order of this Court." Here is added a list of 
the fees to be appropriated by Judges of the First Instance, Alcaldes and 
Justices of the Peace, clerks of the several courts, Sheriff or Comisario, 
District Attorney, and Notaries Public. 

We have already said that Stephen Cooper was appointed Judge of First 
Instance for the District of Sonoma. He commenced his labors in that 
office in October, 1849, as appears in the early record of the proceedings 
of that Court extant in the office of the County Clerk of Solano county. 
The record of one of the cases tried before Judge Cooper is reproduced as an 
instance of the quick justice that obtained in 1849: — 

"The people of California Territory vs. George Palmer — And now comes 
the said people by right their attorney, and the said defendant by Semple 
and O'Melveny, and the prisoner having been arraigned on tlie indictment in 
this cause, plead not guilty. Thereupon a jury was chosen, selected and 
sworn, when, after hearing the evidence and arguments of counsel, returned 
into Court the following verdict, to wit: 

"The jury, in the case of Palmer, defendent, and the State of California, 
plaintiti", ha\-e found a verdict of guilty on both counts of the indictment, 
and sentenceil him to receive the following punishment, to wit: 

"On Saturday, the 24th day of November, to be conducted by the Sheriff 
to some public place, and there receive on his bare back seventy-five lashes, 
with such a weapon as the Sheriff may deem fit, on each count respectively, 
and to be banished from the district of Sonoma within twelve hours after 
whipping, under the penalty of receiving the same number of lashes for each 
and every day he remains in the district after the first whipping. 

"(Signed) Alexander Riddell, Foreman. 



" It is therefore ordered by the Court, in accordance with the above 
verdict, that the foregoing sentence be carried into effect." 

The Constitution was duly framed, submitted to the people, and at the 
election held on the 13th November, ratified by them, and adopted by a vote 
of twelve thousand and sixty-four for it and eleven against it ; there being, 
besides, over twelve hundred ballots that were treated as blanks, because of 
an informality in the printing. 

We here reproduce two of the tickets which were voted at the time, and 
were distributed in and around Sacramento and the upper portion of the 
State : — 




John A. Sutter. 


John McDougal. 


William E. Shannon, 
Pet. Halsted. 


John Bidwell, Upper Sacramento, 
Murray Morrison, Sacramento City, 
Harding Bigelow, Sacramento City, 
Gilbert A. Grant, Vernon. 


H. C. Card well, Sacramento City, 
P. B. Cornwall, Sacramento City, 
Jolm S. Fowler, Sacramento City, 
J. Sherwood, 
Elisha W. McKinstry, 
Madison Waltham, Coloma, 
W. B. Dickenson, Yuba, 
James Queen, South Fork, 
W. L. Jenkin, Weaverville. 




Peter H. Burnett. 


John McDougal. 


Edward Gilbert, 
George W. Wrifdit. 


John Bidwell, Upper Sacramento, 
Murray Morrison, Sacramento City, 
Harding Bigelow, Sacramento City, 
Gilbert A. Grant, Vernon. 


H. C. Cardwell, Sacramento City, 
P. B. Cornwall, Sacramento City, 
John S. Fowler, Sacramento City, 
H. S. Lord, Upper Sacramento, 
Madison Waltham, Coloma, 
W. B. Dickenson, Yuba, 
James Queen, South Fork, 
Arba K. Berry, Weaverville. 

The result of the election was: Peter H. Burnett, Governor; John 
McDougal, Lieutenant-Governor; and Edward Gilbert and George W. 
Wright sent to Congress. The district of Sonoma polled at this election but 
five hundred and fifty-two votes, four hundred and twenty-four of 
which were for Burnett. Of the representatives sent from Sonoma, General 
Vallejo went to the Senate, and J. S. Bradford and J. E. Brackett to the 
Assembly. Some difficulty would appear to have arisen at this election, for 
Mr. R,. A. Thompson says : " General Vallejo's seat was first given to James 


Spect, Imt (in tlio 2iM December, the coimnittee reported that the official 
return from Larkin's Ranch gave Spect but two votes instead of twenty- 
eight, a total of but one hundred and eighty-one votes against General 
Vallejo's one hundred and ninety-nine." Mr. Spect then gave up his seat to 
General Vallejo. 

Wc no-sv produce the following interesting record of some of those who 
formed the first California Legislature, not because it bears specially on our 
subject, but as a matter of curiosity, interest and reference: 

The following is from the Colusa Sun of April 26th : — 

Hon. John S. Bradford, of Springfield, 111., who was a member of the first 
California Legislature, procured from some of his colleagues a short biograph- 
ical sketch. Tliinking it might be a matter of interest to the people of Califor- 
nia at the present time, he sends it to us. We have the original document, 
with the sketches in the handwriting of each member, Most of these gentle- 
men have figured conspicuously in the history of the State since, but we believe 
there are but few^ now^ living. Three of the sketches, Jose M. CovaiTubias, 
M. G. Vallejo, and Pablo de la Guerra, are written in Spanish, but '^^'e have 
had them translated. 

Senators. — David F. Douglass — Born in Sumner county, Tennessee, the 
8th of January, 1821. Went to Arkansas with Fulton, in 1836. On 17th 
March 1839, had a fight with Dr. Wm. Howell, in which H. w^as killed; 
imprisoned 14 months ; returned home in 1842; immigrated to Mississippi; 
engaged in the Choctaw^ speculation; moved wdth the Choctaws west as a clerk; 
left there for Texas in winter of 1845-46. War broke out; joined Hay's 
regiment; from Mexico immigrated to California, and arrived here as wag- 
oner in December, 1848. M. G. Vallejo — Born in Monterey, Upper Cal- 
ifornia, July 7th, 1807. On the first of January, 1825, he commenced his 
military career in the capacity of cadet. He served successfully in the 
capacity of Lieutenant, Captain of Cavalry, Lieutenant-Colonel, and General 
Commandant of Upper California. In 1835 he went to Sonoma county and 
founded the town of Sonoma, giving land for the same. He was a member 

of Convention in 1849 and Senator in 1850. Elcan Heydenfelt — Born 

in Charleston, South Carolina, September 15, 1821 ; immigrated to Alabama 
in 1841; from thence to Louisiana in 1844; to California in 1849. Lawyer 

by profession. — '- Pablo de la Guerra — Born in Santa Barbara, Upper 

California, November 29, 1819. At the age of nineteen he entered the 
public service. He was appointed Administrator-General " de ht rentas," 
which position he held when California was taken by the American forces. 
From that time he lived a private life imtil he was named a member of the 
Convention which framed the Constitution of the State. Represents the 

District of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo in the Senate. S. E. 

Wood worth — Born in the city of New York, November 15, 1815 ; com- 
menced career as a sailor, A. D. 1832. Sailed from New York March 9, 


1834. Entered the navy of the United States June 14, 1838. Inimiorated 
to California, via Rocky Mountains and Oregon, April 1, 1846. Resio-nation 
accepted by Navy Department, October 29, 1849. Elected to rej^resent the 
district of Monterey in the first Senate of the Legislature of (J ilifornia 

for the term of two years. Thomas L. Vermeule — Born in New Jersev 

on the 11th of June, 1814; immigrated to California November 12, 1846- 

Did represent San Joaquin District in the Senate. Resigned. W. D. 

Fair — Senator from the San Joaquin District, California ; native of Virginia; 
immigrated to California from Mississippi in February, 1849, as " Piesident 
of the Mississippi Rangers ;" settled in Stockton, San Joaquin District, as an 

attorney at law. ElishaO. Crosby — Senator from Sacra.mento District; 

native of New York State ; immigrated from New York December 25, 

1848 ; aged 34. D. C. Broderick — Senator from San Francisco ; born 

in Washington City, D. C, February 4, 1818 ; immigrated from Washing- 
ton to New York City, March, 1824; left New York for California, April 
17, 1849. E. Kirby Chamberlin, M- D.— President j9ro tern., of the Sen- 
ate, from the District of San Diego; born in Litchfield county, Connecticut, 
April 24, 1805; immigrated from Connecticut to Onondaga county, New 
York, in 1815; thence to Beaver, Penn., in 1829; thence to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
in 1^42 ; served as Surgeon in the U. S. A. during the war with Mexico ; 
appointed Surgeon to the Boundary Line Commission, February 10, 1840; 
embarked from Cincinnati, Ohio, February 15 ; arrived in San Diego, June 

1, 1849, and in San Jose, December 12, 1849. J. Bidwell — Born in 

Chautauque county, N. Y., 5th of August, 1819; immigrated to Pennsyl- 
vania; thence to Ohio; thence to Missouri; thence in 1841 to California; 

term in Senate one yestr. H. C. Robinson — Senator from Sacramento ; 

elected November 15, 1849 ; born in the State of Connecticut; immigrated 
at an early age to Louisiana; educated as a lawyer, but engaged in commer- 
cial pursuits ; arrived at SanjFrancisco, February, 1849, per steamer " Califor- 
nia," the first that ever entered said port. Benjamin S. Lippincott — 

Senator from San Joaquin ; born in New York ; immigrated February, 

1846, from New Jersey; by pursuit a merchant, and elected for two years. 

Assemblymen. — Elam Brown — Born in the State of New York, in 1797; 

emigrated from Massachusetts in 1805; to Illinois in 1818; to Missouri; 1887; 

and from Platte county, in Missouri, 1846, to California. J. S. K. 

Ogier — Born in Charleston, South Carolina; immigrated to New Orleans, 

1845, and from there to California, December 18, 1848. E. B. Bateman 

M. D. — Emigrated from Missouri, April, 1847; residence, Stockton, Alta 
Califoinia. Edmund Randolph — Born in Richmond, Virginia; immi- 
grated to New Orleans, 1843 ; thence to California, 1849 ; residence, San 

Francisco. E. P. Baldwin — Born in Alabama; emigrated from thence 

in January, 1849; arrived in California, May 1, 1850; represents San Joa- 
quin District ; resides in Sonora, Tuolumne county. A. P. Crittenden — 



Born in Li'xington, Ky.; educated in Oliio, Alabama, New York and Penn- 
sylvania; settled in Texas in 188!) ; came to California in 1849; represents 

the county of Los Angeles. Alfred Wheeler — Born in the city of 

New York, the 30Lh day of April, 1820; lesided in New York City 
nntil the 'ilst of May, 1849, when he left for California. Citizen and 

resident of San Francisco, wliich district he represents. James A. 

Gray, Philadelphia — Monterey, California; immigrated in 184G in the first 

New York Regiment of Volunteers. Joseph Aram — Native of State 

of New York ; immigrated to California, 184G ; present residence, San Jose, 

Santa Clara county. Joseph C. Morehead — Boi-n in Kentucky ; hnmi- 

gratefl to California in 1846 ; resides at present in the county of Calaveras, 

San Joat|uin District. Benjamin Cory, M. D. — Born November 12, 

1822 ; immigrated to the Golden State in 1847 ; residence in the valley of 

San Jose. Thos. J. Henley — Born in Indiana ; family now reside in 

Charlestown, in that State ; immigrated to Califormia in 1849, through the 

South Pass; residence at Sacramento. Jose M. Covarrubias — Native 

of France; came to California in 1834; I'esidence in Santa Barbara, and 

Representative for that district. Elisha W. McKinstry — Born in 

Detroit, Michigan; immigrated to California in March, 1849; residence in 

Sacramento District, city of Sutter. -George B. Tingley — Born August 

15, ]815, Clermont county, Ohio; immigrated to Rushville, Indiana, 
Noveml er 4, 1834; started to California April 4, 1849; reached there Octo- 
ber Itith ; was elected to the Assembly November 13th, from Sacramento 

district, and is now in Pueblo de San Jose. Mr. Bradford, himself, 

represented our (Sonoma) district in the Assembly. 

On Saturday, December 15, 1849, the first State Legislature met at San 
Jose, E. Kirby Chamberlin being elected President pro tern, of the Senate, 
and Tliouias J. White, Speaker of the Assembly. 

In t e year 1850, Senator M. G. Vallejo became convinced that the capital 
of Califoinia should bo established at a place which he desired to name 
Eur(.'k;i, but which his colleagues, out of compliment to himself, suggested 
shouli be named Vallejo. To this end the General addressed a memorial to 
the Stnate, dated April 3, 1850, wherein he graphically pointed out the 
advantages possessed by the proposed site over other places which claimed 
the h(>n(^r. In this remarkable document, remarkable alike for its generosity 
of purj.ose as for its marvelous ibresight, he proposed to grant twenty acres 
to tlie State, free of cost, for a State Capital and grounds, and one hundred 
and tl)ii-ty-six acres more for other State buildings, to be apportioned in the 
following manner: Ten acres for the Governer's house and grounds; five 
acres for the ofiices of Treasurer, Comptroller, Secretary of State, Surveyor 
General, and Attoiney-Geneial, .should the Commissioners determine that 
their offices .should not bo in the Capitol building; one acre to State Library 
and Ti-an.slator's office, should it be determined to separate them i'rom the 


State House building ; twent}^ acres for an Orphan Asylum ; ten acres for a 
Male Charity Hospital; ten acres for a Female Charity Hospital; four acres 
for an Asylum for the Blind; four acres for a Deaf and Dumb Asylum 
twenty acres for a Lunatic Asylum ; eight acres for four Common Schools 
twenty acres for a State University ; lour acres for a State Botanical Garden 
and twenty acres for a State Penitentiary. 

But with a munificence casting this already long list of grants into the 
shade, he further proposed to donate and pay over to the State, within two 
years after the acceptance of these propositions, the gigantic sum of three 
hundred and sevent}^ thousand dollars, to be apportioned in the following 
manner: For the building of a State Capitol, one hundred and twenty-five 
thousand dollars; for furnishing the same, ten thousand dollars; for building 
of the Governor's house, ten thousand dollars; for furnishing the same, five 
thousand dollars; for the building of State Library, and Translator's office, 
five thousand dollars; for a State Library five thousand dollars; for the 
building of the offices of the Secretary of State, Comptroller, Attorney- 
General, Surveyor-General and Treasurer, should the Commissioners deem it 
proper to separate them from the State House, twenty thousand dollars; for 
the building of an Orphan Asylum, twenty thousand dollars; for the 
building of a Female Charity Hospital, twenty thousand dollars; for the 
building of a Male Charity Hospital, twenty thousand dollars; for the 
building of an Asylum for the Blind, twenty thousand dollars; for the 
building of a Deaf and Dumb Asylum, twenty thousand dollars; for the 
building of a State University, twenty thousand dollars: for University 
Library, five thousand dollars; for scientific apparatus therefor, five thousand 
dollars; for chemical laboratory therefor, thiee thousand dollars; for a min- 
eral cabinet tlierefor, three thousand dollars; for the building of four com- 
mon school edifices, ten thousand dollars; for purchasing books for same, 
one thousand dollars; for the building of a Lunatic Asylum, twenty 
thousand dollars; for a State Penitentiary, twenty thousand dollars; for a 
State botanical collection, three thousand dollars. 

In his memorial, the General states with much lucidity his reasons for 
claiming the proud position for the place suggested as the proper site for the 
State Capital. Mark the singleness of purpose with which he bases these 
claims: — 

"Your memorialist, with this simple proposition (namely, that in the 
event of the government declining to accept his terms it should be put to 
the popular vote at the general election held in November of that year — 
1850), might stop here, did he not believe that his duty as a citizen of Cali- 
fornia required him to say thus much in addition — that he beheves the 
location indicated is the m.ost suitable for a permanent seat of government 
for the great State of California, for the following reasons: That it is the 
true center of the State, the true center of commerce, the true center of pop- 


Illation, and tlie true center of travel; that, while the Bay of San Francisco 
is acknowledged to be the first on the earth, in point of extent and naviga- 
ble capacities, already, throughout the length and breadth of the wide world 
it is acknowledged to be the very center between Asiatic and European 
commerce. The largest ship that sails upon the broad sea can, within three 
hours, anchor at the wharves of the place which your memorialist proposes 
as your permanent seat of government. Fi'om this point, by steam naviga- 
tion, there is a gfreater aefofi'esrate of mineral wealth within eiofht hours' steam- 
ing, than exists in the Union besides; from this point the great north and 
south rivers — San Joaquin and Sacramento — cut the State longitudinally 
through the center, fringing the immense gold deposits on the one hand, and 
untold mercury and othei* mineral resources on the other; from this poin^ 
steam navigation extends along the Pacific coast south to San Diego and 
north to the Oregon line, afibrdiug the quickest possible facilities for our sea- 
coast population to reach the State Capital in the fewest number of hours. 
This age, as it has been truly remarked, has merged distance into time. In 
the operations of commerce and the intercourse of mankind, to measure miles 
by the rod is a piece of vandalism of a by-gone age; and that point which 
can be approached from all pai'ts of the State in the fewest number of hours, 
and at the cheapest cost, is the truest center. 

"The location wdiich your memorialist proposes as the permanent seat of 
government is certainly that point. 

"Your memorialist most respectfully submits to your honorable body, 
whether there is not a ground of even still higher nationality; it is this: — 
that at present, throughout the wide extent of our sister Atlantic States, but 
one sentiment seems to possess the entire people, and that is, to build in the 
shortest possible time, a railroad from the Mississippi to the Bay of 
San Francisco, where its western terminus may meet a three weeks steamer 
from China. Indeed, such is the overwhelming sentiment of the American 
people upon this subject, there is but little doubt to apprehend its early 
completion. Shall it be said, then, while the w^orld is coveting our 
pos.session of what all acknowledge to be the half-way house of the earth's 
commerce — the great Bay of San Francisco — that the people of the rich 
possessions are so unmindful of its value as not to ornament her magnificent 
shores with a capital worthy of a great State?" 

Upon receipt of General Vallejo's memorial by the Senate, a committee 
composed of members who possessed a thorough knowledge of the country 
comprised in the above quoted document, both geographical and topographi- 
cal, were directed to report for the information of the President, upon the 
advantages claimed for the location of the capital at the Spot suggested in 
perference to others. The report in which the following w^ords occur, was 
presented to the Senate on April 2, 18r)0: — "Your committee cannot dwell 
with too much warmth upon the magnificent propositions contained in the 


memorial of (General Vallejo. They breathe throughout the spirit of an 
enlarged mind and a sincere public benefactor, for which he deserves the 
thanks of his countrymen and the admiration of the world. Such a proposi- 
tion looks more like the legacy of a mighty Emperor to his people than the 
free donation of a private planter to a great State, 3'et poor in public finance, 
but soon to be among the first of the earth." 

The repoit which was presented by Senator D. C. Broderick of San Fran- 
cisco, goes on to point out the necessities which should govern the choice of 
a site for California's capital, recapitulates the advantages pointed out in the 
memorial, and finally recommends the acceptance of General Vallejo's offer. 
This acceptance did not pass the Senate without some opposition and con- 
siderable delay; however, on Tuesday, February 4, 1851, a message was 
received from Governor Burnett, by his Private Secretary, Mr. Ohr, inform- 
ing the Senate that he did this day sign an Act originating in the Senate 
entitled "An Act to provide for the permanent location of the Seat of Gov- 
ernment. " In the meantime General Vallejo's bond had been accepted; his 
solvency was approved by a committee appointed by the Senate to inquire 
into that circumstance; the report of the commissioners sent to mark and lay 
out the tracts of land proposed to be donated was adopted, and, on May 1, 
1851, the last session of the Legislature at San Jose was completed; but the 
archives were not moved to the new seat of government at Vallejo then, the 
want of which was the cause of much dissatisfaction among the members. 

The Legislature first sat at Vallejo on January 5, 1852, but there was 
wanting the attraction of society which would appear to be necessary to the 
seat of every central government. With these Sacramento abounded, from 
her proximity to the mines. The Assembly therefore, with a unanimity 
bordering on the marvelous, passed a bill to remove the session to that city, 
ball tickets and theater tickets beincf tendered to the members in reckless 
profusion. The bill was transferred to the Senate and bitterly fought by the 
Hons. Paul K. Hubbs and Phil. A. Roach. The removal was rejected by one 
vote. This was on a Saturday, but never was the proverb of we " know not 
what the morrow may bring forth, " more fully brought to bear upon any 
consideration. Senator Anderson it is said passed a sleepless night, through 
the presence of unpleasant insects in his couch ; on the Monday morning he 
moved a reconsideration of the bill ; the alarm was sounded on every hand, 
and at 2 p. m. on January 12, 1852, the Government and Legislature were 
finding its way to Sacramento by way of the Carquinez Straits. On March 
7, 1852, a devastating flood overwhelmed Sacramento, and where they had 
before feared contamination, they now feared drowning. The Legislature 
adjourned at Sacramento May 4, 1852, the next session to be held at 
Vallejo. On January 3, 1853, the peripatetic government met again at 
Vallejo, whither had been moved in May, the archives and State offices. Once 
more the spirit of jealousy was rampant; Sacramento could not with any 


o-race ask for its removal back thither; but she, working with Benicia, the 
capital was once more on wheels and literally carted off to the latter town 
for the remaining portion of the session, Avhen a bill was passed to fix the 
capital of the State at Sacramento, and thereafter clinched by large appro- 
priations for building the present magnificent capitol there. The last sitting 
of the Legislature was held on February 4, 1853, when it was resolved to meet 
at Benicia on the 11th of the month, the vote then taken being as follows: 
j^yes — Messrs. Baird, Denver, Estill, Hager, Hubbs, Hudspeth, Keene, Lind, 
Lott, Lyons, McKibben, Roach, Smith, Snyder, Sprague, Wade, Wom- 
\,ough — 17. Nays — Crabb, Cofforth, Foster, Gruwell, Kalston, Walkup — G. 

But to return to our particular subject. During the first session at San 
Jose, but little was done beyond dividing the State into counties, and organ- 
izino- their governments. At this time, Robert Hopkins was elected District 
Judge and Assemblyman, J. E. Brackett, Major-General of the second divis- 
ion of militia. Mr. Hopkins, wlio with the Hon. George Pearce had been 
appointed a committee to visit the capital in order to prevent, if possible, 
the establishment of a boundary line which would include the Sonoma valley 
in Napa county, was a resident lawyer of Sonoma. On arrival at San Jose, 
the question of appointing a Judge for the Sonoma district was attracting 
attention, and the only candidate was W. R. Turner, who though a gentle- 
man of capabilities, did not reside there, and probably had never visited the 
spot. Pearce proposed to Hopkins to run for the office ; he allowed him-self 
to be put in nomination, and he beat Turner, who knew not of opposition, 
just as he was putting forth his hand to seize the prize. The vote was 
unanimous for Hopkins, and Turner received some other district. Thus we 
see how narrow was the escape which Sonoma had at the outset of receiving 
a District Judge, who was utterly unknown to her residents. Pearce went 
to San Jose for one purpose and accomplished another, while Hopkins came 
back a f ull-fiedged Judge of a most important district. 

The State of California was admitted into the Union on September 9, 1850, 
and on January G, 1851, the second Legislature met at San Jose. Martin E. 
Cook, at this session, represented the Eleventh Senatorial district, which was 
composed of the counties of Sonoma, Solano, Napa, Marin, Colusa, Yolo, and 
Trinity — in short all that territory west of the Sacramento river, while in 
the lower house, this county in conjunction with Napa, Marin, and Solano, 
were represented by John A. Bradford and A. Stearns. The census agent to 
the Legislature at this period reports the population of Sonoma county to 
be five hundred and sixty-one souls. 

We have elsewhere mentioned the establishment of the Court of Sessions; 
they held their first meeting in the county in 1850, the court being composed 
of A. A. Green, who was County Judge, and Charles Hudspeth and Peter 
Campljell, A.ssociates. In 1851 Judge Green died, when Martin E. Cook was 
appointed, but he declining to serve, W, O. King was chosen to fill the office, 
and he held one term of court. 


On September 3, 1851, the first gubernatorial election was held under the 
new order of things. In this contest, John Bigler, who received twenty -three 
thousand seven hundred and seventy-lour votes in the State, against twenty- 
two thousand seven hundred and thirty-three, got by P. B. Redding, his Whig 
opponent, had the assistance of that new power which had commenced to 
creep into the State, in the shape of the squatting element. He was demo- 
cratic in his manners, being "hale-fellow" with all. Not so his oppo- 
nent, who was a gentleman of more genteel bearing than the kind-hearted, 
unambitious, landless Governor, who was always mindful of his friends. 
Bigler, in all his messages, urged economy, but found it difficult to prevent 
an office being made for a friend. Tuthill remarks : "It was his pet project 
to unite the Southern and Western men of his party, and let the free-soilers 
shift for themselves; but it is not in that direction that party cleavage runs. 
The Southerners scorned the alliance. They were ' high-toned,' and looked 
down upon a Missoiirian, as little better than a man from Massachusetts. 
The Governor's project would not Avork. He carried water on both shoulders 
and spilt very little on either side." 

In November, 18.51, the Hon. C. P. Wilkins succeeded Judge Green in the 
position of County Judge; Israel Brockman was Sheriff, and Dr. John 
Hendley, County Clerk and Recorder. In 1852, on July 8th, we find the 
first record of proceedings of the Court of Session extant among the county 
archives, when the Judge, C. P. Wilkins, and his associates, Peter Campbell 
and J. M. Miller, were present, with J. Hendley, Clerk, and J. A. Reynolds, 
Under Sherifi", assembled to impanel a Grand Jury. These were : W. D. 
Kent, J. D. George, Alexander Spect, Samuel Havens, H. N. Ryder, Josiah 
Wilkins, James Crenshaw, J. P. Thrasher, A. C. Hollingshead, J. W. Davis, 
George Smith, Arnold Hutton, Edward Beasley, George Edgerton, John 
Smith, Benjamin Mitchell, H. L. Kamp, J. M. Gilliland, Robert Anderson, 
George B. Farrar, Hosea Norris, and Leonard Dodge. On October 3d, Phil. 
R. Thompson and A. C. Godwin were appointed Associate Justices, in place 
of the two gentlemen mentioned above, whose terms had expired. 

The first Board of Supervisors for the county met at Sonoma on July 5, 
1852, and took charge of those affairs not coming within the immediate duties 
of the Court of Sessions. The members were D. O. Shattuck, who was called 
upon to fill the distinguished position of Chairman, William A. Hereford of 
Santa Rosa district, Leonard P. Hanson, and James Singley. At the Presiden- 
tial election in the Fall of this year, E. W. McKinstry was elected District 
Judge; J. M. Hudspeth, Senator; H. S. Ewing and James McKamy, 

In the year 1853, we find that the late General Joe Hooker, then a resident 
of Sonoma, was elected to the post of Road Overseer, and that Washington 
township was created and a polling precinct- established at the store of A. C. 
Goodwin, which occupied a position on the site of the present town of Gey- 


seTville. The Democratic Convention met this year at Santa Rosa, and nom- 
inated Jo>' Hooker and Lindsay Carson for the Assembly, and a full county 
ticket. Tlie Settlers' Convention, met on August Gth and nominated a full 
count V ticket, headed l)y James N. Bennett and Judge Robert Hopkins for 
the Assi'inbly. When the election day arrived, September 7th, — Carson was 
elected to the Legislature and Bennett and Hooker were equal. The remo- 
val of the county seat from Sonoma to Santa Rosa did not enter largely into 
the first contest though such a change was openly discussed; in the second 
heat the election of either Bennett or Hooker hinged directly on the issue. 
The election came off on October 29th, and Bennett, who lived in and was 
sponser for Bennett valley, beat Hooker, a resident of Sonoma, by thirteen 
votes. Linlsav Carson resigned before the meeting of the Legislature, therefore 
another special election was had which resulted in the return, on the 23d, 
December of W. B. Hagans, who was opposed by James Singley and Joseph 
W. Beldeu. 

The stoi y of the removal of the county seat, will be found fully set forth 
in the liistory of Santa Rosa township. From that date onwards the county 
progressed in eveiy branch of public interest. 

The first full record of election which we have been able to find in the 
county archives was that held in the month of November, 1856, and is as 
follows: — 

For Presidential Electors, A. C.Bradford, 1519 votes; For member of Con- 
gress, Charles L. Scott, 1456 votes; For Clerk of Supreme Court, C. S. Fair- 
fax, 1481 votes; For State Superintendent of Public Instruction, J. J. Hol- 
der, 1481 votes; For Prison Director, Moses Arms, 330 votes; For Senator, 
A. \V. Talieferro, 1088 votes; For members of Assembly, Uriah Edwards^ 
1357 votes, and Richard Harrison, 1152 votes: For County Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, Edward Fisher, 1134 votes; For County Assessor, S. 
D. Towne, 1106 votes; Amendments to Constitution — Yes, 169; No; 0. 

While on the subject of votes, let us here produce, as a matter of curiosity 
the vote taken in regard to the proposed railroad on May 9, 1868: Clover- 
dale to Marin county, 2092; Cloverdale to Vallejo, Solano county, 1589: 
Donahue, Yes, 3166; Donahue, No, 429; Cloverdale to Petaluma, 3. 

In conclusion of this portion of our work we now come to the greatest 
political act of late years, namely, the order for a new Constitution and its 
passage by an immense majority throughout the State. 

It was found that the provisions in regard to taxation and property were 
of too vague a nature to be allowed to hold at this period of progress. At the 
time w^hen the old constitution was framed in Monterey, it was never con- 
templated that the State would be ever anything but a purely mining coun- 
try; and as each mining .section had its own local laws, more distinct terms 
in regard to what was legally meant by property and taxable property, were 
not thought to be necessary. At last the day came when a decision of the 


^ * 

/^ < c^?'~> 

ai>^-^^^ (^ 




Supreme Court ruled that credits are not property in the sense in which the 
word property is used in Section 13 of Article XI of the Constitution, and, 
cannot be assessed for taxes, or taxed as property, even if secured by mort- 
gage. (The People vs. Hibernian Bank, Cal. Reports, 51). 

The popular voice became clamorous on this decision for a change of rule ; 
and though having been before mooted, and successfully balked by former 
sessions of the Legislature, an Act to provide for a convention to frame 
a new Constitution for the State of California was approved March 
30, 1878; and by a proclamation of the Governor an election throughout 
the county of Sonoma was ordered to be held on June 19, 1878, 
for the purpose of electing delegates to a Constitutional Convention, 
to meet at Sacramento on September 28th. Thirty-two delegates were 
to be elected by the State at large, of whom not more than eight 
should be residents of any one Congressional district. The Conven- 
tion duly met at the State capital, and after much labor framed the new 
Constitution. The election for the adoption or rejection caused a deep- 
seated feeling throughout the length and breadth of our land, and for months 
the country was in a perfect ferment; at last the 7th of May arrived; the 
following morning the news was flashed from west to east and north to 
south of the adoption of California's new organic law. Under its provisions 
the new order of ofiicers were elected on [September 4, 1879, and now 

nothing but time can solve the riddle as to its working. 





In glancing at the heading of this chapter we must ask the reader not to 
indulge in the vain hope that a full history of the grants comprised within 
the limits of what is now known as Sonoma county will be found; such, 
indeed, would be beyond the limits of this work even had we at hand the 
infinity of resourses to be found in the hundreds of cases which have arisen 
out of them. Our compilation must of necessity be accepted in its crude 
state. We have striven to our utmost capability to produce some informa- 
tion which would combine both usefulness and correctness, and to this end 
have relied chiefly on the information contained in a legal work on whose title- 
page is the legend: " Reports of Land Cases determined in the United States 
District Court for the Northern District of California. June Term 1853 to 
June Term 1858 inclusive, by Ogden Hoffman, District Judge; San Fran- 
cisco; Numa Hubert, Publisher, 1862." This valuable work has been most 
kindly and considerately placed at our disposal by Judge Jackson Temple of 
the Twenty-second Judicial District of California. The first case we find on 
page 78 of Vol. 1 : — 

The United States, ^j^e/^cn/^s, vs. Johnson Horrell, claiming the Ran - 
cho Musalacon.—^This was a claim for two leagues of land in Sonoma county, 
situated in Cloverdale township, confirmed by the Board of Commissioners, 
and appealed by the United States. The claimants in this case produced the 
original grant made by Governor Pio Pico to Francisco Berryesa on May 2, 
1846. The record of the approval of the concession by the Departmental 
Assembly was dated June 3, 1846. No doubt is suggested as to the genuine- 
ness of any of these documents. The grantee appears within the year pre- 
scribed by the grant to have entered into possession of his land and to have 
resided in a wooden house built by him upon it. He also placed upon it 
cattle, and commenced its cultivation. There is no difficulty in identifying 
and locating the land by means of the description in the grant and the map 
to which it refers, and which is contained in the expediente. The Commis- 
sioneis in their opinion on this case observe " that although the title was 
executed but a short time before the American occupation, it appears to have 


been made in good faith and with due regard to the requirements of the 
law. " The decision of the Board was affirmed and a decree entered accord- 
ingly. On page 80 of the Appendix we find: " Johnson Horrell e^ al., 
claimants for Rincon do Musalacon, two square leagues, in Mendocino and 
Sonoma counties, granted May 2, 1846, by Pio Pico to Francisco Berryesa; 
claim filed February 11, 1858, confirmed by the Commission December 
12, 1854, by the District Court, January 14, 1856, and appeal dismissed April 
2, 1857; containing 8,866.88 acres. 

The United States, Appellants, vs Thomas S. Page, claiming the Rancho 
Cota^e.— This claim which was for four leagues of land in Sonoma county 
situated partly in Vallejo and partly in Santa Rosa townships, was confirmed 
by the Board, and appealed by the United States. In this case the original 
grant was not produced, but its existence and loss are proved beyond all 
reasonable doubt by the depositions of the witnesses and the production of 
the expediente from the archives containing the usual documents, and also 
a certificate of approval by the departmental assembly. The grant is also 
mentioned in the index of grants by the former government. No doubt was 
entertained by the commissioners as to the sufficiency of the proofs on these 
points, nor is any objection raised in the district court in regard to them. 
The evidence discloses a full compliance with the conditions, and the descrip- 
tion in the grant and map determines its locality. No objection is raised 
on the part of the appellants to the. confirmation of this claim, and on look- 
ing over the transcript the court did not perceive any reason to doubt its 
entire validity. Page 48 of the Appendix tells us: " Tiiomas S. Page, claim- 
ant for Cotate, four square leagues in Sonoma C(;unty, granted July 7, 1844, 
by Manuel Micheltorena to Juan Castaiieda; claim filed September 21, 1852, 
confirmed by the Commission August 27, 1854, by the District Court Jan- 
uary 14, 1856, and appeal dismissed March 21, 1857, containing ; 17,238.60 
acres. Patented. " 

The United States, Appellants, vs. Juan Wilson, claiming the Rancho 
Guiiicos. — ■" Claim for a tract of land, supposed to contain four leagues, in 
Sonoma county, situated in Santa Rosa and Sonoma Townships, confirmed 
by the Board, and appealed by the United States. The claim in this case 
was confirmed by the Board. No doubt is suggested as to the authenticity 
of the documentary evidence submitted, and the only point upon which a 
question was made was whether the grant and map accompanying it suffi- 
ciently indicate the granted land — there being no designation of the quantity 
or number of leagues in the original grant. The grant bears date Novem- 
ber 13, 1839, but was not issued until the 20th. The signature of the Gov- 
enor to the original grant is fully proved, and the expediente produced from 
the archives containing the proceedings upon the petition, the various orders 
of the Governor, and the decree of approval by the Departmental Assembly. 


The requirements of the regulations of 1828 seein to l)ave been substantially 
complied with, and the land cultivated and inhabited within reasonable 
time. With regard to locating the tract, there seems to be no difficulty. 
The grant describes it as the parcel of land kn )wn by the name of " Guilicos, " 
within the boundaries shown in the map which accompanies the petition. 
On inspecting the map, those boundaries appear to be indicated with tolerable 
certainty, and it is presumed that by means of it no practical difficulty will 
be found by the surveyor in laying off to the claimant his land. A decree 
of c jnfirmation must therefore be entered. " Page 5, of the Appendix says: 
" Juan Wilson, claimant for Guilicos, four square leagues, in Sonoma county, 
granted November 13, 1839, by Juan B. Alvara lo to John Wilson; claim 
filed February 10, 1852, confirmed by the Commission December 27, 1853; 
by the District Court March 8, 1856, and appeal dismissed December 8, 
1856; containing, 18,833.86 acres." Patented. 

The United States, Appellants, vs. Antonia Cazares, claiming the 
Rancho Canada de Pogolome. — " Claim for two leagues of land situated in 
Marin (and Sonoma) county, in Bodega and Analy townshi|)S, confirmed by 
the Board, and appealed by the United States." It appears Irom the document- 
ary evidence in this case that James Dawson, the deceased husband of the 
present claimant, on December 27, 1837, presented a petition to the com- 
manding General, setting forth that he, together with Mcintosh and one 
Jamc- Black, had obtained a grant for the place called "La Punta del Estero 
del Americano ;" that he had built a house upon it, and planted a large vine- 
yard and an orchard with more than two hundred fruit trees, and had placed 
upon it cattle, horses, etc. He further represented that the grant had baen 
obtained in partnership with the two persons mentioned, but that Mcintosh 
was attempting to eject him. He therefore prayed that he might be pro- 
tected in his rights. 

The petitioner, though he had long resided in the country, does not appear 
to have been naturalized at the time of making this petition, but the docu- 
ments show that letters of naturalization were obtained by him on December 
29, 1841. 

On September 18, 1843, he renewed his application to be put in possession 
of the land, and the Governor, to whom this second petition was addressed, 
referred it to the Secretary for information. By the reports of that officer it 
appears, that although the petition for the land had baen in the name of the 
three applicants, yet the grant had been made to Mcintosh solely, as he 
alone possessed the essential requisite of being a naturalized Mexican citizen. 
The Secretary therefore suggests that, although the request of Dawson cannot 
be granted, yet inasmuch as he had since been naturalized, and had married a 
Mexican woman, his application for another piece of land should be favorably 


The Governor, in accordance with this suorgestion, on October 21, 1843, 
ordered the proceedings to be returned to the party interested for his infor- 
mation. It is presumed that it was in this way that these documents came 
into the parties' possession, and are not now found among the archives. 

It does not appear that Dawson petitioned for a grant before his death, 
which occurred very soon after; but a grant is produced in which it is recited 
that his widow, the present claimant, has sufficiently proved the right of 
her deceased husband to petition for the land which she then occupied, and 
in consideration of the great losses sustained by her husband on separating 
himself from Mcintosh, and the favorable reports, etc., the Governor grants to 
her the land solicited, known by the name of the " Canada de Pogolome," to 
the extent of two square leagues, a little more or less. 

It is this land which is now claimed by the appellee. This grant was 
issued on February 12, 1844, and it appears to have been approved by the 
Departmental Assembly, on September 26, 1845. The genuineness of the 
above documents is fully proved, and it is also shown that the land was long 
occupied by Dawson before his decease, and since then by the present claim- 

Although the expediente for this grant is not among the archives, yet, as 
observed by the Commissioners, " its notoriety, the long possession, and the 
circumstances surrounding it, relieve it from any suspicion of fraud or 

The boundaries, as well as the extent of the land, are specified in I he 
grant, and indicated with evident precision on the map to which it refos. 
We think, therefore, that the claim is valid and ought to be confirmed." 

Of this case, page 3, of the Appendix says: "Antonia Cazares, claimant 
for Canada de Pogolome, two square leagues, in Marin and Sonoma counties, 
granted February 12, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to Antonia Cazares; 
claim filed February 3, 1852, confirmed by the Commission April 11, 1853. 
by the District Court, March 24, 1856, and appeal dismissed December 8, 
1856, containing 8,780.81 acres." 

The United States, Appellants^ vs. Joaquin Carrillo, claiming the 
Rancho Llano de Santa Bosa — Claim for three leagues of land in Sonoma 
county (situated in Santa Rosa and Analy townships), confirmed by the 
Board, and appealed by the United States. 

"It appears from the expediente in this case that the claimant, on June 
22, 1843, petitioned Governor Micheltorena for a grant of land on the plain 
adjoining the rancho of his mother. The Governor, however, suspended 
action on the subject, as no judicial measurement had been made of the 
adjoining ranchos, and the extent of the sobrante or surplus reserved was 
not ascertained. 

" On March 12, 1844, the claimant applied to the Alcalde of the district 


for permission to sow, and build a house upon the land, during the pendency 
of his application to the Governor for a grant. The Alcalde granted him 
leave to sow the land, holding himself responsible to the owners of the lands 
if there should be any damage, but he refused him permission to build the 

"On March 26, 1844, the claimant renewed his application to the Gov- 
ernor, stating that his petition still remained unacted upon on account of the 
neglect of the colindantes or adjoining proprietors to have their lands 
measured according to law. 

" The Secretary, to whom this second petition was referred, reported favor- 
ably to it, and advised a grant of not more than three square leagues, sub- 
ject to the measurements of the adjoining proprietors. 

" In accordance with this report the grant now produced was made ; and 
it appears in evidence that he built, first, a small house, and afterwards 
a very large one on the land, on which he has continued ever since to 
reside. He has also cultivated from one to three hundred acres of it with 
corn, barley, wdieat, etc. 

" The handwriting of the grant in the possession of the party is fully 
proved, and there seems no reason to doubt the entire validity of this claim. 

'• The map and the designation in the grant of the colindantes or con- 
terminous owners abundantly show the locality of the tract granted; and 
the claimants title to the land solicited must be confirmed to the extent of 
three leagues, subject to the measurement of the land previousl}^ granted to 
the colindantes. The decision of the Board must, therefore, be affirmed." 

In reference to this case we find on page 35 of the appendix, " Joaquin 
Carrillo, claimant for Llano de Santa Rosa, three square leagues, in Sonoma 
county, granted March 29, 1844, by Manuel Michel torena to Marcus West; 
claim filed May 31, 1852, confirmed by the commmission October 21, 1853, 
by the District Court, March 24, 1856, and appeal dismissed January 13, 
1857, containing 13,o3G.55 acres." 

Thk Uniticd States, Airpellants, vs. John B. R. Cooper, claimmg the 
Rancho El Molino. — Claim four leagues of land in Sonoma county 
(situated in Santa Rosa, Analy and Russian River townships), confirmed by 
the Board, and appealed by the United States. 

" The claimant in this case, a naturalized Mexican citizen, obtained in 
December, 1833, a grant from the Governor for the place called Rio 
Ayoska. This grant was approved by the Departmental Assembly, and a 
certificate of its confiimation delivered to the grani-ee, as appears from the 
testimony, and tiie expcdiente filed in this case. 

"Hesubsofjuently a[)i)ealed to the Governor ibr an exchange of the land 
granted for that now claimed by him. Proceedings on this application were 
eommenc(Hl by Governor Figueroa, and the new grant was made, as desired 
by the petitioner, by Governor Gutierrez, on February 24, 1836. 


"These facts are proved by the testimony of Hartnell and Vallejo, whose 
evidence is corroborated by the expediente on file in the archives. 

"The genuineness of the grant is fully established. 

" Previously to obtaining the last grant, the claimant had gone into possess 
ion of the tract solicited, and had built a house upon it. He also had, as 
early as 1834, placed a considerable number of cattle upon it, and had com- 
menced the erection of a mill, upon which he expended more than ten 
thousand dollars. He also erected a blacksmith shop, and for two years had 
employed upon his rancho men to the average number of sixteen, and 
sometimes thirty or forty Indians. 

" It is clear that the grantee fulfilled the conditions and carried out the 
objects of the colonization laws to an extent very unusual in the then condi- 
tion of the country. 

"With regard to the location of the land, it appears from the testimony of 
O'Farrell and other witnesses, who are acquainted with the adjacent coun- 
try, that there is no difficulty in ascertaining its locality by means of the 
diseno which accompanies the grant. O'Farrell, who had long been a sur- 
veyor under the Mexicans, testifies that he has, by means of the grant and 
the diseno, made a survey of the land, and that it contains, as surveyed by 
him, only the quantity specified in the grant. 

"The claim was held to be valid by the Board. No objections to it are sug- 
gested on the part of the United States, and we are of opinion that the deci- 
sion of the Board should be affirmed." 

Page 27 of the Appendix, in regard to this grant, remarks: " John B. 
R. Cooper claimant for El Molino or Rio Ayoska, ten-and-one-half square 
leagues, in Sonoma county, granted December 31, 1833 by Josd Figueroa, 
February 24, 1836, by Nicholas Gutierrez, to J. B. R. Cooper; claimed filed 
April 20, 1852, confirmed by the Commission November 14, 1854, by the 
District Court March 24, 1856, and appeal dissmissed December 15, 1856; 
containing 17,892, 42 acres. Patented." 

The United States, Appellants, vs. Jacob P. Leese, claiming the Rancho 
Huichica.- — Claim for five leagues of land in Sonoma county, (situated in 
Sonoma Township.) confirmed by the Board and appealed by the United 

"The claimant in this case obtained on October 21, 1841, a grant from 
Manuel Jimeno, acting Governor of California, for two square leagues of 
land, as designated on the map which accompanied his petition. Juridical 
possession was given of the tract as delineated on the map, but the extent 
of land measured to him largely exceeded the quantity mentioned in the 
grant. He thereupon petitioned for an augmentation, and on July 6, 1844, 
he obtained from Governor Micheltorena an additional grant for three and 
one-half leagues, making in all five leagues and a half. The proofs show that 


as early as 1839, the land was occupied, and a house built upon it. The 
grantee also placed there cattle and horses, and cultivated about two hundred 
acres of land. He has ever since continued to occupy it. 

"The authenticity of the grant is shown by proof of the genuineness of the 
sio-natures, and the production of the expediente from the archives of the 
foi-nier government. The claim was confirmed by the Board, and no objec- 
tions to it are suggested in this Court. A decree of confirmation must there- 
fore be entered. " 

We find on page 23 of the Appendix the following: "Jacob P. Leese, 
claimant for Huichaca, two square leagues, in Sonoma county, granted Octo- 
ber 26, 1841, by Manuel Jiraeno, and July 6, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena, 
to J P. Leese; claim filed April 6, 1852, confirmed by the Commission April 
18, 1853, by the District Court, April 22, 1856, and appeal dismis.sed 
December 24, 1856; containing 18,704,04 acres. Patented." 

Mariano G. Vallejo, claiming the Rancho Yulupa, vs. the United 
States. — Claim for three leagues of land in Sonoma county, rejected by the 
Board, and appealed by the claimant. 

" The claimant in this case has produced the original grant by Governor 
Micheltorena to Miguel Alvai'ado, dated November 23, 1844. 

"This grant was approved by the Departmental Assembly on February 
18, 1845. 

"The genuineness of the grant is fully proved, and the occupation of and 
the cultivation of a portion of the land established by testimony. The claim 
was rejected by the Board for the reason that the tract granted was not segre- 
gated from the public domain. 

The land is described in the grant as known by the name of Yulupa, and 
bounded by the ranchos of Petaluma, Cotate, Santa Rosa and Los Guilicos. 
Jasper O'Farrell, who was a government surveyor in 1847, and 1848, and 
as such surveyed several ranchos in the vicinity, states that he knows the 
latter well, and that the Rancho Yulupa is situated between them ; that it is 
near the town of Sonoma, and can easily be segregated from the adjoining 
ranchos. Julio Carrillo testifies that he has known the lands of Yulupa since 
1838; and that it li(s between the ranchos of "Petaluma," "Cotate," "Santa 
Rosa," and "Guilicos;" that it contains about three leagues and is well known. 
The witness further states that Alvarado built a house on the land, and occu- 
pied it with cattle and horses in 1843 or 1844. 

The evidence of these and other witnesses whose testimony has been taken 
in this Court on appeal, sufficiently, in my opinion, establishes the identity 
of the land, granted to Alvarado, and removes the only objection urged to a 
confirmation of the claim. A decree of confirmation must therefore be 

On page 35 of the Appendix it is recorded: "Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo 


claimant for Yulupa, three square leagues, in Sonoma county, granted 
November 23, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to Miguel Alvarado; claim filed 
May 81, 1852, rejected by the Commission May 10, 1854; confirmed by 
the District Court January 21, 1857; decree reversed by the United States 
Supreme Court and cause remanded for further evidence. 

So far unfortunately do these cases go, we are, therefore, constrained 
to proceed to what information can be gleaned out of the Appendix, from 
which the following quotations are taken : — 

Archibald A. Ritchie, claimant for Guenoc, six square leagues, in Sonoma 
county, granted May 8, 1845, by Pio Pico to George Rock; claim filed Janu- 
ary 27, 1852; confirmed by the Commission December 18, 1852, and 
appeal dismissed December 15, 1856 ; containing 21,220.03 acres. Vide page 
8, Appendix Hoffinan's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Josefa Carrillo Fitch et al., claimants for Sotoyome, eight square leagues, 
in Sonoma and Mendocino counties (situated in Mendocino and Russian 
River townships), granted September 28, 1841, by Manuel Micheltorena to 
Henry D. Fitch; claim filed February 2, 1852, confirmed by the Commission 
April 18, 1853, and appeal dismissed November 17, 1857; containing 48,836.51 
acres. Patented. Vide page 3, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Stephen Smith and Manuela T. Curtis, claimants for Bodega, eight square 
leagues, in Sonoma county (situated in Bodega and Ocean townships), granted 
September 14, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to Stephen Smith; claim filed 
February 9, 1852, confirmed by the Commission February 21, 1853, by the 
District Court July 5, 1855, and appeal dismissed April 2, 1857; containing 
35,487.53 acres. Patented. Vide page 4, App. Hofi"m-an's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Stephen Smith, claimant for Blucher, six square leagues in Sonoma county 
(situated in Analy township), granted October 14, 1844, by Manuel Michel- 
torena to Jua,n Vioget; claim filed February 9, 1852; confirmed by the 
Commission October 31, 1854, by the District Court January 26, 1857, and 
appeal dismissed November 24, 1856; containing 22,976.66 acres. Vide page 
4, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Archibald A. Ritchie and Paul S. Forbes, claimants for Callayome, three 
square leagues in Sonoma county granted January 17, 1845, by Manuel 
Micheltorena to Robert F. Ridley; claim filed February 12, 1852 ; confirmed 
by the Commission December 22, 1852, and appeal dismissed December 8, 
1856 ; containing 8,241.74 acres. Vide page 6. Appendix Hoffman's Reports 
Vol. 1. 

Manuel Torres, claimant for Muniz, four square leagues in Mendocino 
county (now Sonoma, situated in Ocean and Salt Point townships), granted 
December 4, 1845, by Pio Pico to Manuel Torres; claim filed February 17, 
1852 ; confirmed by the Commission December 27, 1853, by the District 
Court, October 17, 1855, and appeal dismissed May 7, 1857; containing 


17,700.75 acres. Patented. Vide page 7, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, 
Vol. 1. 

Bartolome Bojorquez, claimant for Laguna de San Antonio, six square 
leao-ues in Marin county (a great part in Sonoma county, Potaluma town- 
ship), granted November 5, 1845, by Pio Pico to B. Bojorquez; claim filed 
February 17, 1852; confirmed by the Commission October 12, 1853, by the 
District Court September 10, 1855, and appeal dismissed November 24, 
1856 ; containing 24,903.42 acres. Vide page 7, Appendix Hofiman's 
Reports, Vol. 1. 

Thomas B. Valentine, claimant for Arroyo de San Antonio, three square 
leagues in Marin county (partly in Sonoma county, Petaluma township), 
granted October 8, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to Juan Miranda; claim 
filed February 17, 1852, and discontinued February G, 1855. Not confirmed. 
Vide page 7, Appendix Hofiman's Reports, Vol. 1 ; and History of Petaluma 
township in this work. 

Jose de los Santos Berryesa, claimant for Sefio de Malacomes or Moristal 
y Plan de Agua Caliente, four leagues in Sonoma county (situated in 
Knight's Valley township), granted October 14, 1843, by Manuel Michel- 
torena to J. de los Santos Berryesa; claim filed February 20, 1852; con- 
firmed by the Commission June 27, 1854, by the District Court December 
24, 185G, and appeal dismissed November 24, 1856; containing 12,540.22 
acres. Vide page 9, Appendix Hofiman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Lovett P. Rockwell and Thomas P. Knight, claimants for portion of Mala- 
comes or Moristal, No. 58, two square leagues in Sonoma county (situated 
in Knight's Valley township), granted October 14, 1843, by Manuel Michel- 
torena to Jos^ de los Santos Berryesa; claim filed February 20, 1852; con- 
firmed by the Commission, August 29, 1854, and appeal dismissed November 
24, 1856 ; containing 8,328.85 acres. Vide page 9, Appendix Hofiman's 
Reports, Vol. 1. 

David Wright et at., claimant for Roblar de la Miseria, four square leagues 
in Sonoma county (situated in Petaluma township), granted November 21, 
1845, by Pio Pico to Juan Nepomasena Padillo ; claim filed February 24, 
1852 ; confirmed by the Commission February 14, 1853, by the District 
Court September 10, 1855, and appeal dismissed December 8, 1856; con- 
taining 16,887.45 acres. Patented. Vide page 10, Appendix Hofiman's 
Reports, Vol. 1. 

Jasper O'Farrell, claimant for Canada de la Jonive, two square leagues in 
Sonoma county (situated in Analy and Bodega townships), granted February 
5, 1845, by Pio Pico to James Black; claim filed March 2, 1852; confirmed 
by the Commission April 18, 1853, by the District Court, July 16, 1855, and 
appeal dismissed December 22, 1856; containing 10,786.51 acres. Patented. 
Vide page 12, Appendix Hofi'man's Reports, Vol. 1. 


M. G. Vallejo, claimant for lot 150 by 130 varas, in Sonoma city, granted 
July 5, 1835, by Josd Figueroa to M. G. Vallejo; claim filed March 30, 1852; 
confirmed by the Commission January 17, 1854, by the District Court Feb- 
ruary 18, 1856, and appeal dismissed February 23, 1857 ; containing 
3.81 acres. Vjide page 19, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. The patent 
for this propert} is on record. 

Jasper O'Farrell, claimant for Estero Americano^ two square leagues in 
Sonoma county (situated in Bodega township), granted September 4, 1839 
by Manuel Jimeno to Edward Manuel Mcintosh; claim filed March 30, 
1852 ; confirmed by the Commission April 11, 1853, and appeal dismissed 
February 2, 1857 ; containing 8,849.13 acres. Patented. Vide page 19, 
Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Charles Mayer et al., claimants for German, five square leagues in Mendo- 
cino county (now Sonoma county, and situated in Salt Point township), 
granted April 8, 1846, by Pio Pico to Ernest Rufus; claim filed April 27, 
1852, confirmed by the commission December 22, 1852, by the District 
Court, September 10, 1855, and by the United States Supreme Court; con- 
taining 17,580.01 acres. Vide page 28, App. Hofiinan's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Mayor and Common Council of Sonoma, claimants for Pueblo of Sonoma, 
four square leagues, granted June 24, 1885, by M. G. Vallejo to Pueblo of 
Sonoma; claim filed May 21, 1852, and confirmed by the Com uiission Jan- 
uary 22, 1856. Vide page 33, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, claimant for Petaluma, ten square leagues, in 
Sonoma county (situated in Vallejo and Sonoma townships), granted Octo- 
ber 22, 1843, by Manuel Micheltorena to II G. Vallejo, (grant) and five 
square leagues, June 22, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to M. G. Vallejo 
(sale by Government); claim filed May 31, 1852, confirmed by the Com- 
mission, May 22, 1855, by the District Court, March 16, 1857, and appeal 
dismissed July 3, 1857; containing 66,622.17 acres. Vide page 35, App. 
Hoffmann's Reports, Vol. 1. "Patented. 

Guadalupe Vasquez de West et al., claimants for San Miguel, six square 
leagues, in Sonoma county (situated in Santa Rosa township), granted Nov- 
vember 2, 1840, by Juan B. Alvarado, and October 14, 1844, by Manuel 
Micheltorena to Marcus West; claim filed May 31, 1852, rejected by the 
Commission April 24, 1855, confirmed by the District Court, June 2, 1857, 
and decree confirmed by the United States Supreme Court for one league 
and a half. Vide page 35, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

J. Jesus Peha et al., heirs of J. G. Pena, claimants for Tzabaco, four 
square leagues, in Sonoma county (situated in Mendocino and Washington 
townships), granted October 14, 1843, by Manuel Micheltorena to Jos^ Ger- 
man Pefia; claim filed August 5, 1852, confirmed by the Commission June 
26, 1855, by the District Court, March 9, 1857, and appeal dismissed Apr 


2, 1857; containing 15,439.32 acres. Patented. Vide page 41, Appendix 
Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1 

William Forbes, claimant for La Laguna de los Gentiles or Caslarnayonie, 
eight square leagues in Sonoma county (situated in Cloverdale and Wash- 
ington townships), granted March 20, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to 
Euf^enio Montenegro; claim filed September 7, 1852, and rejected by the 
Commission, September 20, 1854. Vide page 45, App. Hoffman's Reports 
Vol. 1. 

John Hendley et al., claimants for Llano de Santa Rosa, one square league, 
in Sonoma count}- (situated in Santa Rosa township), granted March 20, 
1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to Joaquin Cavrillo ; claim filed December 24, 
1852, rejected by the Counnission January 23, 1855, and appeal dismissed 
for failure of prosecution April 21, 1850. Vide page 08, App. Hoffman's 
Reports, Vol. 1. 

Jacob P. Leese, claimant for Lac, 1,000 varas square, in Sonoma county, 
granted July 25, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to Damaso Rodriguez ; claim 
filed February 21, 1853, confirmed by the Commission December 12, 1854, 
and by the District Court December 28, 1857, and appeal dismissed Decem- 
ber 28, 1857. Vide page 84, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. Patented. 

Julio Carrillo, claimant for part of Cabeza de Santa Rosa, in Sonoma 
county (situated in Santa Rosa township), granted September 30, 1841, by 
Manuel Jimeno to Maria Ygnacia Lopez; filed February 28, 1853; con- 
firmed by the Commission April 4, 1854; by the District Court, March 2, 
1857, and appeal dismissed March 27, 1857; containing 4,500.42 acres. 
Vide page 88, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. Patented. 

Jacob R. Mayer et al., claimants for part of Cabeza de Santa Rosa, in 
Sonoma county (situated in Santa Rosa township), granted September 30, 
1841, by Manuel Jimeno, to Maria Ygnacia Lopez ; claim filed February 28, 
1853 ; confirmed by the Commission April 4, 1854, by the District Court 
March 2, 1857, and appeal dismissed March 27, 1857; containing 1,484.82 
acres. Vide page 88, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

James Eldridge, claimant for part of Cabeza de Santa Rosa, in Sonoma 
county (situated in Santa Rosa township); granted September 30, 1841, by 
Manuel Jimeno, to Maria Ygnacia Lopez; claim filed February 28,1853; 
confirmed by the Commission April 4, 1854; by the District Court March 2, 
1857, and appeal dismissed March 27, 1857 ; containing 1,607.68 acres. Vide 
page 88, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Felicidad Carrillo, claimant for part of Cabeza de Santa Rosa, in Sonoma 
county (situated in Santa Rosa township) ; granted September 30, 1841, by 
Manuel Jimeno to Maria Ygnacia Lopez ; claim filed February 28, 1853 ; 
confirmed by the Commission, April 4, 1854, and by the District Court, 
March 2. 1857. Vide page 88, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 


Juan de Jesus Mallagh, claimant for part of Cabeza de Santa Rosa, in 
Sonoma county, (situated in Santa Rosa township) ; granted September 30, 
1841, by Manuel Jimeno to Maria Ygnacia Lopez ; claim filed February 28 
1853; confirmed by the Commission April 4, 1854, and by the District 
Court March 2, 1857, and appeal dismissed March 27, 1857 ; containing 
256.16 acres. Vide page 88, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Martin E. Cook et al., claimants for part of Malacomes or Moristal, two 
miles square, in Sonoma county, (situated in Knight's valley township) ; 
granted October, 1843, by Manuel Michtltorena to Jose de los Santos Ber- 
ryesa; claim filed February 28, 1853; confirmed by the Commission August 
7,1855, and appeal dismissed April 16,1857; containing 2,559.94 acres. 
Patented. Vide page 90, App, Hofiman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

John Hendley, claimant for part of Cabeza de Santa Rosa, one mile square, 
in Sonoma county (situated in Santa Rosa township) ; granted September 
30, 1841, by Manuel Jimeno to Maria Ygnacia Lopez; claim filed February 
28, 1853 ; confirmed by the Commission December 19, 1854; by the District 
Court March 2, 1857, and appeal dismissed March 27, 1857 ; containing 
640.19 acres. Vide page 90, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Joseph Hooker, claimant for part of Agua Caliente, in Sonoma county, 
(situated in Sonoma township); granted July 13, 1840, by Juan B. Alvarado 
to Lazaro Pena ; claim filed March 2, 1853 ; confirmed by the Commission 
April 24, 1855 ; by the District Court March 2, 1857, and appeal dismissed 
March 27, 1857, containing 550.86 acres. Vide page 100, Hoffman's Reports, 
Vol. 1. Patented. 

Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, claimant for Agua Caliente, in Sonoma 
county, (situated in Sonoma township); granted July 13, 1840, by Juan B. 
Alvarado to Lazaro Pena; claim filed March 2, 1853; rejected by the Com- 
mission December, 1855, and by the District Court, July 13, 1859. Vide 
page 100, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Thaddeus M. Leavenworth, claimant for part of Ague Caliente, in Sonoma 
county (situated in Sonoma township), granted July 13, 1840, by Juan B, 
Alvardo to Lazaro Pena; claim filed March 2, 1853, confirmed by the Com- 
mission April 24, 1855, by the District Court March 2, 1857, and appeal 
dismissed April 3, 1857; containing 320.33 acres. Vide page 102, App. 
Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Oliver Boulio, claimant for part of Cabeza de Santa Rosa, 640 acres in 
Sonoma county ( situated in Santa Rosa township ), granted September 30, 
1841, by Manuel Jimeno to Maria Ygnacia Lopez; claim filed March 2, 1853, 
rejected by the commission January 30, 1855, and appeal dismissed for fail- 
ure of prosecution April 21, 1856. Vide page 102, App. Hoffman's Reports, 
Vol. 1. 


C. P. Stone, claimant for part of Agua Caliente, 300 acres, in Sonoma 
county (situated in Sonoma township), granted July 18, 1840, by Juan B. 
Alvarado to Lazaro Pefia; claim filed March 2, 1853, confirmed by the 
Commission April 24, 1855, by the District Court March 2, 1857, and appeal 
dismissed March 31, 1857. Vide page 104, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Cyrus Alexander, claimant part of Sotoyome, two square leagues ( situated 
in Mendocino township ), granted September 28, 1S41, by Juan B. Alvarado 
to Henry D. Fitch; claim filed March 3, 1858, rejected by the Commission 
February 8, 1855, and appeal dismissed for failure of prosecution April 21, 
1856. Vide page 106, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

James A. Watmough, claimant for part of Petaluma grant, one square 
mile, in Sonoma county, granted October 22, 1843, by Manuel Micheltorena 
to M. G. Vallejo; claim filed March 8, 1853, rejected by the Commission Jan- 
uary 30, 1855, and appeal dismissed for failure of prosecution April 21, 1856. 
Vide page 107, App. Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Jose Santos Berryesa, claimant for 200 by 300 varas, in Sonoma county, 
granted May 80, 1846, by Joaquin Carrillo to J. S. Berryesa; claim filed 
March 3, 1858, rejected by the Commission October 17, 1854, and appeal 
dismissed for failure of prosecution April 21, 1856; Vide page 108, App. 
Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

In conclusion we produce, more as a matter of reference, than having any 
special claim upon our subject, the following dates of the founding of the 
different Missions in California: — 

Archbishop Joseph Sadoc Alemany, claimant for the following Missions 
and lands; claim filed February 19, 1853, confirmed by the Commission 
December 18, 1855, appeal dismissed in Northern District March 16, 1857, 
and in Southern District March 15, 1858. [The dates of the foundations of 
the Missions were furnished by the Reverend Father Jose Maria de Jesus 
Gonzalez, of the Mission of Santa Barbara.] 
Mission San Diego, in San Diego county, founded under Carlos III, July 16, 

1769; containinof 22.24 acres. 
Mission San Luis Rey, in San Diego county, founded under Carlos IV, June 

13, 1798; containing 53.39 acres. 
Mission San Juan Capistrano, in Los Angeles county, founded under Carlos 

III, November 10, 1776; containing 44.40 acres. 
Mission San Galjriel Arcangel, in Los Angeles county, founded under Carlos 

III, September 8, 1771; containing 190.69 acres. Patented. 
Mission San Buenaventura, in Santa Barbara county, founded under Carlos 

III, March 31, 1782; containing 36.27 acres. 
Mission San Fernando, in Los Angeles county, founded under Carlos IV^ 

September 8, 1797; containing 76.94 acres. 
Mission Santa l^arbara, in Santa Barbara county, founded under Carlos III^ 
December 4, 1786; containing 37.83 acres. 


Mission Santa Inez, in Santa Barbara county, founded under Carlos IV, 

September 17, 1804; containing 17.35 acres. 
Mission La Purisima Concepcion, in Santa Barbara county, founded under 

Carlos III, December 8, 1787. 
Mission San Luis Obispo, in San Luis Obispo county, founded under Carlos 

III, September 1, 1772, containing 52.72 acres. Patented. 
Mission San Miguel Arcangel, in San Luis Obispo county, founded under 

Carlos IV, July 25, 1797; containing 33.97 acres. Patented- 
Mission San Antonio de Padua, in San Luis Obispo county , founded under 

Carlos III, July 14, 1771 ; containing 33.19 acres. Patented. 
Mission La Soledad, in Monterey county, founded under Carlos IV, October 

9, 1791; containing 34.47 acres. Patented. 
Mission El Carme or San Carlos de Monterey, in Monterey county, founded 

un ler Carlos III ; June 3, 1770 ; containing 9 acres. Patented. 
Mission San Juan Bautista, in Monterey county, founded under Carlos IV, 

June 24,1797; containing 55.33 acres. Patented. 
Mission Santa Cruz, in Santa Cruz count}'-, founded under Carlos IV, August 

28, 1791; containing 16.94 acres. Patented. 
Mission Santa Clara, in Santa Clara county, founded under Carlos III, Jan- 
uary 18, 1777; containing 13.13 acres. Patented. 
Mission San Jose, in Alameda county, founded under Carlos IV, June 11, 1797; 

containing 28.33 acres. Patented. 
Mission Dolores or San Francisco de Asis, in San Francisco county, founded 

under Carlos III, October 9, 1776; two lots, one containing 4.3 acres, and 

the other 4.51 acres. Patented. 
Mission San Rafael Arcangel, in Marin county, founded under Fernando VII, 

December 18, 1817; containing 6.48 acres. Patented. 
Mission San Francisco Solano, in Sonoma county, founded under Fernando 

VII, August 25, 1823; containing 14.20 acres. 




Mention has been made in another portion of this volume of the estab- 
lishment of Prefectures, and a Judge of First Instance ; wtiile the judg- 
ment decreed in a suit heard in the latter Court at Benicia, as appertaining 
to the district of Sonoma, has been copied verhatim. 

With the acquisition of California by the Government of the United 
States, and the increase of population, better provision was deemed neces- 
sary for the carrying out of the law. County Courts were established, and 
among others, the Seventh Judicial District Court ; however, this division 
was altered afterwards, and Sonoma, with Marin county, formed into one 
Judicial District. 

We have been unable to trace any trials which took place anterior to 
tlie year 18.58 ; our record, of necessity, therefore, commences with that 

The People vs. Christian Brimer. — This was a case wherein the accused 
was indicted for the shooting of one Antone Bruner with a pistol. The 
ofTense occurred in the town of Sonoma on September 9, 1858, and arose 
out of a quarrel in respect to the renting of a bar-room by the two men. 
On the 9th October following, an individual named Peter Peterson was 
included in the indictment, and a warrant issued for his arrest, but what 
further proceedings were had, or what decision was arrived at, the records 
do not show. 

The People vs. Winsloxv Hall. — The defendant was arrested and tried 
for the killing of Frederick Bischoff, by shooting him in the neck, on Sep- 
tember 1, 1857. On arraignment, on October 13, 1858, he was decreed 
" Not guilty," and discharged. 

The People vs. Thomas Stewart. — The circumstances connected with tliis 
case are briefly these: On November 24, 1860, while L. D. Helms was 
sitting in front of his house, situated in Salt Point township, in company 
with two persons, he was suddenly shot dead by some unknown party. 
Mr. George Curran, one of the party, was with Helms when shot, gave infor- 

V f\\^ \\\nUA\^V 


mation that the weapon used was a rifle, and that he saw the smoke rise from 
the bushes, about fifty yards from the house, immediately after the unfor- " 
tunate man fell. The ball struck the right arm above the elbow and lodo-ed 
in the breast. Helms exclaimed, "lam shot!" and fell dead. Six parties 
were arrested, viz. : J. Stewart, Sr., Mrs. Stewart, and Russell Stevens. 
Thomas Stewart, who is supposed to have perpetrated the deed, was arrested 
at Point Arenas, and brought back to Salt Point, but while there, during the 
night, feigned sickness, was granted permission to go out of doors, and tak- 
ing advantage of this leniency, effected his escape. On December 11th the 
five parties mentioned above were examined before Justice of the Peace 
Myers, and two of them, James and Samuel Stewart, were held to answer 
in the sum of one thousand dollars bail. 

Killmg of Mrs. Charles Aldrich. — The dead body of Mrs. Aldrich was 
found near the residence of her husband, in the vicinity of Cloverdale, on 
May 7, 1860. Charles Aldrich, her husband, left home on the morning of 
that day, for Cloverdale, and did not return till night. Upon going into 
his house and finding his wife absent, he searched for her, and finally dis- 
covered the body about one hundred and fifty yards from the house, with 
such marks of violence upon it as plainly to intimate the cause of death. 
The face and head were bruised and disfigured, while a piece of linen duck 
was tightly wrapped around the neck, leaving no doubt that she was strang- 
led. Her child, an infant of six months old, was found unhurt lying near 
the body, though stripped of its clothing. Several parties were arrested as 
implicated in this case, but we do not find that any one was tried or con- 

.Stabbing of Hugh McLaughlin. — Hugh McLaughlin, keeper of a livery 
stable at Healdsburg, was fatally stabbed by James B. Boggs, on July 6, 
1861. Both of the parties, who are reported to have been under the infiu- 
• ence of liquor, met at Foss' livery stable at about 6:80 P. M, when Bjggs 
remarked, upon seeing a horse groomed, that the animal was -'not of much 
account." McLaughlin agreed with him, and rejoined that it came from 
"Pike, and nothing from there is of any account." Boggs thereupon made 
the pleasant retort — "Oh yes, I came from 'Pike,' and you know' that I am 
a good fellow." To which McLaughlin replied, calling him a liar, at the 
same time knocking him down. He was at once taken off, but soon knocked 
Boggs down again. McLaughlin afterwards left the stable and went into a 
saloon; he was shortly afterwards followed by Boggs; they came together 
at the door, and backing into the saloon commenced fighting with knives. 
Both struck each other about the same time, upon which Boggs staggered 
back about three steps followed by the other, both striking again, when 
McLaughlin fell against Boggs, and was carried away mortally wounded. 
Boggs at once gave himself up, and was admitted to bail in the sum of ten 

thousand dollars. There are no records of the proceedings in this case. 

^ "^ 11 


Shooting of Deputy Sheriff David Campbell. — About January 6, 1862, 
Deputy Sheriff David Campbell attempted to execute an attachment upon a 
horse in possession of Isaac Baker, at his ranch at Stony Point, Analy town- 
ship; but was met by Baker armed with a knife, who declared he should not 
have the property. Campbell returned to Santa Rosa, and on I^-iday the 
16th, in company with Deputy Sheriff Hood and August Kohle, proceeded 
with a warrant to arrest Baker, as well as to take the property. On their 
arrival at the house, they experienced difficulty in finding him ; he was, 
however, discovered near some out-houses. An altercation ensued on their 
meeting, after which Baker started off, stating he was going about his busi- 
ness. He was ordered to halt by Campbell, but not complying, the latter 
shot him. Baker called to his son William, whow^as discovered about thirty 
paces distant with a rifle presented at the Sheriff, to shoot. Campbell 
observing young Baker about to shoot fired at him, who returned the fire at 
once, killing Campbell. He was examined before Squire Lee of Analy, and 

The People vs. Jose Sorano. — In the month of February, 1864. Jose Sorano 
had been at the corral of Thomas Knight, in Knight's valley, in company 
with two or three others. Mr. Knight, hearing the report of several shots, 
after a while went out near the corral, when he saw the Indian Ibarra lying 
on his back, dead, and the accused, Sorano, sitting on his horse near by, with 
his pistol in his hand. Another witness swore that he saw the actual shoot- 
ing. Afterwards, at the inquest, Sorano said that he killed Ibarra because 
Ibarra was jealous of him. Sorano was indicted and escaped from jail on 
the night of November 11th, 1804, and w^as not captured until November, 
1866, when he was taken in San Francisco and brought to Santa Rosa for 
trial, and found guilty of murder in the first degree. He was sentenced 
to death, which was afterwards commuted to thirty years in the State 

The People vs. John Sharon. — The killing of Michael Slattery by John 
Sharon, at Bloomfield, is reported as follows: Sharon owned a lot of hogs 
which had bet.'n running at large and caused some annoyance to his neigh- 
bors, by breaking into their grain fields, etc. Slattery had sustained some 
damage by the hogs, and, in consequence, had them shut up in a corral on 
his place. Sharon missing the hogs, sent his little boy over to Slattery's to 
s»'e if they were upon his premises. The boy, having ascertainetl that the 
hogs were there, was on his return home, when he met his father coming 
over with his double-barreled shot gun. Sharon and his son then proceeded 
to Slattery's house, and passed through the yard, saluted Mrs. Slattery, an<l 
went on to where the hogs were confined, and started to remove theui. 
Slattery, who had been engaged in nailing some boards about an out-house, 
came out, and calling to Sharon, told him to leave the hogs alone until he had 
paid for the damage done by them. Sharon left the hogs, and proceeded to 


Slattery, who was standing inside an inclosure, near a board gate. Slat- 
tery held a hatchet in his hand, with which he had been at work. Sharon 
pushed the gate open, and in doing so passed the muzzle of the gun beyond 
Slattery; it was immediately drawn back and discharged by Sharon, the 
charge taking effect in Slattery's left arm and side. The gun was loaded 
with buck-shot, some of which penetrated the lungs, and death soon after 
ensued. The case was brought for trial before District Judge J. B. South- 
ard on October 21, 1865, but the j ury failing to agree, were discharged. It 
was re-tried on June 19, 1866, but once more the jury failed to convict. A 
change of venue was afterwards granted and the case sent to San Francisco 
for trial. 

The People vs. Thomas B. Berger.- — On Saturday, April 8, 1865, Dr. Pelig 
was shot and killed by aneighbornamedThomas B. Berger, at Mark Westcreek, 
under the following circumstances: A lend had existed bweteen them for a long 
time in regard to their lands, and a day or two before the unfortunate occur- 
rence about to be related, another difficulty had arisen concerning school 
matters in their disctrict. A fight with fists had taken place betweeen them 
a day or two previous to the killing, and on Saturday Dr. Kidd visited Santa 
Rosa in company with J. M. Laughlin, for the purpose of having Berger 
bound over to keep the peace. Berger's friends state that on the morning of 
Saturday (the day of the killing), Dr. Kidd shot at Berger, while on the con- 
trary, the friends of the deceased assert that Berger fired at Kidd. — -From 
some cause or other Dr. Kidd did not swear out a warrant for Berger, as 
intended while in Santa Rosa, and on his way home, on Saturday evening, in 
company with Mr. Laughlin, in a buggy, when passing a grocery, near the 
Mark West bridge, they were hailed by Berger, who was standing in front 
of the grocery door. Berger called to Laughlin and asked him to stop. This 
request having been complied with, Berger then requested Dr. Kidd to get 
out of the buggy and settle the matter. Kidd declined doing so and requested 
Laughlin to drive on, remarking that he did not wish to have anything to 
do with him (Berger). Laughlin then drove on — and when they had pro- 
ceeded a few steps, Berger stepped out into the road and drawing his Colt's 
revolver, fired at Kidd, who was looking back. The ball entered Kidd's fore- 
head, just over the right eye, and he expired in a few moments. Berger then 
mounted his horse and proceeding to Windsor, surrended himself to Justice 
of the Peace L. C. Burns. On trial accused was adjudged not guilty. 

The People vs. William iV. Thompson. — The accused was tried for the 
the murder of Joseph Martin in February, 1866, in the Dovey redw^oods near 
Russian River, The facts were proved that the defendant took his rifle and 
went to the house of Martin, who had jumped his claim, and told him to 
leave. Martin wns engaged in cutting brush near his cabin; he would not 
leave, and came at Thompson with an ax when he, Thompson, shot him. 
The decceased lived two days. The jury found a verdict of murder in the 


second degree, and Thompson was sentenced to twenty years in t]w State 

The People vs. Jonathan Davis. — Defendant was tried for beating and 
kicking Hannah Davis on August C, 1867, from the effects of which she tlied 
on the same date. He was duly tried, acquitted and judgment rendered in 
accordance with the finding on October 18, 1867. 

The People vs. Russell J. Sviither. — This was a case wherein Lervey 
Gonzales was stabbed by the accused on July 1, 186G. He was tried before 
Judge J. B. Southard, found guilty of murder in the second degree, and on 
October 22d sentenced to sixteen years imprisonment. 

The People vs. Bird Brumjield. — Accused was indicted for the stabbing 
of John Strong on June 20, 1867, and was brought to trial October 23 and 
by the jury adjudged not guilty. 

Shooting of Cameron, <dias James Munro Scott. — A man who had been 
known by the name of Cameron, but whose real name was James Munro 
Scott, a Canadian, was shot dead in the streets of Freestone, Bodega town- 
.ship, on June 16, 1867. Deceased had been in partnership with a man named 
Nicholson, who was killed about eighteen months before in connection with 
a squatter dispute. Scotif was a notorious desperado. On the following day 
(17th) a man called John Jones was discovered on the road one and a half 
miles from Freestone, badley wounded in the groin by the accidental dis- 
c^ arsre of a rifle. A bad feeling had been known to have existed between 
Jones and Scott, which had been recently intensified by a gambling trans- 
action about a horse — there was, however, nothing but mere suspicion to 
connect Jones with the affair. 

The People vs. C. Sweitzer. — The facts of this case are briefly these: A 
race was about to come off, instigated by the Sweitzer boys from Suisun 
valley, Solano county, on the one side ; and a man named White, of Sacra- 
mento county, and Morgan, of Geyserville, on the other. A dispute and flst- 
fight, in a saloon, was succeeded by Nick Sweitzer drawing his pistol and 
firing at White — the first shot grazing the upper lip and right side of the 
face, and the second passing through the right arm, neither of them inflicting 
serious injury. Sweitzer then rushed out of the room and became involved 
in an altercation with White's fiiend and partner, whom he immediately .shot 
dead. He and his brother then ran off. Nick soon came up with a man on 
horseback, whom he commanded to dismount, and taking possession of his 
steed, made good his escape. The other bi'others returned to town, satisfied 
the man for the loss of his horse, and then had the race withdrawn for fear 
of further difficulty. Other parties were engaged in shooting, and an acci- 
dental shot, almost spent, hit a man called Van Evrie, of Sonoma, at a dis- 
tance of one hundred and eighty yards — the ball passing along the side of 
his mouth and being afterwards spit out. During the occurrence, men were 


to be seen firing off their pistols in every direction, then scaling fences and 
seeking refuge in the neighboring hills. For the shooting of White, Sweitzer 
was afterwards tried and acquitted before the County, and was held before 
the District Court, to answer for the murder of Morgan, the other person 

The People vs. Michael Rijan. — On February 7, 1865, Mrs. Ryan was 
brutally murdered by her husband Michael Ryan, by striking her on the 
heail with a pick. They had been but a short time residents of Santa Rosa, 
and lived unhappily together, the husband being addicted to dissipated 
habits. On June 29th, he was arraigned before Judge Sawyer and sentenced 
to death, this being the second conviction of murder in the first degree which 
had taken place in the county since its organization-. The murderer was 
decreed to pay the extreme penalty of the law on the l7th of August, but 
in the meantime a stay of proceedings was granted upon motion for a new 
trial. He was hanged on March 23, 1866, within the jail yard of Santa 
Rosa — the only execution which, up to the present time, 1879, has occurred 
in Sonoma county. 

The People vs. Penito. — The defendant, an Indian, was charged with 
the murder of one Santa Argo, by stabbing, on August 4, 1869. On trial 
he was adjudged not guilty. 

The People vs. Lodie Brown, John L. Houx and William E. Andrews. — men were accused of the murder of H. P. Benton, on August 16, 
1871, and on arraignment were convicted of murder in the second degree, 
and sentenced to imprisonment for thirty years. 

The People vs. James F. Benfro.—As we can find no record of this case 
we reproduce some remarks concerning it from the Sonoma Democrat r 
" Friday, the 21st April (1871), was set apart for the execution in Santa Rosa 
of James F. Renfro, who was convicted of murder more than a year ago. 
The case was one of purely circumstantial evidence, and for this reason par- 
ties have interested, themselves in an endeavor to secure Executive clemency^ 
by asking the Governor to commute his sentence to imprisonment for life. 
Renfro's case is peculiar in many respects. The killing of Wilson, by who- 
ever committed, was a cowardly, cold-blooded assassination, and the perpe- 
trator richly deserves to die the death of a felon. While quietly riding 
through the woods, and unsuspecting danger, Wilson was shot with a rifle 
through the back by an unseen foe, producing instant death. The spot 
where the murderer stood was easily recognized. He had selected it care- 
fully, and prepared the brush so as to get a rest for his rifle and be out of 
sight himself, while covering the victim as he passed a bend in the road. 
The deadly purpose was fully carried out, and a good man, husband and 
father hurried into eternity without a moment's warning. 

" Renfro, who lived with the family of the deceased, was at once suspected 


of the crime by his own neighbors. On the trial it was proved that he 
wanted Wilson's step-daughter to marry him, and had declared he would 
put any man out of the way who interfered to prevent it ; that the girl, in 
response to his questions, a'lmitted that her step-father objected to the 
match ; that Renf ro, on the day of the murder, urged Wilson to go down 
on Russian river to get some corn while he (Renfro) went to feed the hogs 
in another direction ; that he acted very strangely before any crime was 
known to have been committed, repeatedly calling the attention of a neigh- 
bor to the fact that he had been at his house at a particular time that day ; 
that tracks were found, beginning at the place where the assassin stood, 
corresponding to those made by Renfro's boots, one of which had a piece of 
leather of a .saddle fastened on the heel, making a peculiar mark. From 
these and other circumstances the jury found a verdict of murder in the first 
degree against James F. Renfro, more than a year ago. He was sentenced 
to death ; a motion was made for a new trial, which was denied, the case 
taken before the Supreme Court, the Court below finally sustained, and 
the defendant sentenced again to be executed on 21st April. On April 
18th Governor Haight p)stponel the carrying out of the sentence until 
May 12th, and finally commuted the judgment of the Court to imprison- 
ment for life. 

The Killing of Wenton. — On March 14, 1871, a horrible murder was 
committed in Salt Point township, near Fort Ross. The victim was a man 
named Wenton, who had always been known as a quiet and peaceable indi- 
vidual. It is sai<l that an old grudge existed between the parties. A 
man named Blake and Wenton went to the cabin of anothei-, called 
Duval, and all the parties became .somewhat intoxicated; a fight ensued. 

Duval seized an ax and cut Wenton in a frightful manner. It was 

thought that Blake planned the aflfair and got Duval to do the killing. 
The People vs. Benjamin Edwards- — The accu.sed in this case was 

indicted for the murder of L. Lev}'-, on November 5, 1871. On trial he was 

found guilty of inui'dor in the second degree, and sentenced to twenty years 


The People vs. Pedro Soto. — Defendant in this case was arraigned for the 

murder, on November 12, 1871, of Susannah Frias, by beating her with a 

bludgeon. He was duly tried, found guilty of murder in the secouil degree, 

and sentenced to fifteen years in the State prison. 

Tlie Peo])le vs. Joseph R. Gibbons.— In this case, accu.sed was tried for the 

murder of Joscsph W. Rawle^, committed on DociMuber 12, 1871. A verdict 

of niurdrr in the second degree was rendered June 22, 1872, and prisoner 

sentenced t(j fifteen years imprisonment. 

Murder of Mrs. Lee. — On October 28, 1874<, a man named Lee murdered 

his wife in Santa Rosa township under circumstances of peculiar brutality 

and afterwards effected his escape. 


Killing of Georgo Andrado. — On April 14, 1875, a Mexican named 
Mathias Salmon killed another Mexican called Georgo Andrado, at Pine 
Flat, by shooting him in the temple. The shooting took place in a house 
of ill-fame, where the parties were engaged in dice throwing, the murdered 
man being the barkeeper of the establishment. After the killing Salmon 
robbed the till and levanted. 

The People vs. James K. Brownies. — ^The prisoner in this case was con- 
victed of the murder of Charles E. Gerl, on July 23, 1875, and was sen- 
tenced October 26, to imprisonment for life. 

2'he People vs. T. A. Hefl'in. — The defendant was indicted for the stab- 
bing of Charles Stevens, and on trial was acquitted. The circumstances 
attending this occurrence will be found in our history of Santa Rosa. 

The People vs. H. 8. Epperle. — -Accused was tried for murder in the 
second degree, but was acquitted by the jury. 

The People vs. Osman Fairbanks. — -On September 23, 1876, Michael 
Martin, formerly proprietor of the Freestone Hotel, was killed. The sup- 
posed perpetrators were Osman Fairbanks and Isaac Stockton, both of that 
village. The cause of the fatal affray was supposed to be a feud that had for 
some time been existing among the parties, caused by the ejectment some time 
previouisly of Stockton and Fairbanks from a bar-room by Martin. In the 
evening Martin approached the entrance of Stein's hotel in an intoxicated 
condition and used abusive language to Fairbanks and Stockton, whom he 
met. It was said that he was beaten on the head by the two, death being 
the result. Fairbanks was arrested, tried for manslaughter and the case 

The People vs. Thomas Reed. — Defendant was indicted for the murder of 
R. Alexander, on March 25, 1877. He was tried, and found guilty, on Sep- 
tember 11th, of manslaughter, and sentenced to ten years imprisonment. 

The People vs. Jose Maria Floris. — An old man by the name of Nich- 
olas Hortes, a native Calif ornian, we believe, was murdered on the 4th instant 
in the mountains between Sonoma and Petaluma, in the south-eastern 
portion of this county, by an Indian whose name is Jose Maria Floris. The 
old man lived in a cabin all alone and raised chickens and eggs for market. 
The Indian was frequently about his premises, though he did not live there. 
After the 4th] of June the old man was missing and for some days nothing 
was thought of his absence, but after several days had expired the suspicions 
of the neighbors began to be aroused that something had gone wrong with 
him, and they commenced making inquiry into the matter. The Indian 
was questioned closely as to his knowledge of him, and supposing that he was 
suspected he confessed that he had killed him. He then went to a gulch near 
the old man's cabin and showed where he had killed and buried him, and his 
body was recovered. His skull had been crushed with a stone and then a 


large knife run deeply into his body in several places. The stone and knife 
were both found covered with blood. The Indian stated that he and the old 
man had a dispute and that he picked up the stone, crushed in his skull and 
then stabbed him to make sure work of it. He was taken before Justice 
Akeis of Sonoma, waived an examination and committed to jail Monday to 
await the action of the Grand Jury. On the case being brought to trial, the 
prisoner was adjudged guilty and sentenced to imprisonmnet for twenty 

The People vs. Jackson L. Epperson. — Jack Epperson shot and instantly 
killed Henry Thomas at the Veranda Hotel, Geyserville, on Thursday even- 
ing. We are informed that Epperson had been drinking, and becoming 
boisterous was put out of the hotel by Thomas, and as they were standing in 
front of the building, Epperson raised a Winchester rifle that he had been 
flourishing during the evening, and shot Thomas, the ball entering the right 
side of the abdomen, passing entirely tlirough the body and coming out near 
the left hip, breaking the hip-bone. Epperson then attempted to make his 
escape, but was closely pursued by Constable Charles Rummel, who followed 
him to Mr. Yeager's ranch, and knocked at the door, which was opened by 
Mrs.Yeager, who is a sister of Epperson. As soon as Epperson saw the Con- 
stable he raised his rifle and fired at him, but Yeager struck the weapon up 
and diverted the aim. The ball passed close to Rummel's ear, just grazing his 
head. The Constable, who was also armed with a Winchester rifle, took 
position about a hundred yards from the house, near a smoke-house, and 
shortly afterward Epperson made his appearance and seemed to be making 
for the hills. When he discovered Rummel he fired three shots at him, 
without ettect, and Rummel returning the fire, broke Epperson's leg, and 
arrested his flight. Sheriff Dinwiddle was telegraphed to, and, with his 
becoming promptness, procured a team, and accompanied by Jailor Connolly, 
went to the scene. Mr. Connelly returned during the night with the team, 
Mr. Dinwiddle returned with Epperson, and conveyed him to the County 
Hospital, where he died on January 30, 1879. 

Killing of J. G. Hill. — On Saturday evening, Nov. 8, 1879, the Blue 
Ribbon Club of Forrestville met, as usual, in the hall of a building owned by 
the Santa Rosa Savings Bank, and occupied by Robert Weir and family. 
There were between sixty and seventy persons — men, women and children — 
present, among whom were Miss Georgia Travis and her brother, Wirt 
Travis. A short time before the regular exercises of the Club had com- 
menced Mr. Hill and Samuel Keys came in together, and immediately there- 
after Miss Travis rose and approached Wirt, who was sitting a short distance 
from her, and the two went out together. In about ten minutes Wirt 
returned, passed near where Hill was sitting, and resumed his original seat, 
which was in front of Hill, and about eight feet from him. Wirt had not 
more than comfortably seated himself when his brother John entered the 


room, and went to near where Hill was sitting, taking about the same course 
his brother had done before, and appeared to be about to take a seat, but 
instead of this he struck Hill in the face, reaching over the head of a Mr- 
Morris to get at Hill. Hill immediately sprang to his feet, and a slight 
scuffle occurred, in which Hill faced John Travis, with his back to Wirt, and 
while in this position he was shot, the ball striking him in the back of the 
head, passing through the skull, ranging the entire length of the head, and is 
supposed to have lodged somewhere in the bones of the face. In its course 
it severed the parotid artery, which produced sufficient hemorrhage to cause 
his death. After this three other shots were fired, but the testimony is con- 
fused; some say there were three, and others two. It is altogether probable 
that there were three fired, as one .statement is to the effect that at the time 
Wirt Travis fired. Hill had a pistol presented at John Travis, and that when 
Wirt fired, Hill fell, and his pistol exploding, the ball ranged upward and 
struck the wall in front of him, about four inches below the ceiling. Opin- 
ions differ on this point, however, and but little evidence was presented to 
the Coroner's Jury that would substantiate this. John then fired, the ball 
passing harmlessly over the heads of those present, striking a chimney in 
the north-east corner of the room, and glancing, struck the partition and 
passed out of the room. Not a word was said by the parties during the 
entire melee. By this time a number of those present had rushed from the 
apartment, and were thronging the corridor and stairway. Wirt strode to 
the door, and, turning as he reached the threshold, fired another shot, which, 
it is supposed, is the one that struck Hamilton Litton, and then sprang over 
the bannister, and, with his brother John, passed along unmolested toward 
their home, which is about three-quarters of a mile east of Forrestville. 




Geo(jr((pInj. — Analy township lies in the south central portion of Sonoma 
county. It is bounded on the north by portions of Redwood, Mendocino 
and Russian River townships, on the east by Santa Rosa and Petaluraa 
townships, on the south by Marin county, and on the west by Bodega and 
Redwood townships. Its general outline, like that of every other townsliip 
in California, is more the creature of circumstances and accident than of 
engineering skill. It has no streams pas.sing through it of any importance. 
The Estero Americano is a swell stream flowing near its southern boundary. 
The Laguna de Santa traverses along its eastern side ; Mark West creek 
skirts it on the north end; while Tusquadero creek rises on the eastern slope 
of the hills in the northern part of the township, and flowing through its 
entire length del)ouches into Mark West creek. It is said that the name of 
Analy was given to the township by Jasper O'Farrell in honor of his sister. 
The name is rather pretty at any rate, and we hope the story is true. 

Topograph^/. — The topography of this township is as varied as that of 
any other in the county, but the changes are not so striking and prominent 
as in some others. In the southern portion of it the hills are not very 
high nor steep, and are mostly all under a high state of cultivation. The 
valley.s, such as Big and Blucher valleys and others, are broad and fertile. 
Farther to the northward the dividing lines run in the opposite direction, 
from north to south. Of this portion the western part of it is hilly and even 
mountainous, while the eastern part is a level plain. It is so level that 
the old Mexican grant was called " Llano de Santa Rosa " — the " Plains of 
Santa Rosa. " 

Soil. — The soil (^f almost the entire township is a sandy loam. There is 
no adobe in it, but there is some cla^ along the western sides. It is all 
very fei'tile and productive. This is especially so in the valleys. It is 
probable that there are no richer valleys in the State than those lying in this 

Products. — The principal product of this township and the principal export 
is potatoes. On every hand there are annually planted large and extensive 
fields of this vegetable, and the wonder is continually arising in the mind 
of a stranger, what can they do with all their potatoes. But these 
being of good quality find ready sale in the market, even when other 
varieties are scarcely saleable at all. All the cereals thrive well in all the 
farming sections of the township. Fruits and vegetables do extraordinarily 


well. Enormous quantities of fruits are grown here every year, also large 
quantities of grapes. The business of dairying is prosecuted quite exten- 
sively also, in all parts of the township. Taken altogether, it has probably as 
great a proportion of arable and productive land in it as any other in the 

Climate. — The climate of this township, especially the northern end of it, 
is far different from that of the coast townships. The range of mountains, 
lying along its western border breaks the fury of the ocean blast which 
sweeps up from the sea in a gale every afternoon during the summer season. 
The redwood forests on its crest also aid materially in effecting this change 
of climate by absorbing and condensing the fogs with which the wind is 
laden. It is a well known fact that the leaves of the redwoods have the 
peculiar power of condensing the fog to such an extent that the ground 
around their roots is kept very moist. In fact, they have the capacity of 
self-irrigation. All this serves to make the climate of Analy township the 
most delightful and salubrious, being tempered by the sea breeze, shorn of its 
fury and its pernicious fogs. 

Early Settlement. — There is no doubt but that to Joaquin Carrillo belongs 
the honor of being the first settler in Analy township. He located and 
applied for a grant to the " Llano de Santa Rosa " rancho as early as 1844. 
In 1846 he built an adobe house on the western end of the rancho, within 
the present limits of the township, and near the present sitr of the town of 
Sebastopol. This was doubtless the first house ever built iu the township. 
The remains of it are still standing. The tidal wave of Auivrican emigration 
did not seem to strike this township until 1850. During that year quite a 
number of families settled in the northern end of it in what is now known as 
Green valley. Among those who settled there during that year may be 
mentioned J. M. Hudspeth, P.^McChristian, and Judge Josiah Morin. Farther 
south, in the neighborhood of the present site of Sebastopol, Otis Allen, 
James Delaney, M. Gillian, James M. Miller, John Walker, and Orlando 
Sowers settled also in 18-50, while W. D. Canfield was the only settler in 
that year in what is known as Blucher valley. It was not until the next 
year that any one made any permanent settlement in Big valley, in the 
extreme south end of the township. The very first man to pitch his tent 
upon a claim in that valley was Wm. Abels. He was a man of family, and 
he and his estimable wife are still in the enjoyment of fine health, and are 
residents of Santa Clara county. Their children and grandchildren are 
living in different parts of the State, and point to the fact of first settlement 
in this section by their hardy ancestors with a just degree of pride. Duiing 
the same year Elliot Coffer, Henry Hall, Wm Nutting, Robert Bailey, Geo. 
Woodson, G. W. Wolf, Edward F. Thurber, Mr. Larkin, W. P. Henshaw, L. 
D. Cockrill, Jacob McReynolds, Mr. Turtelot and Mr. McAllen came into this 
valley and settled. Nearly if not quite all of these men were unmarried, 


however, and did not prove to be permanent settlers. Of these we are unable 
to find any trace at present, except Mr. Thurber, who is now a well-to-do 
fruit-raiser in Pleasant valley, Solano county. There settled in Blucher 
valley during 1851, Martin Reed, Dr. W. G. Lee, John White, Samuel Powers, 
Thos. Miller, Gideon Miller, John Rice, Geo. Campbell, and W. Easeley. We 
are unable to discover the names of any who settled in the vicinity of Sebas- 
topol that year, but in Green valley we find that Jas. Greyson, John Marshall, 
Henry Marshall, Major Isaac Sullivan, and Mitchell Gilhani became permanent 
settlers during I80I. Some time during this year Major Sullivan and Miss Polly 
Gilham linked their destinies together in the silken bonds of marriage. This 
Avas probably the pioneer marriage in the township, and a right royal jolly 
time was had at the wedding. In 1852, A. Stark, Robert Gordon, Wm. Jones, 
Wm. H. White, and a great many others came into Big valley ; in fact, all 
the land was taken up during that year. Robert • Gordon, Wm. Jones and 
Wm. H.White, however, are the only ones who are at present residing in the 
valley who came in that year. During that year, A. T. Davidson, S. J. 
Smith, and D. Wood worth settled near Sebastopol. During this and the 
next year or two the settlement of the township was very rapid. The 
settlers of those early days were very migratory in their habits, and but few 
of them remained more than a year or two. The title to the land was not 
very good, and many of them were merely squatters, so that when ordered 
off they had to go. In Blucher valley the only original settler there now is 
W. D. Canfield. He and his wife have remained there almost thirty years. 
They were pioneers in the fullest extent of the word, and they had 
seen the rough side of that kind of life for many years, enduring all manner 
of hardships, even to passing through an Indian massacre, he barely escaping 
to the woods with his life, having an Indian bullet in his body, which he 
cariies there to tiiis day, and she and her children being captives among a 
hostile tribe of savages. A full and thrillingly interesting sketch of Mr. 
Canfield's pioneer experiences will be found in his biography on another 
page of this work. In 1852 a postoffice was established at Miller Sz Walker's 
store, then located about one mile south of whei'e Sebastopol now stands. 
The commission was issued February 20th, and James M. Miller was the 
Postmaster. The name ol the office was Bodega, and it supplied all the sec- 
tion of the county lying west and north-west as far as the Valhalla river. 

Schools. — The educational interests are well maintained in this township. 
There are in all ten school districts in it, as follows : Redwood, Green Valley, 
Oak Grove, Canfield, Mt. Vernon, Spring Hill, American Valley, Bloomfield, 
and Pleasant Hill. All the school buildings are neat, well furnished, and 
kept in excellent repair. A splendid corps of teachers are constantly 
employed, and the prospect is certainly bright for the educational advantages 
of the on-coming generations. 


Bloomfield. — Bloomfield is situated at the head of Big valley, or the 
valley of the Estero Americano, on the Rancho Canada de Pogolome, and 
was named in honor of the owner of that grant, F. G. Blume. The first 
house was built in the town by Wm. Zellhardt, in 1853. He soon afterwards 
built a blacksmith shop. L. D. Cockrill built the next house here, also in 
1853. In 1854 a man by the name of Horace Lamb opened a store, usincy a 
part of Mr. Cockrill's house for the During the year, however, 
he erected a building of his own and occupied it. Two years later, July 12 
1856, a postoffice was established at this point, with Horace Lamb as post- 
master. During this year also the town was laid out, C. and J. Hoag owinno- 
the western part of the site and Isaac KufFel the eastern portion. From 
this time on the town flourished as well as could be expected under the cir- 
cumstances. It was an inland trading point, with no direct communication 
with San Francisco for a number of years. Stores, hotels, blacksmith shops, 
churches, schools, etc., were established. The cemetery, which is situated to 
the westward of the town, and on an eminence commanding a beautiful 
view of the town and adjacent country, was laid out in 1860. The first person 
buried in it was Mrs. Stephen 0. Fowler, daughter of L. D. Cockrill. The 
business interests of the town are represented as follows : One flour mill, 
two hotels, three blacksmith shops, two wagon shops, one paint shop, two 
general stores, one saloon, one meat market, one livery stable, one harness 
shop, one shoe shop, one millinery store, one tin shop, one lawyer, and no 
doctor. The official directory is at present as follows: Justice of the Peace, 
L. D. Cockrill; Notary Public, C. C. Farnsworth, who is also Postmaster; 
Telegraph and Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Agent, C. Stewart. Communication is 
had with the outside world by the North Paeitic Coast telegraph, also by 
United States and Wells, Fargo «Szi Co.'s mails. A stage passes each way 
daily, connecting with the North Pacific Railroad at Petaluma, and with 
the North Pacific Coast Railroad at Valley Ford. The population of the 
town is about two hundred and fifty, and is situated in the heart of as fine 
and productive a section of farming land as there is in California. The town 
will never be much larger than it is now, however, as communication with 
the city is too remote. A full history of the lodges, churches, schools, and 
industries of the town will be given beJow, to which we refer the reader. 

Bloomfield Flour Mill. — This mill is at present owned by W. C. Purcival, 
who came into possession of it in May, 1873. The gentleman who erected it 
had the misfortune to meet with an accident during its construction by 
which he lost his life. The building is eighty by one hundred feet, and two 
stories high. It has three run of burrs, and a capacity of thirty-five ban-els 
of flour and twenty-five tons of barley a day. It is run with steam, and 
new boilers and machinery have lately been put in, so that it is now a first 
class mill in every respect. The flour made here is very good indeed, com- 
manding a ready sale at the best market prices. The mill is run about nine 


months in a year, and affords a ready market for all the grain grown in that 

Valley Ford Lodge, I. 0. 0. i?'.— Valley Ford Lodge No. 191, I. O. O. F., 
was organized September 7, 1869, at Valley Ford ; hence the nam^. Its 
charter members were William Hamilton, A. S. Perrine, A. C. Wood, S. N. 
Hudson, Edward Hare, and William Withrow. The first officers were: — 
William Hamilton, N. G.; William Withrow, V. G.; S. N. Hudson, Secretary, 
and Edward Hare, Treasurer. The following gentlemen have had the honor 
of being N. Gs. : William Hamilton, William Withrow, Edward Hare, T. 
M. Johnson. J. T. Mitchell, John Appleton, O. H. Hoag, W. N. Wakefield, 
B. F. Hickleman, Bruce T. Cockrill, O. M. Le Febvre, Peter Eastman, G. W. 
Knapp, H. C. Crowder, and 0. H. Knapp. The Lodge was moved to Bloom- 
field March 9, 1875. Its present membership is fifty-six, and it is in a most 
flourishing condition. During the past year it has erected a building at a cost 
of three thousand dollars, the lower story of which is used for mercantile 
purposes, while in the upper one there is an elegantly furnished lodge-room 

Bloomfield Encampment. — Bloomfiekl Encampment No. 61, I. O. O. F., 
was organized JaaJ" 10, 1877, with the following charter members: H. C 
Crowder, B. F. Hickleman, Bruce T. Cockrill, S. H. Manzy, Valentine Wil- 
son, O. M. LeFebvre, A. H. Knapp. G. W. Knapp and Chas. Hoag. The fol- 
lowing gentlemen have held the position of C. P.: H. C. Crowder, Bruce 
T. Cockrill, G. W. Knapp, Valentine Wilson and A. Little. The present 
mendoership is twenty-four. 

Vitruvious Lodge, F. and A. M. — Vitruvious Lodge No. 145, F. and A. M. 
was instituted under dispensation May 31, 1860. The charter members were 
as follows: T. G. Cockrill, R. Dickens, J. M. Hinman, S. Honisgsberger, I. 
Kuffel, D. Markel, J. R. Ross, J. W. Zuver. The officers U. D. were J. M. 
Hinman, W. M.; D. Markel, S. W.; I. Kuftel, J. W.; and T. G. Cockrill, Sec'y. 
The charter was granted June 7, 1861, and the first officers under charter 
were: D. Markel, W. M.; I. Kuff-el, S. W. ; C. R. Arthur, J. W.; R. Dickens, 
Treas, and T. G. Cockrill, Sec'3^ The following named gentlemen have 
filled the W. M's. chair: J. M. Hinman, ( U. D. ); D. Markel, C. R 
Arthur, T. G. Cockrill, N. R. Shaw, W. G. Lee, C. White, J. S. Oliver" 
W. C. Purcival, and W. W. White. The present membership is fifty, and 
the lodge is in a very flourishing condition. They have a nicely furnished 
lodge-room, and the stranger entering their cosily furnished hall cannot but 
exclaim, " Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell 
together. " 

Bloomfield Lodge, I. 0. G. T.— Bloomfield Lodge No. 256, I. O. G. T., was 
organized August 19, 1878. Following is the list of charter members: W. 
H. Haskins, James Hoag, C. C. Farnsworth, D. L. Knapp, Ada Haskins, 
Louis McReynolds, Albert Crote, Horace Lamb, Edward McReynolds, Liz- 


zie Gregoiy, Ida M. Haskins, Chas. McReynolds, Carrol Jones, John McAllister 
Emil Baker, A. E. Kellogg, W. W. Parks, Sarah Stone, Ernestine Walker, 
Anna Grose, E. M. Sharon, Maggie Sharon, Clara Farnsworth, Mary Jones, 
Alice Pharis, Clarence Wilson, Frank Lamb, Thomas Gregory, E. L. McRey- 
nolds. The following have filled the position of W, C. T: W. H. Haskins 
A. E. Kellogg, Thomas Gregory, P. C. Smith and William Talbot. The 
present membership is forty-one, and the Lodge is in a very flourishing 

Bloomijield School. — The first school in this section was taught in what 
was known as the Big Valley school district. The school-house was situated 
about one mile east of the present site of Bloomfield. The first school ever 
taught in the town was under the charge of James Harlow, and was in the 
M. E. church building. The present large and commodious building was 
erected in 1860. It is two-stories high, and is amply large for all the require- 
ments of the town. There are two teachers employed, and, of course, two 
grades in the school. There is a good library of over two hundred volumes 
attached to the school. Among those who have taught there in days gone 
by may be mentioned : A. H. Hall, James Radcliffe, T. H. Hopkins, A. H. 
Pratt, J. H. Wilmer, T. C. Powers, E. D. Roberts, and others. 

Churches. — We are sorry to say that we were able to gather but little his- 
torical information concerning the churches in this place. In the first place, 
some years ago the records of the M. E. church were stolen, and the Advent 
church has moved to Stony Point, while the headquarters of the Presby- 
terian church are at Valley Ford. However, we will say that all these 
organizations have very comfortable churches at this place, and that they 
are all well supplied with services. A gentleman known as Father Walker 
organized the M. E. church at this place in 1857. He was the pioneer minis- 
ter of this county. 

Sebastopol. — This is a beautiful little hamlet lying near the foothills, on 
the side of the Santa Rosa valley. As has been stated a Dove, to Joa- 
quin Carrillo belongs the honor of being the first settler in this section of the 
township, coming here as early as 1846. It seems that James M. Miller and 
John Walker followed him, coming as early as 1850. They erected a build- 
ing and opened a store about one mile south of the site of the present town. 
In this store was a postofiice, and it seemed that if a town ever sprang up in 
that section it would be near it. But in 1855, J. H. P. Morris, a man of 
enterprise and energy, entered a tract of Government land, consisting of one 
hundred and twenty acres, north of the store site. Mr. Morris came to 
Sonoma in 1853, and was in business for a while at the Miller & Walker 
store. After locating his claim upon this tract of land, he moved a building, 
which he procured of Miller & Walker, to his claim, in which he opened out 
a grocery store and saloon combined. That same year he deeded to John 


DouMicrty a lot, upon the conditions that he should put a store upon it. 
This was complied with. Mr. Morris called the embryotic town Pine Grove. 
a very appropriate name indeed, as it is surrounded with a perfect nursery of 
young pine trees. We are informed by Mr. R. A. Thompson that its present 
formidable name of Sebastopol originated in this way: A man named JefF. 
Stevens and a man named Hibbs had a fight; Hibbs made a quick retreat 
to Dougherty's store, with Stevens in hot pursuit. Doughert}^ stopped Ste- 
vens, and forbade him to come upon his premises. The Crimean war was 
rao-inof at that time, and the Allies were besieging Sebastopol, which it was 
thought they would not be able to capture. The Pine Grove boj's, who were 
always keen to see a fight — -chagrined at the result — cried out that Dough- 
erty's store was Hibbs' Sebastopol, and from this incident the town event- 
ually took its name. As stated above, Dougherty opened the second business 
place in the town. George H. Jacobs began the business of blacksmithing 
and wagon-making next. Marion Howe was his wagon-maker. Captain 
Auser then erected a hotel building on the present site of the Wilson 
Exchange. Other business and dwelling-places followed in rapid succession, 
until the town has now probably three hundred inhabitants. It has a daily 
stage connecting with the railroad at Santa Rosa, which carries both the 
United States and Wells, Fargo & Co.'s mail. The busine>s interests of the 
town are distributed as follows : Three stores, one hotel, one blacksmith 
shop* one shoe shop, one saloon, one livery stable, one meat market, three 
physicians, uf whom one is a lady. There is a fine graded school here, 
employing two teachers. The official directory is as follows : Justice of the 
Peace, B. B. Berry; Constables, W. J.Hunt and D. M. Kelly; Postmasler, 
J. Dougherty ; Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Agents, Mdton & Andrews. Sketches 
of its lodges, churches, etc., will be found below. 

Lafaijette Lodge, F. d- A. M. — Lafayette Lodge No. 126, F. & A. M., was 
organized under dispensation January 8, 1858. At the time of its organiza- 
tion and until August 25, 18G0, the lodge convened at a place known as 
Pleasant Hill, some two and one-half miles south of Sebastopol. Since the 
last named date its communications have been held in Sebastopol, where they 
have a very nice lodge-room over the Presbyterian church. The charter 
members were Wm. G. Lee, Jacob Fonts, Losson Ross, Benj. S. Burns, Wm. 
Henry, John Ryan, R. Dickens, Andrew Fife, Wm. Ely, J. H. P. Morris, 
and Wm. L. Taber. The charter was granted May 13, 1858. The first 
officers weie: Wm. G. Lee, W. M. ; Jacob Fonts, S. W.; Losson Ross, J. W.; 
Wm. Henry, Treasurer- and R. Dickens, Secretary. The present officers are 
T. G. Wilton, W. M.; W. R. Elliott, S. W.; L. Ross, J. W.; B. B. Allen, 
Treasurer; J. H. P. Morris, Secretary. The W. M's. of the lodge have been 
as follows: W. G. Lee, Wm. L. Taber, E. D. Harris, J. M. McGuire, James 
Gannon, Smithfield Ballord, B. F. Branscom, and Thos. G. Wilton. The 
present member.ship is fifty -five, and on the increase. 

w^' -?^;':^?,v.. 

■: >fV 


Evergreen Lodge, I. 0. 0. 2?".— Evergreen Lodge No. 161, I. O. O. F., was 
instituted July 12, 1869, with the following charter members: B. B. Berry, 
W. P. Berry, Wm. Wilson, John K. Smith, M. Edwards, Mathew A. Wil- 
liams, and James Burnett. The first officers were W. P. Berry, N. G. • Wm. 
Wilson, V. G.; M. Edwards, Treasurer; and B. B. Berry, Secretary. Tho 
following named members have filled the N. G's. chair: W. P. Berry, Wm. 
Wilson, J. K. Smith, H. J. Smith, A. Crawford, M. Getz, Robt. Ross, J. Fix, 
A. J. Peterson, L. W. Olmstead, A. S. Nickols, H. E. Manefee, T. G. Wilton, 
W. W. Peatross, R. G. Meeks, D. Seeley. Chas. Solomon, M. V. Morin, L. b! 
Berry and J. S. Jones. The present officers are J. S. Jones, N. G.; Victor 
Piezzi, V. G. ; A. Crawford, Treas. ; and B. B. Berry, Secretary. The present 
membership is fifty-tive. The lodge is in a very flourishing condition, and its 
meetings are well attended. They have a very cosy and well furnished 

Sehastopol Rebecca Degree Lodge. — This Lodge, No. 44, was organized 
June 20, 1878. The charter members were as follows: B. B. Berry, G. H. 
Stowell, Chas. Solomon. S. B. Berry, W. F. Elliott, M. V. Morin, M. H. Chen- 
oworth, J. H. Berry, A. Crawford, V. Piezzi, T. G. Wilton, J. M. Dockham, 
D. Seeley, and J. S. Jones. Mesdames Elizabeth Berry, E. A. Stowell, 
Sarah A. Solomon, L. J. Berry, Jane M. Elliott, M. Donner, Emma G. Wilson, 
Minerva A. Berry, Mary L. Crawford, Luella Piezzi and Harmonia Jones. 
The first officers were T. G. Wilton, N. G.; Jane M. Elliott, V. G.; Mary 
L. Crawford, Treas., and B. B. Berry, Sec'y. The N. Gs. have been: T. G. 
Wilton, B. B. Berry, and Mrs. Harmonia Jones. The present officers are : Mrs. 
Harmonia Jones, N. G. ; Mrs. Emma G. Wilson, V. G.; Mrs. Mary L. Craw- 
ford, Treas., and V. Piezzi, Secretary. 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church. — The Sebastopol Cumberland Presby- 
terian church was organized October 2, 1851. It was known until Septem 
ber, 1876, by the nam-C of the Bodega Cumberland Presbyterian church, at 
which time the name was changed to Sebastopol. The organizing members 
were Rev. J. M. Cameron, Mrs. Mary Cameron, C. Kavanagh, William M. 
Reed, L. Clyman, Mrs. Harriet Morin, Mrs. Nancy Hudspeth, J. C. Thomp- 
son and J. M. Reed. The following pastors have served this charge: Revs. 
J. M. Cameron, J. M. Small, J. J. May, E. C. Latty, J. G. Johnson, and others 
from time to time but not as a stated supply. The present membership is 
thirty-five. The first church building erected b}^ this society was built in 
1860, and was situated about two miles west of Sebastopol. The present 
building located in Sebastopol was erected in 1871; it is a fine large building 
and afibrds ample room for its congregation. There is a good Sabbath 
School connected with it. 

Methodist E'piscopal Church. — This body has a neat building at this place; 
iiervices are held semi-monthly; we are unable to give any particular facts 



concerning it. It is more difficult to gather statistical information concerning 
churches than any other society, for their records are generally kept with 
less care. 

Sehastopol Lodge, I. 0. T. — This Lodge, No. 167, was organized January 
21, 1879. The following names appear upon the charter: J. H. P. Morris, 
Fannie Wadsworth, Emma Berry, Mary Hulbert, Ira Manville, C. S. Berry, 
Lizzie Berry, W. T. Cromwell, Rebecca Cromwell, Hannah Thompson, Lou 
Berry, R. Ewing, C.Bonham, H. Hulbert, Geo. S. Briggs, B. B. Berry, Elizabeth 
Berry, Julia Hulbert, Grace Wadsworth, L. B. Bonham, J. T. Bonham Jas. 
B. Bonham, H. M. Grayson, H. R Hulbert, MaryB. Hulbert, Wm. Marshall, 
D.M. Kelly, Bertha Greyland, George L. Allen, Thomas Hale, Hattie Ross, 
Emma Lee, Alice Crawford, Emma Hensley, and Clara Hensley. The lodge 
has a degree temple connected with it, and an increasing interest in the 
cause is manifest on all sides. 

FoRRESTViLLE. — This is a little village situated near the extreme north end 
of this township, in what is known as Green valley. It is on the border of the 
redwood belt, and its inhabitants are mostly wood-choppers and lumbermen. 
The Guerneville branch of the North Pacific Railroad passes near by, affording 
ready communication with San Francisco. It is said that the town derived its 
name from its founder, and first settler, A. J. Forrester. There is a good public 
school in the town, an M. E. church, and an Advent church near by. The busi- 
ness interests are represented by one general store, one blacksmith shop, one 
saloon, one hotel, one meat market, etc. etc. The Rustic-chair Factory is 
located here. In Mr. Thompson's history we find the following concern- 
ing this industry : " Over twenty-four years ago Major Isaac Sullivan, 
in Green valley, made the first rustic chairs and sold them at five dollais 
a piece ; some of these chairs are in use to this day. The factory for the 
manufacture of these chairs as a specialty was started by S. Faudre, on 
Russian river, three miles from Forrestville. Here he continued business for 
five or six years, selling the chairs from two to three dollars each. He then 
moved the factory to Forrestville, where it has remained ever since. Faudre 
made here about thirty thousand chairs. He sold out to S. P. Nowlin, who 
ran it at a lively rate for the next six year.?, making and selling over sixty 
thousand chairs during that time. He then disposed of the business to John 
Hamlett, who is making and selling about twelve thousand chairs per annum . 

Carp Ponds of Levi Davis. — These are situated three-quarters of a mile 
north of Forrestville, and were commenced in January, 187G. At this time 
the venture was made with but five fish ; and at the end of the first year they 
had increased to two thousand and forty -four; the next, to two thousand six 
hundred and seventy-one; all of them being from the original five fish. The 
ponds cover an area of about one acre, diftering in size, the smallest being 
about six square rods, the second ten square rods, the third twenty square 


rods, and the fourth forty square rods. Mr. Davis has so far found fish- 
culture a paying business; since starting he has cleared about four hundred 
dollars, and has about seven thousand carp on hand. 

Carp Ponds of J. R. H. Oliver. — Mr. Oliver made his first essay in the- 
culture of fish at the same time as did Mr. Davis, but in the first venture 
*was unfortunate enough to lose his fish. In January, 1877, he purchased 
three from that gentleman wherewith to make a fresh start. These pros- 
pered, and increased to three hundred and thirty-one in the first year; in 
the second, to two thousand; and now their number is three thousand five 
hundred. Mr. Oliver's ponds are situated near Freestone, and are three 
in number, being in size forty-eight feet square, sixty feet square, and 
seventy-five five feet square respectively. He has not yet commenced to 
put his carp on the market. 

Grants. — The Mexican grants included partly or wholly in this township 
are the El Molino, Canada de Jonive, Llano de Santa Rosa, Blucher and 
Canada de Pogolome. Almost the entire township is covered with them 
which is a sufiicient guarantee for the quality of the land, as grants always 
covered the cream of the country. 



Geography. — Bodega township is situated on the western side of Sonoma 
county, its western boundary being the Pacific ocean. It is bounded as fol- 
lows: On the north by Ocean and Redwood townships, on the east by 
Analy township, on the south by Marin county, and on the west by the 
Pacific ocean. Like all the townships in the county, the boundary lines are 
very irreo-ular, following as they do the sinuosities of stream and ocean shore. 
There are no navigable streams in the township, but on the south boundary 
of it is the stream known as the " Estero Americano," which is deep enough 
to float small vessels for some distance up at high tide. 

Topograj)liy. — The general surface of this township is very uneven, but 
there are no mountains in it. It is composed of rolling, broad-sweeping hills, 
with wide and fertile valleys lying between. But few of the hills are so 
steep til at they cannot be cultivated with ease, while the most of them are 
grand, long-reaching undulations. The valleys are not ho extensive as in 
some of the other townships, but are more numerous. 

Soil. — The soil in this township is mostly of a sandy loam ; in fact, there 
is scarcely any clay in it at all, except on now and then a hill-top. This 
soil is very fertile, and produces cereals and vegetables in the greatest abund- 
ance. Fruits and vines also thrive well, and yield their full share of wealth 
to the industrious husbandman. In the valleys of course the soil is much 
more productive than on the hill-sides, still there is nothing to complain of 
on them. The soil is by far the most evenly dispersed in all sections of this 
township than in any other in the county. 

Climate. — The climate of this township is very similar to all the sections 
immediately adjacent to the coast. During the Summer months the sea- 
breeze sweeps over it ad lib., as there are no mountains to break its force. In 
the valleys leading directly up from the coast this wind sometimes assumes 
the magnitude of a small tornado. The result of this is that the climate 
in these valleys is temperate and cool. This wind is sometimes heavily 
laden with fogs which bank up in the heads of the valleys and overshadow 
everything, from the later hours of the afternoon till it is dispelled by the 
rays of the mid-day sun upon its near approach to the zenith. Although 
these fogs are oftentimes very dank and disagreeable, yet they are wonderful 
agents for good, acting almost as eflfectually upon all growing vegetation as a 
shower of rain or an irrigating. The result of this is seen most potently upon 
the redwood trees. It is in this township that the redwood belt begins; and 



it is also observable that those trees at the beginning of the belt, do not 
grow on the south sides of the hills, but rather on the north sides, and in- 
those ravines which pierce a ridge upon its north side, in the heads of which 
ravines the fogs bank up the most dense. However, we do not wish to con- 
vey the idea that there are no bright and beautiful days in this most charm- 
ing and fertile section of the county. On the other hand, there are days and 
days the most bright and beautiful, such days as only a California climate 
can produce, with their azure skies and fleecy clouds. In the later Autumn, 
when the fierce blast of the trade winds is heard shrieking no more amid the 
swaying boughs of the towering redwoods ; when the sunlight is filtered down 
upon the world through a radiant film of amber haze ; then, indeed, is it a 
lovely place, and its climate such to be remembered to the end of one's days. 
In the Winter season it is mild and temperate. The winds do not blow so 
strongly, and come from another direction. It is really the most excellent 
time of the year as far as climate is concerned. 

Products. — This township is decidedly agricultural in its products, yet 
they are varied, ranging through all the grades of rich semi-tropical country. 
Vegetables, and especially potatoes, seem to be the best adapted to the soil. 
In the warm sandy loam of this section this tube grows in the most profuse 
luxuriance, thriving even to the very hill-tops with no other irrigation than 
the natural moisture of the earth, sequent upon the Winter's rains, and the 
dense fogs which come up from the near ocean. On every hill-top, hill-side 
and valley may be seen great fields of potatoes. Wheat, oats, barley and 
corn thrive moderately well here, though the fogs are so heavy that the grain 
does not ripen very readily. The business of dairying is carried on somewhat 
extensively in some parts of the township. The pasture is very fine at all 
seasons of the year, being kept fresh and green by the fogs. As the soil is 
becoming somewhat worn in the prolonged seige of potato raising, and a 
change is becoming absolutely necessary, the most of the farmers drift into 
the dairy business. Lumber is also one of the chief products of the township ; as 
stated above, the redwood belt has its begining in this township. It was in 
this township that the first steam saw-mill on the Pacific Coast was put in 
operation in 1843, and since that time the making of lumber has been more or 
less vigorously prosecuted as an industry. Even in the early days when all 
the products of the township had to be brought to the port, often over rough 
roads, for shipment to San Francisco, the lumber industry throve, and some 
of those early mills are standing and doing some good work to-day, on the 
same sites they occupied a quarter of a century ago. These woods also 
yield a goodly supply of fence-posts, railroad ties, cord-wood, etc. Now that 
the metropolitan market is reached in a few hours by rail, the industries of 
this character have increased many fold, and are fast becoming the promi- 
nent features of the business enterprises of this section of the country. 

Early Settlement. — To Bodega belongs the honor of having the first 


permanent settlement of Europeans north of the bay of San Francisco, and 
within the Umits of the State of California; while the entrance of the beau- 
tiful little bay bearing that name was made by Europeans at least one year 
previous to the location of the mission at Yerba Buena, now San Francisco. 
It is stated that in the year 1775, a distinguished Spanish navigator by the 
name of Lieutenant Juan Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra, in a naval vessel 
called the "Sonora," entered this bay, and after carefully exploring it gave 
it the name of Bodega, in honor of himself. From that time, however, until 
the year 1811, a period of thirty-six years, we do not find the bay was ever 
visited at all, but, however, it is to bs presumed that it was visited occasionally 
by the vessels which chanced to pass that way. In January, 1811, there 
arrived in the quiet waters of the lovely little bay a strange looking craft 
bearing a burden of human freight. They were men with unkempt hair and 
shaggy beards, and with frames of iron, well inured to a life of excessive toil 
and exposure to the rigors of an inclement climate. To them, as they entered 
this beautiful cove on that mid-winter's day, the surrounding country must 
have seemed to be a veritable Paradise. Accustomed as they had been all 
their lives to see naught but the deep snow lying over all the face of the earth 
at this season of the year, the sight of the vernal hills basking in the bright 
sunshine must have been the most lovely view which ever greeted their gaze. 
These brawny strangers were Russians, who had come from Sitka for the 
purpose of establishing a military post, and a headquarters for a band of lur 
hunters; they also proposed to farm quite extensively, using their products 
for supplying their fur-hunting colonies in Sitka. At this time there were 
twenty Russians and fifty Kodiac Indians, under the leadership of Alexander 
KuskofF, a man with a wooden leg, and to whom, on this account, the native 
Californians applied the soubriquet of "Pie de Palo." To Bodega bay the new 
comers gave the name of "RomanzofF," and the stream now known as Russian 
river the}^ called "Slavianka." Knowing full well that they had no just title 
or claim to the land, they framed a pretext for landing there, by stating that 
they had been refused a supply of fresh water at Yerba. Buena. To strengthen 
this claim they asserted that they had purchased all the land lying adjacent 
to the bay from the Aborigines, and this claim was ultimately extended until 
it covered all the land lying between Point Reyes and Point Arena, and for 
a distance of three leagues inland. We will hear more of this Russian claim 
to the Spanish domain farther on. As a matter of fact the Russians could 
not purchase any of this land from the Indians, for at that time the entire 
country of the Alta Calif ornias belonged to Spain, and General M. G. Vallejo 
has truly remarked of them that as they "came without invitation, and occu- 
pied the land without the permission of the owneis, they may well be called 
the first ' .squatters' of California." The Russians, however, went to work 
with a will, whether they had any right to the soil or not. They proceeded into 
the interior of the country, about six miles from the bay, and there established 


a settlement. Houses were built, fields fenced and agricultural pursuits 
vigorously engaged in by them. It was not long however before they found 
that there was a strong opposition to them, and that it would be necessary 
to build a fort for their protection if they would keep possession of their 
newly acquired domain. With this object in view they started in search of 
a place most suitable for the location of their stockade. About thirty miles 
to the northward, on the coast, they found the desired location. This point 
was within the present limits of Salt Point township. 

As soon as the first crop had matured, and was ready for shipment, it 
became necessary for them to have a warehouse at the bay where their 
vessels could be loaded. Accordingly a building for this purpose was erected 
on the south side of the point of land extending into the sea and forming 
the northern shore of the bay, near the extreme westerly end of the headland. 
This building was eighty by one hundred feet in dimensions. It was probably 
used extensively at the same time for the storage of furs and peltry, for it 
must be borne in mind that one great object of the establishment of a settle- 
ment at this point was to make it a headquarters for their hunters. This 
building was very strong and durable, and would probably be standing at 
the present writing but for the fact that a land slide swept the most of it into 
the bay some years ago. They also had another house at the bay near this 
warehouse, but what it was used for is not now known, it was used by the 
American settlers in later years as a sort of a dwelling house and hotel, and 
it is from a mention of this fact that we know of its existence at all. We will 
now speak more extensively of the Russian settlement in the interior. This 
was situated just north of the present town of Bodega Corners, and the Capt. 
Smith adobe ranch house stands directly upon the site of the Russian 

It is impossible now to give the exact original number of these houses, owing 
to the fact that they are all demolished, not a vestige remaining of them 
to tell the story of their existence. There were, however, certainly quite a 
number of them at one time, if the statements of the very earliest settlers 
in that section are to be credited. These houses were small and rough, the 
boards being hewn from redwood logs. They were each strong enough for 
a bastion, and were doubtless built with the double purpose of shelter from 
the storms, and protection from the enemy in view. They were nearly 
square, and about twelve feet in dimensions. Some of them, presumably 
those earliest constructed, were made of hewn logs, well mortised together at 
the corners. It does not appear that they ever farmed so extensively here as 
at Fort Ross. It is quite probable that this part of the country, being most 
excellently adapted to grazing and dairying purposes, was devoted almost 
exclusively to this business. An extract from the journal of Captain John 
Hall, who visited Bodega bay in June, 1822, would seem to sustain this idea. 
He says that the Russian Commander paid him a visit while he was in Bodega 


bay, and brouglit on board with him two fine fat sheep, a large tub of but- 
ter, and some milk. He also says that vegetables were plentiful in their 

We now pass on to the year 1841. During all this time the Russians had 
been able to hold possession of all the country they claimed, and had used it 
pretty much to suit their own wants and .conveniences. In the sketch of 
Salt Point township will be found a full and complete detailed narration of 
the Russian occupancy of that section, which, owing to the fact that Fort 
Ross was their head-quarters, is recorded there. Hence, we refer the reader 
to that sketch for further detailed information on this most interesting his- 
torical topic. 

We will now take up the settlement of this township by the Americans, 
as distinguished from the Russians. The first settlers of this kind of which 
there are any records were : James Dawson, James Black, and Edward 
Manuel Mcintosh. These three men came to California probably as early as 
1830 with Captain Juan B. R.Cooper, brother-in-law of General M. G. Vallejo, 
as sailors on board of his vessel. Once here, and getting into the free and 
careless habits of the natives, they preferred to remain on shore. We find 
that Dawson and Mcintosh applied for citizenship under the Mexican Gov- 
ernment as early as the year 1833. General Vallejo says, that upon assuming 
the position of commandant of the military of California in 1835; he was 
ordered to extend his settlements as far in the direction of Fort Ross as po.s- 
sible, and to thus encroach upon the Russian territory and usurp their 
claims. For this purpose he chose the three hard}'- pioneers mentioned 
abjve, and promised to give them each a large grant of land provided they 
would go and settle right upon the border limit§ of the Russian claim. The 
gentlemen readily consented, as they were sure they could live on amicable 
terms with the Russians. Black settled upon what is now known as the 
Canada de la Jonive Rancho, while Dawson and Mcintosh settled upon the 
Estero Americano Rancho. In due course of time it became necessary to 
have proper papers made out by the higher authorities confirming this title 
which General Vallejo had given these men to their land. Black and 
Mcintosh went together to Monterey for this purpose, Dawson remaining at 
home to look after the property interests of both ranchos. Black got his 
papers made out to the Jonive Rancho all right, there being no occasion for 
any crookedness in them, but not so with Mcintosh. In having his papers 
made out he purposely left out the name of his partner, James Dawson. 

Lest some should say that it is rather unjust to charge him thus boldly 
with fraud, we would say that we have the best of evidence to substantiate 
the assertion. Some may say that grants were not made to partners, but 
that was only true upon the sea shore. All grants fronting on the sea were 
given to one man only, and he was charged with certain special duties, espe- 
cially in time of war. But more of this when we come to consider the Ran- 


cho de Herman. When Dawson discovered the rascally trick which had 
been perpetrated by his partner, Mcintosh, he naturally enough flew into a 
rage and at once proceeded to administer an appropriate chastisement to the 
ofiender. Having appeased his wrath to his entire satisfaction, he took a 
saw, and severing their common house in twain moved his half of it entirely 
off the rancho. This part of that remarkable house is still standing and in 
use, forming a part of the residence of F. G. Blume at Freestone. It was 
strongly and roughly constructed, and has certainly proved very durable. 
The joists are round, and about five inches in diameter. The outside boards 
were truly rustic, being riven or split from redwood logs. We will follow 
the fortunes of these pioneers to the end now, as in the settlement of 
other sections of the toAvnship they do not appear -as prominent figures. Jas. 
Black, a few years later, exchanged the Jonive rancho with Hon. Jasper 
O'Farrell for a rancho in Marin county, where he lived honored and respected 
by all who knew him. Mcintosh remained on his rancho, the Estero Amer- 
icano, for some years, but finally entered into an agreement with Jasper 
O'Farrell which was as follows: Mcintosh granted, sold and transferred all 
his right, title and claim to the said rancho, and to all the stock, improve- 
ments and whatever else there might be appertaining to the said rancho, for 
and in consideration of an annual rental of eight hundred dollars, during the 
natural life of Mcintosh. O'Farrell failed to pay this annual rental, and a 
lawsuit grew out of the matter. It was eventually compromised byO'Farrell 
paying Mcintosh the sum of five thousand dollars, and Mcintosh relinquish- 
ing all claims to the rancho and to the annual rental. Mcintosh then went 
to Marin county and made his home with his old ship-mate, James Black, 
till his death, which occurred some ten years since. As soon as Dawson had 
moved his half of the house off the Estero Americano Rancho he made appli- 
cation for a grant to the tract of land on which he had located his house. 
The application for this grant was made December 27, 1837. It was called 
the Canada de Pogolome, from an Indian village which was located upon the 
same tract. In June, 1840, James Dawson was united in marriage with 
Donna Maria Antonia Cazares, who was the daughter of a dragoon officer 
under the old Spanish regime. Senorita Cazares was only fourteen years of 
age at the time of this union. He continued to reside on his rancho with 
his wife until his death, which occurred in October, 1843. He died without 
any issue, and his wife became the sole heir to the vast and fertile rancho. 

It is probable that to Dawson belongs the honor of the first attempt to 
make lumber with a saw of any kind in Sonoma county. He dug a pit, 
and placing the log over it, he stood upon it and used a long rip saw. As 
early as 1834 he had enough lumber on hand, sawed in this manner, to build 
a house. This lumber was disposed of to General Vallejo, and he used it in 
the construction of a house in Sonoma. The pits used by Dawson are still 
to be seen. And thus is closed the parts which these three pioneers performed 


in the settlement of this township. They have long since passed from the 
scenes with which their names have been the most intimately connected, and 
even now tradition is getting somewhat cloudy concerning many important 
facts. All honor to whom honor is due, and to them certainly a meed of 
praise should be vouchsafed by the pen of the historian who records and pre- 
serves their memories and their deeds. 

We will now turn our attention to the incidents which occurred on the old 
Russian claim from the year 1841 to 1843. General John A. Sutter purchased 
the entire Russian claims for the sum of thirty thousand dollars in the year 
1840. He sent agents — major domos — from New Helvetia, now Sacramento, 
to take possession of this property as soon as it was relinquished by the 
Russians. The stock and many of the personal effects were moved from the 
Russian settlements to New Helvetia, still a major domo was maintained by 
Sutter at Bodcfja durinof all the time mentioned above. The last man who 
held this position at Bodega was at that time known as Don Juan Bidweil, 
now General John Bidweil of Chico. Bidweil was Sutter's private Secre- 
ary and book-keeper, and a mm in whom Subtsr had the utmost confidence- 

Bodega Port. — This was a shipping place at the head of the bay of that 
name. It was here that the first faint attempt at founding a town in this 
township occurred. As was stated above, the Russ'ans had erected two budd- 
ings on this bay, but they were near to the mouth of the bay, and hard of access 
to those who came to the port from the interior, hence settlers naturally built 
their stone houses at a point the most accessible. * Captain Smith owned a 
small schooner called the "Fayaway," which plied regularly between the 
port and San Francisco, in the early days. We do not now know how long 
this was continued bj^ him, or what became of the vessel. He used it prin- 
cipally in shipping his lumber to market. In the year 1850, two men named 

John Keyes and Noble, put in a crop of potatoes. This was the first crop 

of the kind which had ever been grown in that section. They were merely 
squatters, not having leased the land of Captain Smith. They raised the 
crop on the headland known as Bodega Point. After the crop was matured 
they had to get a vessel to take it to market. A small schooner of about 
fifteen tons burden was purchased and run by John Keyes. It was called 
the "Spray." Keyes continued to run this vessel until the spring of 1857. 
The fare on this schooner was eight dollars to San Francisco and fi'ftten dollars 
for return. Sometime during this year one Captain Tibbey began to run a 
schooner which he called the " Mary " in this trade. This schooner was 
built in Australia. The principal exports from the port at this time were 
lumber, shingles and potatoes. Cattle and sheep were sometimes shipped also. 

A schooner called the " Slieriff," in 1853, Captain Tibbey, master, went 
ashore near Cape Mendocino, and all on board perished. In the Fall of 1850, 
or Spring of 1851, a large schooner called the "Caroline," with a valuable 

•For Captain Smith's arrival au'l locatinn at R )le,',T., scj pafre 51, an I f.)lloivin j, o this work. 


cargo on board, bound for Trinidad, went ashore on the sand-spit which 
projects into Bodega bay. The vessel and cargo were lost, but the officers 
and sailors escaped. Captain Andrew Rutherford ran a propeller between 
the port and San Francisco a few trips about 1858, but could not make it 
pay, and hence discontinued the trips. From 1852 to 1860 there were sev- 
eral vessels plying in this trade, there being often as many as six at one 
time making weekly trips to the city and return. The first man to rent and 
of Captain Smith was Edward Cheeney. He leased two hundred acres from 
him during the winter of 1850-51, on the Point. This land had been culti- 
vated previously, first by the Russians, and during the previous season by 
Key es and Noble. The terms of this lease were that Cheeney was to pay two 
dollars per acre for rent, payable when the crop was sold ; Smith would a]low 
five cents a rail for fencing the land. Smith sometimes rented land on 
shares, furnishing everything to the renter and taking half the crop. This 
was really the better way for him to rent his land, as the half of the crop 
would net from fifty to one hundred dollars per acre. If a man were poor and 
appeared to be honest, Captain Smith would advance him the necssary 
amount of money to put in his crop, without interest. It is said that many 
of his renters took advantage of his liberal terms, and rewarded his kindness 
by disposing of the crop and leaving the Captain's claims unsettled. This 
land in that early day was very productive. Mr. Cheeney raised sixty 
bushels of wheat and one hundred bushels of oats to the acre, and one renter 
had an acre of potatoes which brought him five hundred dollars. February 
20, 1851, Stephen L. and James E. Fowler, two brothers, an 1 Messrs. Loper 
and Hedges arrived at Bodega. We have at hand a diary which was kept 
by Stephen L. Fowler at that time. To it we are indebted for a number of 
facts contained in this sketch, and we will here, once for all, give him the 
credit for all the extracts we may use from his diary. The four men men- 
tioned above formed a company, and styled themselves the " Suffolk Com- 
pany," for the purpose of farming. They located about two and a half miles 
from the port, across a creek (from Captain Smith's house), and on a tract 
which would not need to be fenced. This was quite an object. This com- 
pany planted quite an extensive crop this year, and the 3aeld was very 
good both in quantity and price. The seed they used for their garden came 
from the Colonies (Australia). A box for which they paid fifteen dollars, 
contained six quarts of peas, two of beans, four ounces of onion seed, 
five ounces of cabbage seed of different kinds, celery, raddish, broccoli, 
mustard, spinage, cucumber, beets, carrots, capsicum, pepper-grass, lettuce, 
all in small parcels; also one-half pound each of three different kinds 
6f turnip seeds. All these seeds were planted, and all throve well in the rich 
sbil of that section. As high as eight cents a pound was paid by them for 
seed potatoes that spring. It rained until very late into the season that 
year. They mowed wild oats for hay. This hay was easily cured, and served 


the purpose well. They raised quite a crop of barley. It was harvested 
and threshed in the month of July. The following description of the modus 
operandi of threshing the grain is copied from the diary mentioned above: 
"A corral is constructed of poles driven in the ground in a circle. Several 
cart-loads of barley are then drawn in and placed within the corral. Forty 
or fifty horses are then turned into the corral, and driven around at a 
furious rate of speed. As soon as the grain is tramped out of the upper 
layer the straw is thrown out, and the process repeated until the bottom is 
reached. The grain is then removed, and carefully cleaned by hand." 

During the year 1851 several new-comers put in an appearance, and the 
opening of the Spring of 1852 saw the greater portion of the land near the 
Port taken up by renters. Of these but few remain in that section now, and 
their names have passed into oblivion. In fact, no name but a nick-name 
was known for many of them. Of those mentioned above, Mr. Cheeney still 
resides near this Port, a genial old gentleman, with whom it is a pleasure to 
meet and talk of the early days. James E. Fowler is now a retired merchant, 
living a life of leisure upon a handsome competence gained in this township. 
His beautiful home is located at Valley Ford. He, too, is a most estimable 
and pleasant gentleman. 

The first warehouse at the Port, at the head of the baj^ was built by Capt. 
Smith, in 1848. This was a small l)uilding, and was erected rather for the 
purposes of a freight-house than a store-house. It was only sixteen by 
twenty. The next warehouse was built in October, 1851, by the Suffolk 
Company. It was twenty-four by eighteen, with ten feet studding. This 
company also constructed a boat at this time in which to ferry their potatoes 
over the creek mentioned above. This creek has its debouchure just north 
of the point where the landing was at the head of the bay. This boat was 
a sort of a lighter, thirty-six feet long by ten feet wide, and one foot deep. 
In 1852, Samuel Potter built a warehouse thirty by sixty feet in dimensions. 
During the same year Stephen Smith, a nephew of the captain, and Mr. 
Cheeney erected a warehouse forty by twenty-five. This building is still 
standing. The first store was built at this point in 1853 by Donald McDon- 
ald. It was a small affair, with its foundation extending into the bay 
causing the whole building to stand over water at high tide. It was reached 
by a platform extending from the main land. The building is still standing, 
but in a most dilapidated condition. In the same year or the next, Jasper 
O'Farrell built a warehouse fifty by one hundred. In 1858, James Stumpf 
erected a warehouse which was sixty by eighty; and during the same year 
Tyler Curtis constructed one which was forty by one hundred and fifty. In 
1852, Captain Smith erected the buildings for a hotel and bowling alley. In 
1860, Tyler Curtis erected the last building ever put up there. It was a 
warehouse, thirty by eighty. After this the glory of Bodega port departed 
forever. It began to go into decay, and at the present time there is no more 



forlorn and dilapidated-looking place in the State. Nearly all the buildings 
are gone, one warehouse and a part of another remain of all the ware- 
houses which have been built there. The hotel and bowling alley still stand, 
but where, on a Sunday, at least, one hundred men were wont to congregate 
and pitch fifty dollar slugs at a peg in front of the bar-room door, scarcely 
a stranger's face is seen once in a fortnight. The few old buildings are all 
going to ruin, where was once the bustle and jostle of the great shipping 
business which loaded a large schooner every day, now the sight of a ves- 
sel is something to be wondered at. Bodega bay is a small harbor, perhaps 
five miles in diameter. On the north side of it there extends into the ocean 
a point of land containing, perhaps, one thousand acres. An old Indian legend 
is extant to the etfect that this point or headland was at one time an island. 
This idea is substantiated by the fact that that portion of the point next the 
main land is composed of great sand dunes, while the body of it is fine arable 
soil. The Indians also say, that at one time there was a powerful tribe who 
made their headquarters on that island, numbering two thousand and six hun- 
dred. The old Indian graveyard is still to be seen. It is said by many that 
the name of Bodega came to be applied to this bay in this wise: Bodega is a 
Spanish word, and signifies storehouse or warehouse, and after the Russians 
had constructed their large warehouse on the bay the expression used to 
designate that locality was, " la bodega de los Russos," which was soon 
reduced to La Bodega, and, finally, by the Americans into Bodega. 

There is certainly an air of probability about this version of the naming 
the place, and we are rather inclined to believe in this as the origin of the 
name. Of course this derivation of the term is not quite so " grandioso " as 
the one usually given. 

On the south side of the bay, and dividing it from the ocean is a sand spit 
extending nearly across the mouth of the bay. This makes it a completely 
land-locked harbor. The point of egress is quite narrow, but there is, or was 
in the early times always a good stage of water there. The water used to 
be very deep in the entire bay, but now the greater portion of it is bare at low 
tide. Vessels were in the habit of coming up to the shore at high water 
by the side of the warehouses and taking on one-half of the load. Then 
they hauled out into deep water, and the remainder of the cargo was taken 
out to them in lighters. Keel vessels of seventy tons, and scow-built vessels of 
one hundred tons could then come into the bay and load with ease, and get 
away without any trouble. Some of these old-time lighters, with the wind- 
lass by which, and ways on which they were drawn out of the water for 
repairs, are still to be seen, but all vestiges of the pristine glory of the place 
are fast decaying, and soon nothing will be known of it more than what is 
preserved in legend or story. 

Bodega was made a port of entry in 18-52. It appears that General Estey 
had one Michael Doherty employed as a book-keeper ; Doherty was a shrewd 


enterprising kind of a man, and on several occasions had displayed his abil- 
ity much to the benefit of his employer, and in such a way that his employer 
felt that he must do something to repay him. We have been told that Gen- 
eral Vallejo could give the details of some of these transactions, but we have 
not been able to consult him on the subject. Be that as it may, Estey exer- 
cised his influence for the establishment of a port of entry at Bodega, and 
?ilso to have Doherty appointed as Inspector of the port. This he succeeded 
in dointr, and Doherty held the position for two years at a salary of ten dol- 
lars j)e/-rf<e?)i., for rendering imaginary service to the United States, as no 
foreio-n vessel ever entered the harbor, or ever had an idea of it. 

Among the many contentions and quarrels which naturally occurred 
among a population so cosmopolitan, but one led to fatal consequences, as far 
as we now know. A man by the name of Capt. John Campbell had a ware- 
house leased, which was the property of Capt. Tibbey, and which was situated 
near the site of the old Russian buildings, one of which was occupied by an 
Itahan fisherman.' There was a spring of water close by, and Campbell 
claimed to own it, and ordered the Italian not to go to it any more for water. 
As Campbell had no more right to the spring than the Italian, of course his 
orders were disobeyed. Campbell did not have the courage to murder the 
Italian himself, so he inveigled a boy by the name of Alex. Shaw into doing 
the horrid deed. He promised the boy perfect immunity from any punish- 
ment whatever. It is said that when the full truth of the matter was made 
known that Campbell did not dare to come to the port for a long time, lest 
he should be pounced upon by an indignant populace, and made to meet his 
just doom for concocting the dastardly plan. 

From time to time there has been more or less excitement in the vicinity 
of Bodega port in regard to gold. Men have been known to wash out one 
dollar per day, although they would not average that. Considerable 
prospecting has also been done along the quartz ledges above, and traces of 
gold have been found. It is more than likely that gold will never be found 
in this section. That found was what is known as " miners' shot," each 
grain being about the size of a pin-head, and round. In prospecting the 
black sand is found in abundance, but the gold is wanting. 

Bodega Corners. — We will now pass from the Port of Bodega to the 
town of the same name. This is situated near the site of the Smith Ranch 
house, and of course he was the first settler in that section. We will now 
give a full sketch of this grand old pioneer, setting forth such facts as we 
have been able to collect from all available reliable sources. We have already 
given a graphic description of the inauguration of his saw-mill, and his esta- 
blishment at this point. On the 14th day of September, 1844, one year after 
his arrival here, he applied for a gi'ant to the Bodega Rancho. This grant was 
confirmed by the Deparmental Assembly in April, 1846. The grant em- 


braced eight leagues of land and contained 35,487 acres. This was granted 
to him with the provision that he would maintain upon it a steam saw-mill. 
The Mexican government was very willing to comply with his request for a 
grant of land, for they recognized in him a man of energy and enterprise, 
and one who would advance all the material interests of the country, and 
they wished to encourage him, and also to entice him to remain where he 
was; hence the stipulation that the steam saw-mill should be maintained. 
From this time till 1851 everything on the ranch seems to have pursued the 
even tenor of its way, with the exception of the year 1846 — the year of the 
memorable Bear Flag war. Captain Smith had just received a grant from 
the Mexican government, and had all his property and social interests most 
closely allied with that people, hence it is probable that he did not care to 
take any active part in the uprising of the Bear Flag party. It is fair to 
presume, however, that his heart was with the brave men who were taking 
such a gallant stand for the freedom of the country. It does not appear from 
any available records that there was any communication between him and the 
Bear Flag men, but when it was announced that war had been declared 
between the United States and Mexico, and when the stars and stripes had 
taken the place of the bear ensign, and a messenger was sent to his rancho 
with an American flag and the, to him, welcome news of the declaration of 
war, he gladly and earnestly espoused the cause of his native government, 
and aided and abetted the American soldiers on all the occasions which pre- 
sented themselves. Upon receiving the flag sent to him from Sonoma, he at 
once proceeded to the woods and 'selecting a beautiful strait tree about fifty 
feet high, he cut it and brought it to the top of an eminence near his house. 
He then fashioned a rude figure of a bear with a star attached to the 
extremity of its tail. This novel emblem was placed at the top of the flag- 
staff, and reared aloft. The stars and stripes were then run to the top of 
the staff" and unfurled to the breeze for the first time in that section, amid the 
rousing huzzas of men and the boom of cannon, for be it known that the 
captain had quite an arsenal of his own there, consisting of either four or six 
field pieces, all mounted, and a large number of old-fashioned Spanish muskets. 
When the flag had reached the top of the staff" there was a curious com- 
mingling of the three emblems of liberty, at that time so justly famous, and 
popular, viz. : the stars and stripes, the bear, and the lone star. Later, during 
the progress of the war, it is said that he sent a " caballada" of sixty horses 
to General Fremont, and that his own cannon saw some service in his 
country's cause. The honor is at least due to him of raising the first Amer- 
ican flag in that section. The excavation for the flag-staff" was made in the 
solid rock, and to-day it stands, bearing proudly aloft its double ensign of the 
bear and the lone star. It is getting well worm-eaten, and is tottering under 
its weight of years, and will soon be numbered with the things that were. 
It leans well to the northward, but cannot fall till broken off", as it is held 
firmly in the excavation in the solid rock. 


We now pass on to the year 1851. On the 20th of February of that year 
Stephen L. Fowler arrived at Capt. Smith's, and we will quote from his 
diary. From that we get a great many glimpses at the private and public 
life of the captain. Mr. Fowler says: "We walk from Bodega port to 
Capt. Smith's, a distance of about five miles. He has a very pretty valley 
to live in. The most of the buildings were erected by the Russians. The 
old captain is very hospitable. He has been here about eight years. He 
has quite a great deal of poultry, a number of hogs, and a great many cattle." 
He next gives us a glimpse at the domestic economy of the Smith household : 
" They have coffee about sunrise, at ten o'clock, breakfast, and dinner at dark. 
This is a Spanish custom." He next pays a visit to the mill : " We walked 
to the Bodega Steam Saw-mill, where we were kindly treated. We took 
dinner, and they showed us through the mill. They put the saw in motion, 
and explained what we did not understand. There are a number of build- 
ings near the mill. The place is called ' Mount Pleasant.' I think it very 
appropriately named, as it is a very pleasant place." 

The above name of Mount Pleasant is probably the writer's translation of 
the name "Buena Vista," which was applied to a high hill in the neighborhood 
of the Smith Ranch, and being a stranger he probably supposed it to apply 
to the entire immediate section. He remarks, further on : " Near Captain 
Smith's there is a brook where salmon are caught during their season. We 
saw here a Russian dog, said to be forty years old. The captain's nephew 
(Stephen Smith) has charge of the ranch. The captain is about to start a 
tannery." On the 23d of June, 1851, the contract for the woodwork on the 
adobe house, which now stands there, was let to Stephen L. Fowler and one 
of his partners, Mr. Hedges. An extract from the diary of that date says: 
" To-day Hedges and myself (S. L. Fowler) rode to Capt. Smith's, to make 
arrangements about doing some carpenter work. We contracted to do the 
work of an adobe house, 27x70 feet. We have two floors to lay, ceil it over- 
head, partitions to run to make six rooms, twelve windows to case, besides 
casing doors and hanging them, and putting in and triinming a front door, 
and ceiling under the piazza. We are to be boarded and to receive $450 for 
the job." While at work on this contract and boarding at the house he 
gives us another glimpse at the internal management of the domestic 
affairs of the family ; also, a bill-of-fare for one day : " W^e eat four meals a 
day. At sunrise we have a most excellent cup of coffee, with bread and 
butter; at ten o'clock we have breakfast, which consists of coffee, soup, 
meat, vegetables, and bread ; at one o'clock we have a lunch of roast beef, 
bread, etc., and at six o'clock we have dinner, which consists of about the 
same as the breakfast, except the coffee. We can have a cup of tea any 
time during the evening, and brandy and water when we wish. We do not 
eat with the family, as they have much company, and the table is generally 
full." On the 5th day of August, 1851, we find the following entry: "We 



had a very good dinner to-day, it being Mrs. Smith's birthday. We had 
roast turkey and pig, with plenty of vegetables and a good pudding. To-night 
the ladies came into the building, and the children danced several Spanish 
dances to the music of a guitar. James (E. Fowler) declaimed ' Richard the 
Third,' and, with singing, etc., we passed the evening very pleasantly. There 
were several bottles of wine sent in by the captain and Mrs. Smith." Being 
sixteen at the time of her marriage in 1843; she was born August 5, 1827. 
Two days later, on the 7th, we find the following entry : To-day the cap- 
tain has given us the dimensions of the two buildings he wants built for hia 
tannery. One is twenty -four feet square, and ten feet studding; the other 
is twenty-four by fifty feet, and two stories high." For this contract thev 
were to receive four hundred and fifty dollars. We find that a man by the 
name of Watson was the tanner; that he had a birthday, when the boys got a 
little jolly. It was doubtless in this tannery that the first real leather was 
made in Sonoma county by the American process of tanning. Of course the 
Russians tanned leather in their way, and probably made a good article, too. 
After them, and using their appliances, came Major Ernest Rufus. Cyrus 
Alexander, of Alexander valley, is reputed to have tanned some leather in 
a crude way. It would therefore seem that to Capt. Smith belongs the honor 
of establishing the first successful tannery in the county. This tannery 
afterwards passed into the hands of James Stewart. After him came a 
man by the name of Henry Lane. The building was destroyed by fire in 
1868, after doing duty for seventeen years. 

Capt. Stephen Smith was one of nature's noblemen. He was generous to 
a fault, large and warm-hearted, kindly disposed, and a man against whom 
none can say aught, and those who knew him never tire of sounding his 
praises. It is said that all strangers were welcome within his gates, and 
that he was offended if a man seemed in haste to leave. It is related of him 
that a man once came there sick, and remained two weeks. At the end of that 
time he was well and ready to go on his way. It being yet early in the morn- 
ing, the Captain had not arisen ; the man gave ten dollars to the Captain's son. 
When the Captain came out of his room the money was duly handed to him, 
with an account of whence it came. The Captain forthwith flew into a rage, 
and ordered the young man to mount the fleetest horse on the ranch, over- 
take the departing stranger, and return his money to him. His house was a 
veritable hospital, to which all the afiiicted in the vicinity could come for 
treatment, without price and without money. Senora Minungo Torres, the 
Captain's mother-in-law, was an excellent doctress and nurse, and it is to her 
skill and attention that many a man owes his life. She would undergo any 
hardship in carrying out her great mission of love, and it was nothing else 
than a mission of love with her, as she would never receive any remunera- 
tion for her services, and would work as faithfully with a dying Indian as 
with any one of her own nationality. 



A band of Indians, known as the Bodegas, had a " rancheadero " on the 
banks of a little stream which lay just west of Captain Smith's house. 
Mrs. Smith and her mother, Senora Torres, were very kind to these Indians, 
and had them fully under their control. They acted as missionaries to them, 
and a priest came to the rancho and baptized them all. Their graveyard 
was consecrated, and rude wooden crosses were placed at the heads of the 
graves. When the rancho passed into the hands of Tyler Curtis he drove 
the Indians all away to the reservation. A very few of them are now left 
at the reservation near Healdsburg, and they occasionally pay a visit to tho 
scenes of their childhood and youth. Their graveyard, which lies in an open 
field to the south of the adobe house, is fast being obliterated. The crosses 
are nearly all broken down, and the mounds are nearly leveled with the 
adjacent fields, and very soon, indeed, will all traces of the existence of this 
people be swept away by the remorseless hand of man and time. 

In August, 1855, a tragedy was committed by one of these Indians which, 
for cold-blooded and heartless cruelty, can hardly be excelled in all the 
annals of crime. One day a vaquero by the name of James Phoenix and 
an Indian named Demos came down to Bodega port from the mouth of Rus- 
sian river, where they were both engaged in herding stock. While at the 
port they both drank more or less, but had no trouble. Upon starting away, 
Phoenix procured a bottle of whisky. He was never seen again alive, and 
it is not known what difiiculty arose between them, but it is said that it was 
thought at the time that it grew out of some contest over the bottle of 
whisky. Be that as it may, the facts of the murder were about as follows: 
When they had arrived at the mouth of Salmon creek the Indian njanaged 
to get Phoenix in advance of him in the trail. He then threw his riatta, 
and the loop caught Phoenix over one shoulder and under the other arm. 
The Indian wheeled his horse in a flash, and dragged his victim to the ground. 
He then put spurs to his horse and dragged the unfortunate man a distance 
of more than a mile over the rough and rocky pathway of the mountain 
coast trail, dangling at the end of a rope, made fast to the horn of his saddle. 
He then left his victim until the next day, when he procured the assistance 
of another Indian named Francisco, and conveyed the body to Willow creek 
gulch, and hid it under a pile of rock and brush. The two Indians then 
came down to the " rancheria" and reported that Demos and Phoenix had 
goae out the night before to watch for bears, which were feeding on the car- 
case of a whale, and that they believed that Phoenix had been killed by the 
bears. Immediate search for the body of Phcenix was instituted ; suspicion, 
however, resting strongly upon the two Indians, especially Demos. Senora 
Torres called Francisco into a room, and placing him on his knees 
before a crucifix, recited a number of imprecations which would fall upon 
him in this world and the next if he did not tell the truth concerning the 
murder. The solemnity of the rites, and the religious influence which the 



woman had over him, conspired to make him confess the entire transaction. 
Demos was at once placed under arrest, and a wagon despatched, with Fran- 
cisco as a guide, to convey the corpse to the settlement. When found, the 
body presented the most ghastly appearance imaginable. The clothing and 
flesh were stripped completely off from several portions of the body. The 
Indian, Demos, was brought into Justice Jasper O'Farrell's Court, and had a 
jury trial. The evidence elicited did not throw any light upon the causes 
which induced the Indian to commit the deed. The j ury did not debate 
long upon the verdict, which was, that he should be hanged the next day at 
one o'clock in the afternoon. On the brow of a hill, near the " rancheria," 
there was a triangle or tripod frame, which was used for suspending animals 
when butchered. It was decided to hang him at this place, and that Fran- 
cisco should be his executioner. A grave was dug, and a coffin placed beside 
it, within a few feet of the place of execution. At the appointed hour he 
was brought to the improvised scaffold and placed on the head of a barrel, 
with a rope knotted firmly about his neck. He was then asked if he had 
anything to say, to which he replied that he desired to be buried with his 
face down. He then looked over the assembled crowd of whites and Indians, 
and cast a last wistful glance at the familiar surrounding scenes of his life, 
then exclaimed : " Adios todo en el mundo" — farewell to all in the world — 
and was pushed suddenly from his perch upon the barrel. The rope was 
unfortunately too long, and his toes touched the ground as he fell, where- 
upon Thos. Murray, Thos. Furlong, and J. Waddell seized the end, which 
extended through the pulley, and drew it up till he swung clear of the 
ground, when in a short time he was dead, and had, in a manner, expiated 
the horrid crime he had committed. There is a sad sequel to this tragedy. 
The brother of the victim, upon hearing the tragic and cruel fate which 
ended his brother's career, became a raving maniac, and ended his days in an 

Captain Smith was at one time very wealthy, having as stated above an 
eight league rancho, on which there is reputed to have been fifteen thousand 
head of cattle, fifteen thousand head of horses, besides hogs and sheep in large 
numbers. His income was at one time princely, but misfortune in one way 
or another overtook him,^nd at the time of his death he had but little left 
besides the naked land. It is said that he lost sixty thousand dollars at one 
time by some Italians in whose safe he had deposited the money. He lost 
twenty thousand dollars by the first fire in San Francisco in 1851, and a 
large amount in the second one. He was also somewhat careless about busi- 
ness matters, and it is said that he once borrowed six hundred dollars of a 
man at two per cent, per month, and through carelessness neglected to pay 
the debt until it amounted to over five thousand dollars. Captain Smith 
died in San Francisco in November, 1855, at the ripe old age of seventy- 
three. His wife and three children survived him. By will dated August 


9, 1854, he bequeathed to his wife a life interest in one-third of the rancho, 
and the other two-thirds to his three children, share and share alike. The 
widow afterwards married Tyler Curtis, who succeeded in getting an act of 
the Legislature passed giving him the right to dispose of the right and interest 
of the children in the rancho. He soon let the entire fortune filter through 
his fingers, and thus were the children defrauded, and the rancho passed 
into other hands. 

The beautiful little town of Bodega Corners is situated near the ^Bmith 
homestead. It took its first start in 1853. A man by the name of George 
Robinson, went up from Bodega port and opened a saloon at this point that 
year. It was a place where three roads met, hence the name of Corners 
was applied to it. A man named Hughes soon followed, and built a black- 
smith shop. He was soon joined by another named Bowman and the two 
built the first hotel in the place, which was afterwards burned. Donald 
McDonald had a store at the port, which he moved to the new town quite 
early in its existence. The Rositer Bros., also opened a store about the same 
time. The old settlers of that vicinity were, James Watson, Ex-sheriff"Saml. 
Potter, M. Hagler, J. L. Springer, Dr. A. K. Piggott, Thomas Murray, 
James Stumpf, and William H. Steward. The town has grown into a fine 
village of perhaps three hundred inhabitants. Its business interests are repre- 
sented as follows: Two general stores, three hotels, one livery stable, one 
meat market, one blacksmith shop, one wagonmaker's shop, two carpenter 
shops, two shoe shops, three saloons, two physicians, one millinery store and 
two barber shops. The official directory is as follows: Thomas Murray, 
Justice of the Peace ; C. 0. Cazares, Constable ; James McCaughey is Post- 
master, Wells, Fargo & Co.'s and Telegraph agents. The postoffice was first 
established at this place September 29, 1854, with Stephen Smith as Post- 
master. It was then known as Smith's Ranch. The first school-house in the, 
town was built in 1866. A. S. Sanborn was the first teacher. In 1873, 
the present beautiful structure was erected for school purposes at a cost of 
five thousand dollars. There are at present one hundred and twenty -five 
census children in the district, and two teachers are employed. The Presby- 
terians have a church organization here. This organization was eftected by 
Rev. A. Fairbairn, October 1, 1865. The origin^ number of members was 
nine. It has since been increased, till at present there are twenty-three. They 
have a very nice building, erected in 1868- 

The "Bodega War." — The history of this section of Bodega would be 
incomplete without a short sketch at least of this grand fiasco of Tyler 
Curtis. All the old settlers who were present take great delight in relating 
its particulars. It seems that after Curtis came into control at the Bodega 
rancho, in the year 1858 or 1859, he undertook to oust parties who were farm- 
ing parcels of it. Many of these men had rented their land from Captain 
Smith in his day, and had continued to pay a rental to the estate. Others 


had squatted upon different portions of the rancho, and were endeavoring to 
hold possession of their claims until such time as the property would he put 
upon the market, which event they knew full well must occur sooner or 
later. Failing to cause the settlers to leave by peaceful means and by per- 
sonal threats of violence, Curtis proceeded to San Francisco and secured the 
services of a horde of about forty roughs for the purpose of waging a war upon 
them. Repurchased arms and ammunition for his motley gang, and brought 
them up to Petaluma on the steamer. From there he marched them ont to the 
rancho, a distance of upwards of twenty miles, in regular soldier style. They 
arrived at the ranch house some time in the night, but it had become known 
that they were comiug and what their errand was. Some Paul Revere, during 
the silent midnight watches, came from Petaluma and rode to every settler's 
house and gave the alarm. By the time the first flush of rosy dawn had 
illuminated the eastern sky the town was full of men, armed to the teeth 
with rifles and revolvers, with also a couple of small field-pieces, which hap- 
pened (?) to be in that vicinity at the time. Sentinels were placed around 
the ranch to guard their prisoners, for such indeed they were. In the morn- 
ing, as soon as Curtis came out, a deputation of settlers waited upon him and 
requested his immediate presence in the village, stating at the same time, 
that if he refused, the entire force of settlers would march against his place, 
and that not a man would be left alive. Thinking that discretion was the 
better part of valor, he reluctantly complied, and accompanied the depu- 
tation. Once there, he was placed upon a goods box in mock deference to 
his political style of making stump speeches, and asked to explain why he 
had brought this crowd of roughs to his rancho. He explained what he 
expected to do with the men, and intimated that he expected to still carry 
out his original idea. He was then told that by ten o'clock that morning 
they would expect him to have his braves (?) en route for San Francisco, 
and to see that their order was obeyed a detail of thirty mounted armed men 
was sent along with him. He went back to his crowd of bullies and told 
them the turn affairs had taken, and they were only too willing to march back 
to Petaluma, especially when they saw the crowd of armed horsemen. And 
thus ended the fiasco. It cost Curtis over two thousand dollars for that 
day's work, and it availed him naught. 

Bodega Lodge, F.d: A. M. — Bodega Lodge, No. 213, F. & A. M., was organ- 
ized December 17, 1870. The following named gentlemen were charter mem- 
bers: William H. Manefee, A. S. Patterson, N. R. Shaw, L. S. Goodman, A. 
S. Perrine H. M. Barnham, C. C. Robertson, G. N. Sanborn, D. Hakes, M. 
Kiernan, W. W. Gilham, E. O. Stratton, William Hamilton, and W. M. Doran. 
The first officers were: W. H. Manefee, W. M; A. S. Patterson, S. W; N. R, 
Shaw. J. W ; L. S. Goodman, Treasurer, and G. N. Sanborn, Secretary. The 
following crentlemen have filled the ofiice of Master: W. H. Manefee, A. S, 
Patterson, and James McCaughey has held the position for the past six years. 


The present membership is fifteen. Thoy have a very small lodge-room at 
present, but own a fine lot and in the near future propose to erect a large 
and commodious hall. 

Buena Vista Lodge, I. 0. 0. T. — This Lodge, No. 373, was organized March 
12, 1870. The meeting was called to order by Miss Emory. The charter 
members were: C. L. Farnsworth, Mrs. R. Farnsworth, Mrs. A. Hitchcock, 
J. "W. Wilcox, J. Carson, W. Fraser, J. J. Stewart, A. E. Eraser, 0. Hawkins, 
Miss M. Cai-son, Miss H. Watson, William Fleming, J. Kelley, J. Bulger, J. 
T. Frasei', M. Blim, J. Watson, William Thompson, William Johnson, E. H. 
Cheeney, H. Gondey, S. Cheenf^y. and Miss L. Perrine. The first officers 
were: J. W. Wilcox, W. C. T.; Mrs. A. Hitchcock, W. V. T.; C. L. Farns- 
worth, W. S.; J. Carson, W. F. S.; and R. Farnsworth, W. T. This lodge 
had at one time as many as ninety-six members, but interest in it waned, 
and its charter was eventually surrendered. 

No Surrender Lodge, L. 0. G. T. — This Lodge, No. 375, was organized 
November 9, 1875, and had the followincr names on its charter : C. N. An- 
drews, James H. Brown, John Cunningham, Theo. Wright, Tim. Keegan, 
James Piggott, John Piggott, Alf. Sayton, Cordelia A. Brown, and Vesta 
Nickols. The first officers were: C. N. Andrews, W. C. T.; Vesta Nickols, 
W. V. T-. ; James H. Brown, W. S.; John Piggott, W. F. S. ; Cordelia A. Brown, 
W. T. There are at present seventeen members, and they are struggling 
boldly to maintain the truthfulness of their name, " No Surrender." 

Catholic Church. — The first mass was celebrated in this place in March 1860, 
by Rev. Father Rosse. This mass was celebrated in the school house. In Octo- 
ber, 1860, the church building was erected, but was not dedicated until 1862 
or 1863. This is a very neat church building, and serves the purpose of the 
congregation admirably. The following pastors have officiated here: 
Fathers Rosse, Onetta, Welch, Fagin, Slattery, Kelly, Cullen and Gushing. 

Tanneries. — As has been stated before, the first tannery in this vicinity 
was put in o[)eration by Captain Smith in 1851. This was destroyed by 
fire in 1863. In 18G4 the old pioneer, Thomas Murray, erected a building 
and started a tannery about a mile north of the town. He continued to 
make an excellent quality of leather here for several years, but finally dis- 
posed of it to Messrs. Hecht Bros, of San Francisco, who still own it. It in 
conducted at present by John Collins. 

Frkf.stone. — This charmincr little villagre is located near the eastern line of 
the township, and on the line of the North Pacific Coast Railroad, and near 
the corner of three ranches, viz; Jonive, Pogolome and Estero Americano. The 
early history of these ranchos has already been given, but a few more points 
of interest are related here. James Dawson made application for the Pogo- 
lome grant, but before it was confirmed to him he died. His wife under her 


maiden name, Donna Maria Antonia Cazares, secured the confirmation of the 
grant to herself as the widow of Santiago (James) Dawson. This confirmation 
was made by Manuel Micheltorena on the 12th day of February, 1844, and 
was approved by the Departmental Assembly December 26, 1845. The 
grant contained eight thousand seven hundred and eighty-eight and 
eighty-one one-hundredths acres. In November, 1847, F. G. Blume married 
Mrs. Dawson, and the charge of the property passed into his hands. He 
resided in Sonoma at that time, and was engaged in mercantile pursuits. He 
sent his brother-in-law, Henry Hagler, to the ranch as his agent. Hagler, it 
will be remembered, was the man who came from Baltimore with Captain 
Smith as a ship's carpenter. He remained in charge until 1848, when Mr. 
Blume and his wife moved upon the rancho and took charge. They have 
resided continuously in the same house ever since. About this time his 
father-in-law, Francisco Cazares, with his family, came up from Monterey and 
settled on the banks of the Ebabias creek. The settlers league forced Mr. 
Blume to sell much of his valuable estate at nominal figures, so that he now 
owns but a small portion of the original grant. 

The town of Freestone derived its name from a kind of easily worked, or, 
free sandstone quarry which is near the place ; this rock is used extensively 
for building purposes, on account of this quality. After a town had been 
started and the dwellers therein wej-e casting about for an appropriate name, 
one Frank Harris bethought himself of this freestone quarry, and at once 
suggested it, which, after due consideration, was adopted. Mr. Blume had kept 
a small stock of goods in one room of his residence since 1848, but the first 
business house erected in the town was a saloon with a small store attached 
kept by Ferdinand Harbordt. This was in 1849. Probably during the same 
year or the next at least, S. Bruggerman erected a large store building at O'Far- 
rell's place. In 1853 Mr. Blume built a large two-story hotel, which he rented 
to James Dobson. During the same year W. H. Sailhardt built a black- 
smith shop. Thomas O'Grady also built one at the same time, but did not 
occupy it. At present there is one general store, one hotel, one blacksmith 
shop, one carpenter shop, one stirrup factory, one saloon, one tannery, which 
was put in operation in 1878 by Jacob Shoenagel. It turns out a good quan- 
tity of leather. The official directory is as follows: F. G. Blume, Justice 
of the Peace and Postmaster; J. C.Morris, Constable; J. D. Carr, Telegraph 
and Wells, Fargo «Sz; Co.'s agent. 

The town is nicely located, and is fast becoming popular for country res- 
idences for city people. It is within easy reach of San Francisco. 

Valley Ford. — This thriving little village is situated on the Estero Ameri- 
cano, four miles from its mouth. It received its name from the fact that an 
old Indian and Spanish ford across this stream, was locate I at this place. 
Stephen L. and James E. Fowler were the first settlers here, having purchased 


of Mr. Blurae six hundred and forty acres lying between the Estero and Ebabias 
creeks. In July of 1852, they built a house about two hundred yards from 
the old ford. The same year, Thos. Smith built a cabin near where John 
Vanderleith now lives. Sanford% Webber located across the creek. They 
received a portable grist-mill from the East, and during that Winter were 
kept busy grinding grain for the neighbor.s. The flour was coarse and 
unbolted Whitehead Fowler and E. Thurber also located in this part of 
Bity valley during that year. During the next year the greater portion of the 
valley land was taken up. In 1854 a crop of oats, yielding one hundred bushels 
to the acre, was raised on the present town site. During this year Stephen 
C. Fowler and his family, consisting of his wife and sons, John H. and 
Nathaniel, arrived at Valley Ford. Mrs. Fowler was the first lady resident 
of that section. In 1856, the Thos. Smith mentioned above began operations 
with a grist-mill on a smalFscale. He had two run of burrs, and used twelve 
horses as a motor. Two years later a steam engine was placed in the mill, and 
it soon became famous for its extra brands of flour. In the Fall of 18G1, 
Daniel Hall opened a blacksmith shop. That same year J. H. Fowler and 
and O. M. Perkins opened a general merchandise business ; Jas. E. Fowler 
opened a lumber yard, andlE. B. and J. W. Palmer built a carpenter shop. 
J. N. Rien built the Valley Ford Hotel in 1864. In the Summer of 1876, 
the North Pacific Coast Railroad Company extended their line through the 
town, and erected a neat depot. This brings the people of this place within 
four hours of San Francisco, instead of the old-time tedious route via Peta- 
luma. The population of the place is about one hundred. There is a district 
school here. The present business interests of the town are as follows: One 
store, one blacksmith shop, one tin shop, one hotel, one livery stable, two 
physicians, one shoe shop, one steam flour mill (owned by Huntly & Cook), 
and one saloon. The official directory is as follows : P. E. Merritt, Post- 
master; Brown & Le Baron, Wells, Fargo & Co.; B. Fowler, Telegraph 
agent. The postoffice was established in 1875. 

Valley Ford, I. 0. G. T. — This Lodge, No. 156, was organized March 2, 
1865. The charter members were: Rev. J. R. Hammond, Mary E. Stanley, 
Benj. Harrington, A. M. Huntley, Miss Lizzie Mills, Geo. P. Stanley, Wm. 
Huntley, Rev. A. Fairbairn, E. D. Mills, Wm. Withrow, A. J. Blainey, Mrs. 
C. E. Fowler, Mrs. A. E. Huntley, and E. M. Dibble. Rev. J. R. Hammond 
was the first W. C. T., and Benj. Hammond the first Sec'y. The present 
membership is thirty. The lodge has always been in a flourishing condition 
and much interest is felt here in the cause of temperance. 

Presbyterian Church. — This church organization was effected December 5, 
1863, by Rev. Thomas Eraser, as the Old School Presbyterian Church of Big 
Valley, under the Presbytery at Benicia, and the Synod of the Pacific Coast. 
The organizing members were Stephen C. Fowler, Mrs. Rebecca Fowler, 
Mrs. Mary. J. Palmer, Mrs. Olivia N. Gordon, Mrs. Elizabeth Pettit, Mrs. 


Laura Meacham, Miss Olivia E. Meacham, G. W. Case. Mrs. Adelaide L. 
C-Bse, Mrs. Hannah N. Hall, Mrs. H. Cain, and Mrs. Sarah B. Palmer. The fol- 
lowing named pastors have served the church since its organization: Rev- 
erends Jaa. S. Wylie, Lewis Thompson, C. H. Crawford, H. R. Avery, R. 
McCulloch, and Hugh McLeod. The present neat church edifice was erected 
in the winter of 1865-6. The present membership is thirty-three. 

OccciDENTAL. — This is a beautiful little village situated in a most delight- 
ful location. It is on the line of the North Pacific Coast Railroad, at the point 
where it crosses the divide between the waters which How into the O'Farrell 
valley on the south, and into the Russsan river, through Howard's canon, on 
the north. From this fact the place is also called Summit. The railroad 
company, have named the station Howards' in honor of William Howard, the 
oldest settler living in that section and on whose land a portion of the town 
is situated. The other portion of the town is built' upon land belonging to 
M. C. Meeker. The first start of this town was far different from most Cali- 
fornia towns, and we hasten to record the fact that the first building in the 
place was a church. The committee who were appointed to choose a location 
for the proposed church building met, and after selecting the site, took into 
consideration what name they should give to it. They decided upon Occidental. 
The postoflice was also petitioned for under that name, hence the place is 
mentioned indiflferently as Howard's Station, Meekers, Summit,and Occidental. 
The town lies in the heart of a redwood forest, and the old stumps still stand 
in the streets. One hundred and twenty thousand shingles were made out 
of a tree which stood on the town site. The church building mentioned above 
was erected in 1876. That same year the railroad reached this point, and 
the first passenger train arrived here October 16, 1876. M. C. Meeker erected 
a hotel building which was occupied by J. W. Noble. He began operations 
in January, 1877. The first store was opened by McCaughey & Co., April 
4, 1877. Other buildings followed in rapid succession, nearly all being built 
in 1877, There are twenty-four buildings in the town, of which all but 
seven were erected by the enterprising milling firm of Meeker Bros. 

The very first permanent settler in this immediate » section was Michael 
Kolmer. He arrived in California in 1846, having with him his family, con- 
sisting of his wife, two daughters and one son. They spent that winter at 
Sutter's Fort, then went to Fort Ross, and spent the year of 1847. In 1848, 
he came down and leased land of Captain Smith, on the Bodega Rancho. 
This tract of land was located about two and one-half miles west of the 
present site of Howard's Station, in what is known as Coleman valley. The 
original name was Kolmer valley, taking its appellation from the Kolmer 
family. It has since been modified to Coleman. One of his daughters mar- 
ried William Howard, and still resides with her husband at their homestead 
near Occidental. The other daughter married William Benitz, and is now 
residing in the Argentine Republic. A man named Patrick McCue was th 


next settler. He located in a little valley just east of Howard's Station in 
1849. McCue came to California in 1847, with Samuel Brannan and the 
Mormons in the ship "Brooklyn." He came up to Bodega and worked at 
the blacksmith business for some time for Captain Smith, on his rancho and 
at his mill. He soon, however, came to the mill run by James Black and 
others, near the present site of Freestone. He followed his trade here for a 
while, and finally settled as stated above. In 1852, he left the country. The 
next permanent settler was William Howard, who came to California in 1848, 
and located on his present homestead in 1849. He was the first settler who 
actually owned the land he was upon, and is the only old settler who still 
resides in this vicinity. Mr. Howard had a partner by the name of Charles 
Romer. They remained together till 1855. During the next few years several 
squatters came and went, but none made permanent homes. From that time 
on till the advent of the railroad, nothing occurred to cause a ripple upon the 
even tenor of its way. The town has- assumed quite an importance as a ship- 
ping point, cord-wood, fence-posts, tan-bark, and charcoal form the bulk of 
the exports. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. — The Occidental (M. E.) church edifice was 
erected in 187G, but a church organization was not effected till the following 
year. The present membership is thirty-five. The following ministers have 
served the people at this place : Revs. A. Winning, D. E. George, A. K. 
Sheriflf, H. E. Tallman, C. S. Milnes. 

Salmon Creek Lodge, I. 0. 0. F. — This lodge. No. 234, was organized 
August 2, 1875, at Bodega Corners, and was moved to Occidental, May 25, 
1878. The charter members were : J. K. Smith, G. C. Taylor, J. H. Brown. 
A. Willis, David Robinson, H. Samsel, W. J. Lewis, L. F. Wormell, and J- 
Sutter. The first officers were : J. K. Smith, N. G. ; G. C. Taylor, V. G. ; J. 
H. Brown, Secretary; and D. Robinson, Treasurer. The following members 
have filled the position of N. G. : J. K. Smith, James H. Brown, G. C. Tay- 
lor, L. F. Wormell, W. Ramsdale, J. Worry, S. McCrady, and I. C. Perry. 
The present officers are : I. C. Perry, N. G. ; Thomas Murray, V. G. ; D. J. 
Carr, Secretary; and W. Light, Treasurer. The present membership is fifty- 
four. The lodge is in a very flourishing condition. They have a very neat 

Altamont Lodge, I. 0. G. T. — Altamont Lodge, No. 374, I. O. G. T., was 
chartered June 2, 1877, with the following original members : I. C. Perry, 
Mrs. H. M. Perry, J. D. Conley, Mrs. G. G. Blainey, Rev. D. E. George, Mrs. 
E. George. D. P. Rice, H. P. Hurlburt, T. J. Alley, R. M. Shaffer, G. W. 
Shuster, F. W. Giffbrd, W. Rima, Mrs. R. Stone, Miss M. B. Haufstader, 
Miss A. Hurlburt, Miss H. Hurlburt, Mrs. F. A. Rollison, and H. Hurlburt. 
The first officers were: T. J. Alley, W. C. T.; Mrs. E. George, W. V. T. 
H. P. Hurlburt, Secretary; and Mrs. F. A. Rollison, Treasurer. In due 


course of time the interest in the cause of temperance began to wane, and 
the charter was finally surrendered in May, 1878. Since that time there 
has been no move in the cause of temperance. 

The business interests of the town are represented as follows: One hotel, 
two stores, two saloons, one blacksmith shop, one livery stable, one feed 
store, two meat markets, one shoe shop, one barber shop, and one physician. 
The population is about one hundred. The official directory is: O. Collister, 
Notary Public; Telegraph and Wells, Fargo & Co.'s agent, A. J. Blainey, 
Postmaster. The Occidental postoffice was established December 7, 1876, 
with the present incumbent as postmaster. There is a public school in the 
town, which was established in 1878. There is a nice new school-house 
located just at the southern entrance to the town. 

Saw-Mills. — As has already been stated, the first attempt to make lum- 
ber in this township was made by James Dawson, in 1835, with a saw-pit 
and hand rip-saw. The first mill was that of Captain Smith, which was 
the first steam saw-mill in California, established in 1843. The next saw- 
mill was located on the Jonive Rancho, and was put in operation sometime 
previous to 1849. We find no record of when the mill was built, but find 
that it was disposed of in 1849. This mill was situated on the little creek 
which passes through Freestone, very near the present site of the town, and 
was run by water power. Edward M. Mcintosh, James Black, Thomas 
Butters, William Leighton, Frederick Hegel, Thomas Wood, and a pioneer 
who was known by the peculiar name of " Blinking Tom," put the mill in 
operation. In 1849, it is said that they disposed of their mill and lumber to 
F. G. Blume, and went to the mines. The next milling enterprise was 
inaugurated in 1848, and was known as the "Benicia" or " Blumedale Mill 
and Lumber Company," This company was composed of mechanics who 
were at work on the Government barracks at Benicia. Charles McDermot 
was President and John Bailifi*, Secretary ; Lieutenant, now General George 
Stoneman, and a Mr. McKnight, and others, were memibers of the company. 
F. G. Blume rented the land to this company, hence the name of " Blume- 
dale." It was a circular saw and the power was steam. It was put in 
operation in 1849. The site of the mill was on Ebabias creek, about one mile 
south of Freestone. The next mill built was what is now known as the Joy 
mill. It was put in operation in 1855, by three brothers by the name of 
Thurston. It is located northward from Bodega Corners, and is still stand- 
ing on the original site, and is doing good service yet. It has a capacity (>t 
about three thousand feet per day. Messrs. Mudge, Phelps and Perkins, 
the parties who purchased Captain Smith's mill, and leased the timber land 
for ninety-nine years, moved their mill, in 1859, to a site about one mile 
south of Occidental. In 1862, they removed it to Mendocino county. In 
1866, M. C. Meeker put his mill in operation. It is located near the old site 
of the last named mill, south of Occidental. It is a fine miU, and has a capa- 



city of fifteen thousand feet daily. There is one pair of double saws in it, 
the bottom saw being sixty inches in diameter, and the top one fifty-eight. 
It is also supplied with a full outfit of all the necessary machinery and 
appliances to make it a first-class mill in every respect. In 1867, Mr. Smith 
built a mill in Coleman valley. It has a capacity of twelve thousand feet^ 
and is a first-class mill. 

"Pacific Press" Publishing House, Oakland, Cal. 



This township is situated in the extreme north of Sonoma, borders on 
Lake county, and is famous for its picturesque scenery. Through it the 
Russian river Hows, leaving a tract of rare fertility on either bank, while 
it is backed by a range of hills which, though they produce no trees, grows 
an abundance of grass. Upon these, thousands of sheep are pastured, the 
raising of this stock being its principal industry. 

Cloverdale. — This is the only town in the township, and had its com- 
mencement in this wise: In the year 1856, R. B. Markle and W. J. Miller 
purchased eight hundred and fifty acres, which included the present site of 
Cloverdale, from Johnson Horrell, who claimed a portion of the Rancho de 
Musalacon. In 1859, J. A. Kleiser bought the property of the above named 
parties and, in October of that year, had the site surveyed and the town 
laid out by J. B. Wood, County Surveyor. It was named Cloverdale — a 
happy departure from the pecular mining names or Indian appellations then 
in vogue — but by whom, it has never been fully established; the evidence, 
however, is in favor that Mrs. R. B. Markle was the fair sponsor. 

A man named Levi Rosenburg opened the first store in this part of the 
country, on the east side of Russian river, near its confluence with Sulphur 
creeky some time early in 1856. In October of that year, J. H. Hartman 
and F. G. Hahman of Santa Rosa conceived the idea of establishing a trading 
post at Markle's place — by which name Cloverdale was then known — it 
being on the route taken by travellers to Mendocino and Humboldt. The 
first hotel was opened by R. B. Markle about this time in the house now 
occupied by John Fields on East street, and was called the Cloverdale Hotel. 
On Kleiser becoming possessed of the property he succeeded Markle in the 
hotel business as well, and kept it for one year from September, 1859. The 
first house within the town of Cloverdale was an adobe, owned by a Span- 
iard, and situated on the eminence south of Mr. Kleiser's house, on land 
now owned by William Colwell. In 1859, Hartman & Hahman disposed of 
their business to Levi & Co.; others came in, but the growth of the town 
was next to nil. It was not until the arrival of the railroad that matters 
mended, then a reaction set in. 

On February 28, 1872, an act incorporating the town of Cloverdale was 
approved and the limits described to be as under, to wit : — 

Commencing at the mouth of a certain creek where it empties into Russian 
river, on the west side of said river, at or near where the road leading from 


Cloverdale to Clear Lake crosses said Russian river, and continuing up the 
center of said creek until it strikes the north-west corner of the lands of 
John Otis; thence in a southerly direction along the Wamboldt and Kleiser 
line fence, and still continuing in said direction until it strikes the south-west 
corner of Dr. J. Ramey's lot of land, and then in an easterly direction to 
the south-west corner of Blakeley's land; thence northerly to Kleiser's picket 
fence, being the line fence between Caldwell's and Kleiser's land; thence 
following said fence to Russian river; thence up said river to place of be- 

Under this Act the following were appointed Trustees in May, 1872: Harry 
Kier, Amasa Morse, John Field, W. E. Crigler and Theodore Harper. 

The town is cozily nestled among the hills and possesses a number of neat 
residences, more in proportion than in most places of no greater population 
There are a Congregational, a Methodist Church South, and a Catholic church. 
The public school is a well constructed building, presenting with its shade of 
native oaks, a very atti-active appearance, besides which the Masonic, Odd- 
Fellows and United Workmen orders are represented. The Cloverdale Water 
Works, under the management of J. A. Carrie, supply the town with water 
sufficient for all demands, while it boasts of one newspaper, an excellent 

In the Spring of 1872, W. J. Bowman started the Cloverdale Review. 
Soon after S. B. Baccus commenced the publication of the Cloverdale Bee. 
In November, 1876, the Cloverdale News was given to the public by W. S. 
Walker, who now owns and conducts the Cloverdale Reveille. 

First Congregational Church. — The outgrowth of this church was from 
the labors of Rev. James S. Burger, a missionary of the American Home 
Mission Society, who commenced his labors in that district on November 1, 
1868. A congregation was organized by Rev. James H. Warren, D. D., 
then agent in California for that society, on January 17, 1869, consisting of 
the following members: Rev. James S. Burger and Mrs. Burger, Mrs. 
Charles Cooley, Mrs. J. A. Carrie, Mrs. H. F. Gerkhart, Mrs. Sarah Hall, 
and Mrs. John Edwards. It was then resolved to erect a place of worship, 
and a building committee appointed, consisting of David C .Brush, Charles H. 
Cooley, James A. ,Kleiser, Thomas S. Calvin, and Harry Kier. This edifice 
was commenced in 1870 and completed during the following year, being 
situated in Block L., West street, and cost about two thousand five hundred 
dollars. It is thirty by fifty feet, and has a belfry, in which hangs a well- 
toned bell, presented by J. B. Ford, of Mendocino City, but now a resident 
of Brooklyn, Alameda county, which cost three hundred dollars. 

In July, 1870, Rev. James S. Burger resigned the pastorate, when a call 
was accepted by Rev. E. Jones, who preached his first sermon in September of 
that year. March 27, 1871, Mr. Jones resigned, and was succeeded by Rev. 


D. I. Williams, of Shillsbury, Wis., who took charge of the church as acting 
pastor ; he left in May, and on July 14, 1871, Rev. William J. Clark entered 
upon the duties of acting pastor. In the month of March, 1872, Doctor 
Warren, of San Francisco, presented a beautiful silver communion set, as a 
gift from the Congregational Church of Oakland; August 18th, of this year, 
Mr. Clark sent in his resignation, and on the 3d of October, G. F. G. Morgan 
was elected pastor for one year ; he, however, preached but a short time, 
when an invitation was extended to the Rev. A. F. Hitchcock, dated October 
13, 1872. Mr. Hitchcock not accepting the call, it was sent to J. J. Powell, 
of Rio Vista, on December 1st; he commenced his duties on December 4, 
1872. On May 8, 1875, Mr. Powell resigned. On June 6th Isaac W. 
Atherton was called to the pastorate ; on July 4 th, he accepted it and 
forthwith commenced his labors. He resigned September 30, 1877. Decem- 
ber 30th of that year, Rev. S. P. Whiting, the present pastor, was called to 
undertake the duties. 

At a meeting held in January, 1879, Miss Sarah Miner was elected Clerk, 
and is the present holder of that office. The membership is thirty-six, while 
the attendance at the Sabbath-school, of which Henry Hoskins is the Super- 
intendent, is about fifty. 

Catholic Church.— ThiB church commenced holding services about the year 
1870, in the Cloverdale Hotel and other places till 1878, when the present 
beautiful little church on block A, corner of Main and Broad streets, was 
erected. It was dedicated, May 7, 1870, by Archbishop Alemany of San 
Francisco. Services are held once a month by Father J. M. Conway of Santa 

Societies. — Curtis Lodge, No. 160, F. and A. M. — This Lodge com- 
menced work under dispensation, August 8, 1859, with William H. Hollis, 
W. M.; Eli Lester, S. W.; T, J. Gould J. W.; J. B. Estess, Treasurer; Thomas 
Johnson, Secretary; James Ramey, S. D.; N. L. Morrey, J. D.; Samuel 
Larson, Tyler, who with J. W. Belden, were the charter members. The first 
meetings were held in a building now occupied by Charles Cook as a saloon 
in block J. On May 10, 1860, the charter was granted. In the Summer of 
1870, the lodge moved into a building, the first one north from their former 
room, where they are now located. The officers for the present term are: 
H. Kier, W. M.; Charles H. Cooley, S. W.; Charles Bean, J. W.; J. A. Carrie, 
Treasurer; D. N. Wambold, Secretary; Lars H. Woolford, S. D.; C. A. 
Williams, J. D.; Thomas Johnson, Tyler. 

Cloverdale Lodge, No. 193, I. 0. 0. F. — This Lodge was organized Decem- 
ber 2, 1871, with R. A. Zimmerman, N. G.; J. L. Dougherty, V. G.; Jasper 
A. Linville, Recording Secretary; F. D. Mize, Treasurer; who were with 
Philip How, the charter members. This meeting was held in the Masonic 
Hall, opposite the United States Hotel, continuing there to convene until 


February 1, 1875, when they leased the brick building adjoining the above 
hotel, belonging to D. Chamberlain, situated on Lot No. 40, block C, and fitted 
the upper story as a lodge-room, where they are now located. Their day 
of meeting had from its organization up to the month of September, 1876, 
been every Monday; since that time it has been changed to Saturday even- 
ing of each week. The lodge is in a flourishing condition, and has for its 
present officers: Frank Spencer, N. G. ; L. R. Standley, V. G. ; P. Ludwig, Secre- 
tary; Neil Anker, Treasurer. The average membership is thirty five. 

Cloverdale Lodge, No. 32, A. 0. U. Tf.— The Lodge of Ancient Order of 
United Workmen at Cloverdale was granted its charter May 3, 1878, the 
following being the officers at the time: Isaac E. Shaw, P. M. W.; C. A. 
Williams, M. W.; W. D. Sink, G. F.; W. F. Brush, O.; C. H. Bean, Recorder; 
J. A. Carrie, Financier; J. F. Hoadley, Receiver; John B. Cooley, Guide; 
W. N. Waite, I. W.; Frank Spencer, O. W. The lodge meets every Mon- 
day evening in the hall of I. O. O. F., and is in a prosperous condition. The 
officers elected for the term ending December 31, 1879, are: W. D. Sink, P- 
M. W.; Neil Anker, M. W.; C. H. Bean, Recorder; E. A. Hoadley, Financier; 
J. F. Hoadley, Receiver; C. F. French, G. F.; W. N. Waite, O.; Charles 
Phillips, G.; C. A. Williams, I. W.; John B. Cooley, O. W. 

Schools. — The first school was opened in the year 1861, on the site of the 
present house, and was built by J. A. Kleiser. The building wherein instruc- 
tion is now carried on is twenty-four by sixty feet, constructed of wood, and 
is two stories high. It is a graded school, the teachers being: W. H. Has- 
kins, principal; Mary J. Field, first assistant; Mary E. Minor, second assis- 
tant; and Eva J. Emory, third assistant. 

Cloverdale Water TTor/iS. — This company was established in the Summer 
of 1872, the books being opened in September of that year. The water is 
brought from Carrie's ranch, a distance of two-and-a-half miles, and has a 
fall of three hundred feet, with one break in the entire length. The com- 
pany supplies, besides the dwelling houses, the sprinkling cart and fire 
department, there being sufficient force to make it thoroughly effective in 
such an emergency. The enterprise was started by F. W. Lougee, Josiah 
Moulton, and J. A. Carrie, who is the manager of the works, and from 
whose property the supply is obtained. 

Hotels. — Cloverdale Hotel. — Was erected in the year 1858, by R. W_ 
Dodge, and managed by him and others until October 5, 1872, when M. 
Menihan leased the building, having made considerable additions thereto 
since that time. The building is situated on West street, and is the starting 
place of stages for all parts of the country, the proprietor being agent for 
the Geyser Springs and Mendocino stage line. 

United States Hotel. — In the year 1859 thirty-six by twenty-four feet of 
this building was constructed, comprised in two stories of brick, with kitchen 



addition; to this was added in 1865 two stories adjoining, thirty-three by- 
forty, of the same material, and as necessity demanded the following additions 
have been since made. In 1873 a barber-shop and saloon, two stories of 
thirty by sixty feet, and in 1875 a kitchen thirty- three by sixty-four feet. 
The building is located on Block C, Lots thirty-eight and thirty-nine, cor- 
ner of West and Second streets, and has a frontage on the former of one hun- 
dred, and on the latter one hundred and eight feet. A spacious verandah 
occupies its entire length on both thoroughfares, while the dining-room, 
which is on Second street, is a square room capable of accommodating a hun- 
dred guests. The United States Hotel was built by H. F. Gerkhart, who is 
still its proprietor, at a cost, as it now stands, of forty thousand dollars, and is 
replete with every comfort for the permanent as well as the transient guest. 
The Cloverdale Reveille. — This newspaper made its appearance in the first 
week of October, 1879, W. S. Walker being the publisher and proprietor 
The Cloverdale News was started in November, 1876, by the same gentleman, 
but in the following April he disposed of his interest to J. F. Hoadly, who con- 
tinued its publication until the Spring of the present year, when he removed 
the office to Santa Rosa, running it in the interest of the New Constitution 
party, at which place he suspended its publication in September, 1879. Mr. 
Walker then purchased the material, removed it to Cloverdale and the Reveille 
made its appearance as above stated. It is a well printed and readable sheet 
with every promise of a bright future before it. 




This township is situated on the north-east boundary of Sonoma, with 
Napa county at the foot of Mount St. Helena, one of the loftiest and most 
beautiful peaks of the Mayacmas range. It includes about thirteen thousand 
acres of valley land, covered by a Spanish grant, and is now partly owned 
by a company who maintain a Summer resort at Kellogg, and partly by 
Calvin H. Holmes, an old and most respected pioneer. 

The scenery in Knight's Valley embraces the characteristic groves of oaks 
and other woods on the hills and in the hollows, which are to be found all 
over the county; walks and drives of rare beauty, excelling those which 
might be devised by man's handiwork, intersect the low-lying grounds and 
mountain slopes, while through its length passes one of the roads — that from 
Calistoga — ^leading to the far-famed Geysers, the most marvelous of Sonoma's 
romantic pictures. This thoroughfare was built by Sam. Brannan, W. Pat- 
teison, Calvin Holmes and others, in 1869-70, and though by no means so 
famous as the Hog's Back road, on account of its many hair-breadth escapes, 
still it combines all the beauties of scenery, and grandeur of hill and dale 
which the other made attractive. 

The earliest settler in Knight's Valley was William McDonald, who came 
there from Napa county in the year 1850, and was the first to act as 'guide 
to the Geysers, visitors to the Springs being provided with saddle horses 
by him. Thomas Knight, from whom the valley takes its name, arrived 
in 1853, and purchased the property for the small sum of ten thousand dol- 
lars from Berryesa, a Spaniard, who had been located there for many y«^ars 
previous. A school was taught in the valley, on the land now owned by 
Calvin ETolmes, by Charles Rushmore, in 1857, and is still used for that pur- 
pose, while service is occasionally held in it by a clergyman from Calistoga. 

The principal industry of this township is wheat-growing and sheep-rais- 
ing; there are, however, two mines located on Holmes' land, which are not 
now worked. The Great Western Quicksilver mine is also partly situated in 
Knight's Valley township, the workings running under the dividing line 
between Sonoma and Lake counties. Besides these industries, there are two 
saw-mills .situated at the upper end of the valley, one now in disuse; that in 
operation is the property of Annesley and Davis, of Lake county. The one 
now working was built by Thomas Knight in 1856, and is the property of 
Steele Brothers. 

The outlet for the productions of the township is the town of Calistoga, 


in Napa county, to which there is an excellent road, and from whence there^ 
is communication with San Francisco by railroad. 

Any account, however meagre, of Knight's Valley would be imcomplete" 
without mention being made of the fine estate of Calvin Holmes, a portion 
of the original Rancho de Malacomes. Here Mr. Holmes has erected a superb 
mansion, and magnificent farm houses, arranged with every design to insure 
the care and confort of his stock. Adjoining this farm is the elegant resi- 
dence and fine ranch of George Hood, of Santa Rosa. 

Kellogg. — This Summer resort is situated in Knight's Valley, at the foot 
St. Helena mountain, about seven miles from Calistoga, nineteen from the 
Geysers, and seventeen from Healdsburg. The original building (now re- 
modeled as a hotel) was built by Berryesa and was constructed of adobe 
cl&y , to which he made additions of frame and stone ; it next passed into the 
hands of Knight and Rockwell, who disposed of it to a man named Has- 
brook, who in turn sold it with the Knight's Valley Ranch to one Stewart. 
He incorporated it into the Knight's Valley Land and Contract Company, 
from whom it passed into the hands of Steele Brothers, the present pro- 
prietors. It was first opened as a place of Summer resort by the afore- 
said Stewart. The buildings consist of ten cottages besides the main hotel, 
while there is capacity for one hundred and twenty -five visitors. 

FossviLLE. — This is a station between Kellogg and Calistoga named after 
and owned by Clark Foss, the porprietor of the stage-route to the Geysers, 
who came here in 1871 and opened a hotel. This hostelry is furnished with 
every convenience throughout, has twenty-five rooms and accommodation for 
a large number of guests. Mr. Foss has here several stables and coach-houses, 
and in the summer months the scene presented in front of these buildings is 
animated in the extreme. 



This township is the largest in the county and is situated in the north- 
east of Sonoma, rounding off to the north-west. It is diversified with 
every imaginable phase of scenery from the park-like plains of the 
valleys, dotted with groves and sprinkled with beautiful homes, to the 
bold mountain-land pine covered to their summits, thickly clothed with 
almost impenetrable brush-wood, until culminating in high, rocky peaks. 
From the summit of Geyser Peak, a high mountain, situated on the 
border of the adjoining township of Washington, a prospect of the most 
ravishing order is mapped out at our feet. At a glance the large main 
valley through which the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad runs, is 
taken in, from the shore of the San Pablo bay, to its terminus at Cloverdale. 
The prosperous towns of Cloverdale, Geyserville, Healdsburg, Windsor, Ful- 
ton, Santa Rosa, and Petaluma are easily distinguished, while a little to the 
east of south we look upon the world-renowned Sonoma valle}'. At the foot 
of Mount St. Helena, we have the fertile Knight's valley, while to add com- 
pleteness to the scene, the Russian river may be followed, flowing through the 
district in many a beautiful meander, appearing like a silver thread, as the 
sun glances upon its bosom, until lost in the arms of the Great Pacific. 

The earliest permanent white settler in Mendocino township was Cyrus 
Alexander. As has been shown in our history of Russian River township, 
his agreement with Captain Fitch had lapsed from time, and he took up his 
residence on that part of the Sotoyome grant lying on the east side of Russian 
river, including the land from the river's channel to the boundary line of the 
said grant, comprising the fertile valley which has since borne his name, 
situated along the foot-hills, north and east, far enough to include two 
Spanish leagues. This was in 1845, but the title to the property he did 
not receive until September, 1847. On taking possession he commenced to 
erect himself a permanent residence, but waiting for the hardening of sun- 
dried bricks was too slow a process ; he therefore began the erection of a red- 
wood building similar to that described, in another place, in a situation of much 
natural beauty and advantage, the structure being placed on an eminence 
near to which flowed a stream of crystal water, which found its source in a 
large hill behind, while to the east of the location were numbers of living 
springs, all offering magnificent advantages for a permanent settlement. 
Here he commenced the labors of reclaiming ground which he tilled with a 
primitive plow, already noted elsewhere. At his new home he planted, in 1846, 


a few grapevines, as well as some apple and peach seeds, which, as soon as they 
showed above ground, he irrigated with water procured from the stream 
close by, while the construction of the adobe house was proceeded with in the 
dry season, covering it with a roof of shingles which he procured from the 
adjacent forests. As the cultivation of wheat increased, Alexander bethought 
him of the necessity of erecting a flour or grist-mill, and at once set to work 
to consider the ways and means. Some suitable rock was found east of 
the position now occupied by the town of Healdsburg, but difficult to obtain 
on account of being situated high up on a mountain side. A Spaniard was 
therefore hired, who from these cut mill-stones, making them about two feet 
in diameter, and afterwards dragged them down to level ground by means of 
a horse and lariat, whence they were conveyed on the primitive wagon, 
already mentioned; the site for the mill being chosen on the stream by which 
stood his dwelling. Let us describe this, the earliest flour-mill in the district: 
The frame-work on which the machinery should rest was made of timber 
procured from the redwoods; the water-wheel was about the size of an ordi- 
nary washing tub, provided with arms for the water flowing out of a large 
discharge sluice, conveyed from a dam above, to strike against. Set in the 
the wheel and perpendicular with the arms was the main shaft, and on the 
upper end of it the spindle — probably the one mentioned as having been 
forwarded by Captain Fitch* — the spindle being connected by a trundle to 
the stone. The stream furnished water sufficient to work the mill only in 
the rainy season ; but it proved a success, and a source of comfort as well, for 
the neighboring rancheros were wont to make use of it as well as the pro- 
prietor. The mill was not large enough to admit of a bolting cloth, had 
such a thing been procurable then ; a substitute was, however, found in a 
piece of canvas, about five feet long and one wide, stretched on a frame, with 
a slide made of slats for the bolting frame to move backwards and forwards 
upon. In this simple manner was the first mill completed, and good flour 
turned out, in the township now under consideration. This, however, was 
not the only improvement made at this early period by our ingenious pioneer. 
He made a mould in which he manufactured bricks from adobe clay; he 
procured shells from the sea-beach that he burned in a kiln, also made out of 
the ever useful adobe, which he turned into lime, these he employed in the con- 
struction of that house, wherein now resides his widow, the partner of these 
early times ; when finished, at the epoch of which we write, it was eighty feet 
long, twenty feet wide, and twelve feet high, the walls being two feet thick, 
all of solid adobe. 

The year 1846 was a noted one in the annals of California, for it was then 
that immigration to the Pacific coast took any shape among the people of 
the Atlantic, and more westex-n States. Among those who started for 
this then little known country were the Gordons, Morrow, Storey, and 

• Vide History of Russian Fliver Township. 


W. J. March, who all found their way to the Russian river valley and 
in IS^S settled on land now comprised in this township. As month followed 
month, and year succeeded year, so did the population increase. In 1849 
arrived Wm. T. Allen and others; in 1851, Richard E. Lewis and many more. 
In these years the gold fever had stocked California with denizens from 
every known part of the globe; every tongue spoken on the face of the 
globe was to be heard in the gold mines, while all were bent on acquiring a 
large and rapid fortune. Failure or success caused many to leave the 
pursuit of treasure and look for somewhere to settle and thus in the next 
live years every portion of the State received a marvelous increase to the 
number of its residents. In Mendocino township the few residents that 
were not taken with the gold disorder, watched carefully passing events and 
tilled their ground, and planted their produce, waiting for a certain harvest 
of dust. Our old pioneer Cyrus Alexander knew that wealth was now 
within his grasp; he sent his cattle to the mines and there received fabulous 
prices for them. In the Summer of 1850 he succeeded in raising a good 
crop of large sized onions — about two tons in all ; these he dispatched to the 
mines by an ox-team and cleared about twelve hundred dollars on the 
venture by retailing them at froin forty to seventy -five cents per pound. 
Hogs flesh had been up to that time a scarce commodity; they had been, 
however, introduced by Alexander in 1850 or before then. At any rate, in 
that year a drover named Olmstead came from the mines and wanted to 
strike a bargain with Alexander for certain pigs, the price wanted being 
fifty dollars each. This was too great a sum, thought the drover, he therefore 
asked the weight of the porker, but there were no weights or scales to be 
had; he, however, hit upon an ingenious and certainly novel plan to ascertain 
his wish. He inquired if there was any wheat on the ranch, and after 
being informed that there was, he remarked : " Put a rail through the fence 
and fasten a hog on one end with a sack of wheat on the other and see if it 
will balance." Alexander interi'ogated him as to how he would know the 
weight of the sack of wheat. " Oh, " said Olmstead, " I can guess at that," 
on which he received the reply: " Then why not guess the weight of the hog 
in the first place. " This was not so certain a matter for the drover, how- 
ever; he had been a wheat grower in Illinois and was posted in the weight 
of sacks of that staple, but the ponderosity of live pork was beyond his 
ken. The chances were entirely in favor of the vendor in this instance for 
it would have taken more than one sack of wheat to poise the hog, while it 
Is an ascertained fact that wheat to the sack in California weighs heavier 
than it does in Illinois. For these animals Alexander received one thousand 
dollars for twenty, being at the rate of fifty dollars a piece. 

It would appear that a saw-mill had been erected on Mill creek 
about this period, for we find Alexander procuring lumber and building a 
barn as well as making additions to his house. This lumber he obtained in 


exchange for hogs, the commodity at that time being worth seventy-five 
dollars per thousand feet, and a gelt, i. e. a pig that has never had a litter, 
being appraised at the same price, the barter therefore was easily effected. 
In the year 1851 commenced a series of squatting troubles in this section of 
the county. Some of the immigrants coming to the Russian River valley at 
this period cast longing eyes upon the fertile lands of Alexander valley, and 
taking it for granted that they knew all the intricacies of the land law as 
relating to California, occupied such portions as they had a mind to; among 
others who were thus honored by the presence of self-invited guests was 
Cyrus Alexander. With these, however, he never quarrelled, but would 
simply warn them off, advising them of the consequences should they remain. 
As a rule they went away quietly, Alexander always paying them a fair 
price for any improvements made. Afterwards, finding that his property was 
absolutely needed by those who would pay for it, he concluded to dispose of 
all his wild cattle and have the ranch surveyed. This he did, dividing it 
into two reserves, and offering the remainder for sale in lots to suit |)ur- 
chasers. The valley in this way became soon peopled by immigrants from 
Illinois, Iowa, Tenessee, Missouri, Indiana, and New York. This move did 
not relieve Mr. Alexander of the squatters, however, for we find that in 
1856 they once more commenced to molest him, one actually encamping in 
a field of standing wheat, and was not got rid of until threatened by the 
sheriff. The night before he took his departure the barn was burned with 
all its contents, it containing at the time his crop of grain which had been 
just threshed, the threshing machine, fan mills, plows, grain cradles, 
rakes, and various other farm implements; a rick of grain near the barn 
being also consumed. Before closing the annals of Mendocino township let 
us here relate the following amusing annecdote, as the subject of it will be 
remembered by many an old resident. In 1851 Alexander was on the point 
of remodeling his residence, and in the course of his operations to that end he 
found that the wheat which had lain next to the wall in his bin had become 
heated, musty, and therefore spoiled, a portion of it being alive with black 
weavils. It was unfit for seed wheat or flour, so he was at his wits' end what to 
make of it. An unlocked for market soon presented itself. An old man named 
Miller, who had crossed the plains a year or so before, had brought with him 
some of the machinery of a distillery which he had erected. He had heard of 
the damaged wheat, but thinking that it might still be good enough to make 
whisky of, purchased the entire quantity, and succeeded in manufacturing 
if not a good, at any rate an appreciated article. Miller and his wife. Aunt 
Katie, as she was generally called, were both partial to a dram, but they 
could not always command a supply, for grain w^as not to be forever had, 
besides the price of grain was high, and whisky would occasionally be scarce, 
'even in distillery. 

On one occasion, as the men folks were leaving for some other part of the 


county, on the hard work of a Fourth of July celebration, they were much 
concerned as to how to dispose of a jug of the crathur which was in the house. 
From her known propensities, it was deemed impolitic to leave Aunt Katie at 
home in company with the jug, so one of the number, quick of resources and 
lithe of limb, climbed up a tree, and unobserved by Kate, tied it securely far 
out of reach of his thirsty friend. Not long after their departure. Auntie's 
natural and, on this occasion, national thirst required assauging. She, there- 
fore, cast about in search of the treasure, but it was nowhere to be found. 
She suspected that she had been made the victim of some diabolical treach- 
ery, and, therefore, prospected all the more keenly, till, at last, a glimpse of 
the lost jar was caught, as it cosily nestled among the leaves, but, oh ! so 
far beyond her reach. A quarter of an hour's cogitation solved the riddle of 
how to o'ain the prize. With methodic precision she carried o\xi a large 
wash-tub, and having' taken^correct bearings, placed it immediately beneath 
the jug, and next, procuring her husband's rilie, she took deliberate aim, 
banc went the charge, the bullet pierced the target, the liquor trickled into 
the tub, Aunt Katie regaled herself, and was found, on the return of the 
party, in affectionate proximity to what remained of her favorite tipple, 
having had as much "independence" as was good for her. 

We now come to a portion of our chronicles on which it is a pleasure to 
dwell, for nowhere has the beneficent influences of religion been felt to such 
advantage as among the pioneers of every newly-opened country. 

In the year 1852 there were a number of settlements throughout the 
county which naturally commenced to attract the attention of the different 
religious bodies. The first preacher to visit this district was the Rev. A. L. 
S. Bateman of Ohio. His circuit included all the country from Petaluma to 
Big river, a distance of one hundred and fifty miles. In Alexander valley 
he found several Methodist families, and here he was encouraged to make one 
of his stopping places, Cyrus Alexander giving up the best room in his house 
wherein to hold services. In the following year Mr. Bateman returned to 
this field with instructions to build a church, if such were practicable. He 
selected Alexander valley as the most suitable position, and with most sub- 
stantial aid from the Alexander family and other residents, a small house of 
worship was constructed, a Sunday School being shortly after organized in 
the same building. This edifice was unfortunately destroyed by fire about 
ten years later, it is thought by an incendiary. In 1853, a day school had 
also been established in the same buildinof, but finding: that it was not cen- 
tral enough, Cyrus Alexander, at his own expense, built another on his own 
land, and offered it to his neighbors for their especial benefit. He assisted 
them also with money to employ teachers and to maintain the school, which 
is still standing, and known as " Pine Grove," it being used as a place of 
tuition on week days and a church on Sunday. The Rev. Mr. Bateman, 
from the size of his circuit, could not visit the valley oftener than once in 

1 / 


two weeks, therefore, arrangements were made with the Rev. James Woods 
to undertake the work, and as an inducement for him to settle among them 
with his family, and aid in sustaining the school, Alexander presented him 
with a rich farm. 

Healdsburg. — "As the crow flies," Healdsburg is about sixty-five miles 
we^t of north of San Francisco, being thirty-five miles from Petaluma and 
fifteen from Santa, Rosa by the railroad. It occupies a beautiful location on 
Russian river, near its confluence with Dry creek, and rests pleasantly on 
rising ground between the two valleys of Russian river and Dry creek, near 
to it being the eminence usually known as Fitch mountain, though there are 
those who name it by the more euphonious title of Sotoyome, the name given 
to the grant made to Captain Henry D. Fitch. It is a hill of much symme- 
try, the upper portion being well wooded, while at its base are rolling lands, 
offering the advantage of magnificent pasturage ; around the foot of it mean- 
ders the Russian river, clinging to the fertile region as if loth to part with 
the luxuriant vegetation on its slopes. 

The site of the city was originalUy a portion of the grant named above. 
In the year 1852 Harmon Heald, who had crossed the plains in 1849, and 
settled in the county in 1850, not far from the position of the future city, 
located the land, the proper ownership of which was at that time in dispute. 
Heald arguing that should it turn out to be Government property he could 
pre-empt it, and if owned privately he would have a like opportunity offered 
for purchase. On this ground he erected a small clap-board cabin, placing it 
on the side of the main road to Mendocino and the counties to the north, then 
the only artery for wagon travel in this part of the country ; he thus seized 
the opportunity, and procuring a small assortment of goods, opened a store in 
the Fall of the year, and that Winter disposed of them, principally to the 
Indians, of whom there were a great number, who usually paid for their 
purchases in cash, and the travellers on the route. This erection stood on the 
site of the present express office of Wells, Fargo & CcC the original building 
being until lately still standing, a little to the rear (thereof. This was the 
first building in Healdsburg. In this Winter there came to live with Heald, 
Thomas W. Hudson and wife, who assisted him in his household and other 
cares, and in the following Spring, having disposed of his original stock in 
trade, he set to work to replenish his shelves, the goods being procured in 
San Francisco, and thence transported by steamer to Sonoma, and by wagon 
or pack, or both, to their destination. A blacksmith's shop was shortly after 
built by a man of the name of Morse, on the site of the store now kept by 
Sam Myers; he, however, was succeeded by William Dodge and William 
Dow, who had moved their smithery business from the Russian river banks, 
thus making the second building in the embryo city. The third house was 
constructed by August Knaack, on the ground now occupied by the eastern 


end of the Sotoyome House, where he established himself, making chairs and 
repairing wagons. This house adjoined the blacksmith shop already mention- 
ed; Knaack, it is said, performing all the woodwork in connection with that 
business. This was in the Winter of 1853-4, at which time there also came 
H. M. Willson, who, with A. B. Aull, entered into partnership with Harmon 
Heald, wlio built an addition to the store, the business of which was after- 
wards controlled by Willson alone for eighteen months. Early in the year 
1853, Harmon Heald lost his youngest brother, who had crossed the plains, 
with his mother, sister, and another brother, in 1851, his being the first 
funeral in the little settlement. He was interred by the side of a cluster of 
madronas, in what is now the school lot, then apparently far away in the 
backwooils, now surrounded on every side by houses. His remains, along 
with those of many others, were afterwards removed to Oak-Mound Ceme- 
tery. In May of this year there also happened the first birth in the city, in 
the person of Henry H., son of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas W. Hudson, who s )on 
after moved from the little settlement, for we find that in 1854 the town, 
which at that time knew no other name than that of Heald's Store, was 
composed of the buildings mentioned above, with their occupants, Harmon 
Heald and his wife, for he had married at Mark West creek in the previous 
year ; H. M. Willson, William Dow, William Dodge, and August Knaack. 
About this period was established in Heald's store the first postal station, the 
nearest office prior to that time being at Sonoma, whence the mail service 
was conducted by private enterprise, at a charge of two, and, sometimes, four 
bits a letter. 

Nothing of any importance transpired in the following year; in March 
1856, however, McManus moved his store from its position in Russian River 
township, making the second store within what is now known a^ the 
corporate limits of the city of Healdsburg. There was still another store, 
but outside the limits, kept by a man named Engle. 

In the Spring of the year 1857, the town site was surveyed by H. P. 
Mock, and the lots, with the exception of those donated for a district school, 
Cemetery, Methodist Episcopal Church, Baptist Church, Methodist Episcopal 
Church South, Presbyterian Church, and Plaza, sold by private contract, the 
price put upon each by Heald being fifteen dollars, but such was the increase 
in value, that in the following year the lot on which the White House now 
stands was disposed of by him for four hundred and fifty eight dollars. In 
this year (1857) Harmon Heald finding his space too limited for the business 
which was springing up around him, found it necessary to construct a n3W 
store, this he did on the corner now occupied by the Bank of Healdsburg, 
and, adding largely to his stock, opened an establishment of some pretensions. 
We now find the town, which at this period first received its name of Healds- 
burg — though there were those who would have called it Sotoyome — begin- 
ning to .show signs of something like a permanent growth; dwelling houses 


■were commenced by Doctor B. B. Bonham, the pioneer resident practitioner 
of the city, and John N. Bailhache, that of the former being located on what 
is now known as North Street, and the latter on the east side of the Plaza, 
near the Central Market. In this year was constructed the first church, 
now the place of worship of the Presbyterian body, the Rev. James Woods 
being the first minister- At this time, just outside the town limits, w^ere the 
Ohio House, kept by a man named Snyder, the building being still standing 
on the first turn of the Cloverdale road, and occupied by a gunsmith by the 
name of Livey; a saloon owned by A. J. Forrester, and the store already 
mentioned as kept by Engle ; shortly after there was built on the other side 
of the slough, the house now occupied by William Fitch, where there 
was accommodation for a limited number of guests. The city still showed 
signs of increased prosperity, and numbers of people arrived to take advantage 
of the facilities afforded fi'om climate and situation. In 1858, early in the 
year, Jacob Heald and John Raney erected a frame building on the site of the 
present Sotoyome House, which they dubbed with that pleasant sounding 
name, while later in the year Allen and Dickenson built another on the 
corner now occupied by the Geyser Livery Stable of N. W. Bostwick. In 
this year was also raised the first brick building in Healdsburg, which 
occupied the position of Bloom's store, and was the property of Rathburn 
and Brother. There are those who say that the first brick building, also 
erected by Rathburn, stood on the corner now occupied by the Bank of 
Healdsburg. The old settlers are divided on the question; others declare it 
to be the store of Mason & Smith. In 1859 a disastrous fire swept away the 
first mentioned buildings, as w^ell as some intermediate erections, such as a 
saloon with dancing hall above, until its course was stayed by the brick 
house first mentioned. We also find that iu this year the first school house 
was erected on the lot occupied by the building now used for a like 
purpose, while later Professor Scott erected his academy. Let us now cast 
a, retrospective glance upon the fortunes of our new city. She had now 
made a great stride in life; she had been born, had received a name, and was 
now beginning to stand alone. In the year last noted the number of houses 
amounted to more than one hundred and twenty; a brick store had been 
erected, an academy capable of giving accommodation to over one hundred 
pupils had been constructed, while there had been established a fire organi- 
zation, a concert hall, and the fraternal societies usually found where 
Americans most do congregate, the population at this period being con- 
siderably in excess of five hundred. 

To the year 1860, does the honor remain of having produced the first news- 
paper in the'city of Healdsburg; this sheet which appeared in the month of 
January, was edited by A. J. Cox, a gentleman well known as a pioneer 
jctarnalist and still residing in the lovely city of Napa. The print was called 
the Review and was about one fourth the size of the Russian River Flag. It 


gave place in June, 18G4, to the Advertiser, published by Fenno & Warren, 
A. J. Cox being still editor. In June 1865, the paper was changed to the 
Weekly Advertise)', and changing hands on August 5th, of that year it was 
published from that date by Cox & Boggs, under the name of the Democraiie 
Jiei'^ieiu. On October 4, 1865, a new paper was started by William R. Morris 
& Co., called the Democratic Standard, an opposition paper in everything but 
politics. Soon thereafter the Review sold out to Mr. Farley, who moved it 
to Clear Lake county, where it became known as the Ciear Lake Courier. 
On October *3, 1866, Mr. Morris became the sole proprietor of the Standard, 
and shortly afterwards transferred a half interest to J. B. Fitch, who, in Jan- 
uar}- 1867, purchased the interest of Mr. Mor-ris, and in the following month 
disposed of the entire proprietory rights to Boggs &; Menafee. In the course 
of a few weeks, Mr. Boggs seceded, and was succeeded by W. A. C. Smith, 
when the firm became Menafee & Co. In the winter of 1867-8, Measrs. Fitch 
& Davis assumed the reins of office, until in the fall of the latter year when, 
John G. Howell, purchasing the material and good will, its publication was 
suspended. Mr. Howell, thereupon commenced the publication of the Russian 
River Flag, and at once earned for his paper high rank among the Republi- 
can publications of the coast. In 1876, Mr. Howell sold the paper to Jordan 
Brothers, L. A Jordan succeeding as sole propriet tr. In 1876, Mul grew Bros. 
& Wood, started the Healdshurg Enterp^'ise, a publication which has achieved 
much success. Besides being Democratic in politics, it has always made a 
specialty of promoting the interest of Healdsburgaad the surrounding country, 
while its appearance is a pleasing picture of symmetrical form and elegant 

In the year 1867, the town was incorporated under the law of the State 
as it then existed, but during the twentieth session of the Legislature a 
special law was passed incorporating the city of Healdsburg, which was 
adopted by the votes of the city on April 18, 1874. In this Charter the 
corporate limits of the city are declaimed to be as follows: Beginning at the 
section corner to sections sixteen, seventeen, twenty and twenty-one, town- 
ship nine north, range nine west. Mount Diablo meridian; thence running 
Bouth to the section line, seventy-five chains to the road running from 
Healdsburg to and down Dry creek, or to the line of H. M. Willson's land; 
thence east along the north line of Willson's land to the line of L. A. Norton's 
land; thence south along the line between said Norton's land and Willson's 
land to the south line of section twenty-one, to the quarter section corner; 
thence along the south side and parallel to the railroad track to the east side 
of Ru^sian river; thence north to the north line of Matheson street in said 
town, extended; thence west to the east line of University street; thence 
north to the north line of said section twenty-one; thence west along the 
north line of .said .section twenty-one, to the place of beginning. The west 
line, however, in the foregoing boundary, that is to say, the first course 


therein given, after running forty chains, run west to the corner of the plat 
of Healdsburg made by William Mock, County Surveyor, and duly recorded 
in the Recorder's office of the eounty of Sonoma; thence south twelve degrees, 
thirty minutes, east, with the west line of said plat or map until such line 
intersect said section line; thence south on said section line as above described. 
In accordance with said charter the corporate powers of the city of Healds- 
burg is vested in a Board of Trustees, five in number, of which one shall 
be President ; a Police Judge, usually termed a Recorder, one Treasurer, a 
Street Commissioner, City Clerk, Marshall and one Assessor and Collector. 
The Trustees to hold office for the term of two years and until successors 
are elected and qualified. The Police Judge, Treasurer, Marshall, and Assessor 
and Collector are appointed for one year; the Street Commissioner, Attorney 
and City Clerk until their places are filled by other appointments made bj 
the Board of Trustees and entered upon the minutes. 

Such is the spirit of government vested in the city of Healdsburg, Let 
us now turn to the records. 

The first meeting of the town of Healdsburg which we find recorded is 
that held on March 5, 1867, when the body met at the office of L. A. Norton, 
and organized by the election of L. A. Norton as President, and J. J. Max- 
well, Clerk. The days for holding stated meetings were fixed for the first 
and third Monday of each month, from April 1st to October 1st, at eight 
o'clock P. M., and for the balance of the year at seven o'clock. On motion of P. 
Greist, L. A. Norton and W. A. C. Smith were appointed a committee to draft 
by-laws for the corporation, while the bonds for the different officers were 
fixed, the resolution being also adopted, that the clerk was to receive a 
reasonable compensation for his services. Ordinances were ordered to be 
published in the Democratic Standard, and Messrs. Greist, Smith and Wag- 
enseller added to the committee for dra'^ting ordinances. Tne Board of 
Trustees at this date would appear to have been: L. A. Norton, President; 
Peter Greist, W. A. C. Smith, W. N. Wagenseller, and H.Dudley; J.J. 
Maxwell, Clerk; James Wilber, Poundmaster. Ordinances No?. One and 
Two were passed on the 9th March, and No. Three on the 18th; while on 
April 1st a committee consisting of Trustees Smith, Dudley, Griest and Wag- 
enseller was appointed to examine the streets of the town to ascertain what 
was necessary to be done in the way of changing or opening them out. On 
this date, Ordinance No. Four, providing for the licensing of public shows, 
was adopted. On motion of Trustee Smith, Messrs. Norton and Barrow were 
instructed to appeal the case, Hassett & Vaughan vs. James Wilber, the 
Board pledging the faith of the town for the payment of all necessary costs 
thereby incurred. On April 15th, it was decided that a Recorder should be 
added to the list of Municipal officers at the next election. The officers 
elected in the year 1867, which for the lack of any positive information, we 
are led to believe was the first regular election held, were, as nearly as we 


can glean from the records of the city, which were rather imperfectly kept- 
in that year : Trustees, John Hassett, W. A. C. Smith, President, D. Show^ 
John Einei-son and W. N. Wagenseller, all of whom were duly sworn m 
on May 13th; while F. E. Baker, on that day, was appointed Clerk on a 
salary of seventy-five dollars a year. May 20th, the following Committees 
were appointed : Messrs. Show, Smith and Emerson, to draft Ordinances to 
govern the opening of streets ; the same, to draft Ordinances prescrihing the 
duties of Assessor and Collector ; as also one, to fix the manner of raising 
revenue ; at the same time an election was ordered to be held on May 30th, 
to fill the vacancies consequent on the Treasurer, Recorder, Assessor and 
Marshall failing to quality, the result being declared on June 3d to be a& 
under: John McManus, Treasurer; George M. Lacey, Recorder; John W. 
Clack, Assessor; T. G. Poor, Marshal. On the same date, notice was given 
Norton & Darrow, attorneys for defendants in the suit Hassett and Vaughan 
vs. James Wilber, tried before G. M. Lacey, March 27, 1867, that the inhabi- 
tants of the city of Healdsburg will be no longer responsible in the further 
prosecution of the case, and that said attorneys be instructed to dismiss the 
appeal, unless the said defendant shall elect to continue the case on his own 
responsibity ; also, that the sureties on the undertaking on appeal be notified 
of the abandonment of the suit. Ordinances providing for the opening of 
streets, and the raising of revenue were adopted on the 17th June, while it 
was then permitted to Mr. Morrow to erect one of his patent pumps on the 
plaza for trial. At this meeting John Hassett was appointed a committee to 
provide a suitable place to be used as a town jail, while Trustee Wagenseller 
was nominated to engage the services of a gentleman to a,ct as City Attor- 
ney, the office being filled on July 15th by the appointment of F. E. Baker; 
while, on the same date, Messrs. Hassett and Show were chosen a committee 
to make all the necessary arrangements for the construction of a prison, to 
be built by the corporation. On August 5th, claims for damages conse- 
quent upon the opening of certain streets were presented from H. Dudley, 
W. E. Mason, J. L. Terry, C. Rice, C. Soule, Mrs. C. W. Beeson and James 
Palmer, which, on motion, were placed on file, and J. N. Bailhache, J. N. 
Wood and T. A. Field appointed Commissioners to assess such damages. 

In regard to the general history of Healdsburg during the year 1867, the 
most that can be said of it is that its watchword was still "go ahead." 
Houses continued to spring up on every hand, day by day finding themselves 
further out in the country. The stately oaks, which abounded, had to be 
felled to make way for fresh avenues of traffic; the population increased, 
business prospered and all went well, evidencing a firm prospect of future 
prosperity which has not been belied. 

1868. — The city records tell us that on the 31st March of this year the 
resignation of Trustee Daniel Shorr from the Board was accepted and Joseph 
Albertson duly elected to the vacancy; at the same time J. D. Hassett was 


chosen President of the Body for the unexpired term in place of W. A. C. 
Smith, who resigned that position as well as his seat at the Board, the latter 
position being filled by the appointment of J. N. Bailhache. On April 6th, 
L. W. Boggs was appointed City Clerk, and the office of Marshal declared 
vacant by the removal of F. E. Poor outside of the incorporated limits, John 
W. Clack being delegated to fill the office as well as that of Pound Master. 
The Clerk was directed, on this date, to post notices in conspicuous places, 
informing the inhabitants of the town that the acts of the Board of Trustees 
having been legalized by the Legislature, the laws would be enforced in ac- 
cordance therewith. 

1869. — March 10th, John N. Bailhache was appointed Clerk to the Board 
and on May 3d the following Corporation officers were elected: D. Bloom, J. 
E. Fenno, J. Mulligan, Joseph Albertson, James Thistle, Board of Trustees; 
S. M. Hays, Recorder; J. G. McManus, Treasurer; J. W. Clack, Assessor; 
W. B. Reynolds, Marshall ; the new Board electing on the 8th, John Mulligan, 
President and John N. Bailhache, Clerk. On June 28th repairs were ordered 
on the foot-bridge to North Healdsburg, the contract to be awarded to the 
lowest bidder, proposals being received from H. Tiddle and J. Cook, the first 
with specifications showing a cost of fifty-six dollars, and the latter fifty- 
eight. The repairs were reported completed in accordance with the tender 
oi J. Cook, who had put on more labor and material than the other. W. A. 
C. Smith was elected City Clerk on the 19th July, and on September 13th 
the Marshal presented a report extending from June 15th to September 
15th inclusive, showing that he had received forty dollars for licenses, fines, 
etc., which was placed on file. On the 20th, the clerk was ordered to 
advertise for sealed proposals to repair the foot-bridge on East Street, the 
contract for which was granted to E. W. Hendricks and reported completed 
November 15th. Captain L. A. Norton was appointed City Attorney on 
this date. October 4th, occurs the following minute: Owing to the sudden 
and untimely death of James Thistle, a member of the Board of Trustees^ 
resolutions expressing the known sentiments of the remaining members were 
ordered to be drafted relative to the sad affair. 

Throughout the year 1869, Healdsburg had shown a steady and permanent 
growth. Houses had sprung up here and there, all of a more substantial 
character than those hitherto erected. Neat and ornamental fences had been 
built, porches spread out, barns constructed, other out-buildings of various 
styles and sizes projected and completed, wings and ells, backs and fronts, 
attached to the original houses, while its school s, churches, and other pu blic insti- 
tutions were all in a flourishing condition. In this regard, the Russian River 
Flag, of December 30, 1869, informs us that Healdsburg is an incorporated 
town, of about sixteen hundred inhabitants, and has a public school with four 
teachers, one Academy with two teachers, eight churches, four saloons, two 
hotels, one Masonic, one Odd-Fellows, and one Good-Templar's Lodge, one 


Brass band, one Singing Society, one Literary Society, five dry goods stores, 
four grocery and provision stores, one clothing store, two drug stores, two 
jewelers, three livery and feed stables, three lawyers, two poultry dealers, 
four physicians, one undertaker, one exchange dealer and broker, two tailors, 
five blacksmith's shops, four wagon shops, two saddler's shops, two paint 
shops, one meat market, two lumber yards, one newspaper and job printing 
office, two book stores, three millinery stores, three shoe shops, two barber 
shops, two glove manufactories, one telegraph office, one express office, two 
dentists, one brick yard, two nurseries (near town,) one chair factory, two 
stove and tin shops, one photograph gallery, two gunsmiths, one flouring mill 
in town, and one within three miles, and three saw-mills within eight miles. 

1H70. — We find in the proceedings of the Board of Trustees for this year 
that on January 2Cth, the petition of R. Hertel and others for widening 
Matheson street, from Mrs. Thoroughgood's corner, east, was received with 
the verbal assurance from Mr. Liddle and others, that the parties owning 
lots on said street, were willing to waive all claim to damages, with the 
exception of the above named Mrs. Thoroughgood, who demanded that the 
town furnish the material necessary to build a substantial fence on the line 
of her lot. The petition was, on motion, received and ordered filed, the 
verbal conditions and agreements acceded to, and Mr. Hendrick appointed a 
Committee to superintend the building of the fence. On the same date W. 
B. Reynolds, resigned the office of Marshal and was succeeded by John W. 
Clack on February 28th, when was also carried the resolution that the Town 
Attorney be instructed to take such steps as will secure the county road-tax, 
assessed against the town of Healdsburg, to the use of said town. North 
street, between East and Fitch streets was declared open, on the 25th 
March, and a vote of thanks tendered to Mr. Dunne, for his liberality in 
regard to the wi lening of it. April 22d, permission was granted to J. M. 
Vaughan to dig a well to supply water to sprinkle the streets, such well to 
be placed in the slough in such a position that it should be no inconvenience 
to the public; it was also then ordered that the Town Marshall should receive 
a fixed salary of forty dollars a month, in lieu of fees. The Clerk was directed, 
on July 25th to notify the inhabitants that the poll-tax became due on 
the 1st instant, and that if not paid within the time provided by Section three, 
of Ordinance No. six, collection would be made according to law. Mr. Albert- 
son tendered his resignation from the Board, at this meeting, which was not 

In the month of February of the year 1870, the President of the Board 
of Trustees in his semi-annual report, took occasion to congratulate the citi- 
zens of Healdsburg on their present and prospective prosperity, while as a 
proof of this, if such were needed, private dwellings, stores, and a church 
were being erected. This last was being undertaken by the Baptist body 
who had, since June, 1868, been holding their meetings in the Academy 



chapel. The building as it stands to-day is a handsome one, being thirty- 
four by fifty -five feet, the front having a low tower on the north-east corner 
and a graceful spire on the south-east. Private schools had been opened by- 
Miss Northcutt and Miss Forsraan, which were receiving a fair share of 
patronage, while the want of a public hall suitable for the accommodation 
of from six to eight hundred people was much felt; the only detractinor 
influence was felt to be the want of proper street accommodation. A writer 
in the local prints of the time calls for a new survey in these words: The 
town of Healdsburg was first laid out by Harmon Heald. He little dreamed 
then that it would ever become a town of even its present proportions. He 
took no thought as to its distant future, and had no visions of its coming 
glory that those of us here now think we see. He, therefore, began at a 
point at or near a big tree, and ran two parallel streets about north by east, 
until they brought up against the southern shore of the slough. Two other 
parallel streets were made across these at right angles; the square thus 
formed being the plaza. Two other streets were added, making three each 
way. This was the original town plat. Since then Hayden's, Knaack's, 
Jacob Heald's, Willson's, Matheson's, and perhaps other additions, have been 
appended with a variety of "dips, spurs and angles;" no two having the same 
bearing. Some of these additions were made without a correct survey, and 
some have never been recorded. Now that the railroad is coming, (for the 
subject of the railroad had been then attracting great attention throughout 
the length of the valley from Petaluma to Cloverdale,) and we may expect 
a rapid increase in the value of property, would it not be well to have an 
official survey of the town, and a full and correct plat filed and recorded in 
the county records? It will be cheaper to do this now than at any time 
hereafter. Streets need straightening, some want to be made wide, and 
others ought to be extended through what, in some instances, is now private 
property. The chain of title to property and an accurate description of it 
will at some time require this, and the sooner it is attended to the better. It 
is a great pity that a town on so beautiful a natural site should present such 
a labyrinth of ungainly streets, twisting and squirming in all directions, 
some wide, some narrow, and others running against some man's fence and 
ending at his front door. 

The last subject worthy of attracting attention in the year 1870 in reo-ard 
to local history, was the decision of the case. The Inhabitants of Healdsburg 
versus B. C. Wright. This was an action brought by the Corporation of 
Healdsburg to enforce the payment of Poll-tax for town purposes. The case 
was taken up from Justice Hays' Court to the County Court on appeal, L. 
A. Norton for plaintiffs and D. F. Spur for defendant. After a full hearing 
on the following points, to wit. : First — Are the present Board of Trustees 
legally holding office, not having been elected at the time appointed for 
electing ofiicers, there being no election held, and the present incumbents 



holding over ? Second — Was not the collection of a poll-tax without an 
assessment of a property-tax a fraud upon the people? The Court held that 
the officers were le^al officers of the town and that the collection of poll-tax 
was legal and proper. The following story we glean from the Flag of Juno 
30, 1870: " Last week, while a son of Mr. Cobb was digging a hole in the 
rear of Cobb's new building on West street, he came upon the bones of a 
human being. They were decomposed enough to be easily broken in the 
hand. The jaws contained nearly a full set of teeth, which were worn down 
as they often are in a person of from forty to fifty years of age, and several 
of the back ones were much decayed. The skull was thin, indicating that 
it was that (^f a white person. * The body had been buried about three feet 
deep and was probably tumbled in without any care, as the bones ot the head^ 
breast, arms, and hips were not as far a part as if the body had been lying 
stretched out. There were no indications of a coffin or clothing. About 
seven years ago a man who had come from up the country with a load of 
wood was seen in company with some suspicious characters then stopping in 
Healdsburg. The next morning large quantities of blood were discovered 
about a wagon bed and a threshing machine which were in the rear of Mr. 
Downing's shop— about a hundred feet from where these bones were found — 
and the man was never seen again, although dilligent search was made for 
him. It appears that no one here knew him or any of his friends, and the 
matter soon blew over, yet there were many who believed that two certain 
men had committed a murder and had effectually hid the body of their 
victim. Since the finding of these remains the old circumstances are revived, 
and there is a general belief that the original suspicions were well founded. 
One of the supposed murderers was long since sent to his final account, and 
the other is now a fugitive outlaw, the last heard of him being his flight 
from the State on a stolen horse. " 

In January, 1870, a party of men started to jump the Geyser springs; 
another party representing the claims of one Pollack, who had a possessory 
claim on the property for years, were fully armed and sent from San Fran- 
cisco to the seat of the trouble. The case was afterwards taken to trial 
before the County Court, and on the 19th of February was decided in favor 
of Pollack, when damages to the amount of five hundred dollars were 
awarded him. 

1S71. — At the meeting of the Board of Trustees held on 2d of February, 
R. Truitt was appointed road master, and directions given that the residents 
should be notified that the county road-tax would be collected by him. A 
petition from H. H. Hurd and fifty-oue others, for straightening Main or 
West street, between North street and the Healdsburg Brewery was pre- 
sented on the 20th, and on motion referred back to the petitioners, with the 
request that they prepare a plat of the proposed change showing the amount 
of land that each property owner would lose or gain, with the sum that each 


claims or is willing to pay for damage or gain in consequence of the pro- 
posed change. The petition was rectified, and on April 3d, read, explained, 
and trustees W. A. C. Smith, J. G. McManus, and J. B. Beason appointed a 
committee to review the matter in accordance with the ordinance. On 
the 17th this committee was discharged, the majority refusing to serve^ 
when W. A. C. Smith, George Haigh and Aaron Hassett were appointed,'^ 
with instructions to make examination relative to the cost of bridging 
the slough, the clerk being directed at the same time to enter into a 
correspondence with Lindsay Carson with the object of obtaining a 
deed for West street in North Healdsburg. February 25th, the resigna- 
tion of Recorder Hays was tendered and accepted, Henry Sar<yent 
being appointed to the office for the unexpired term. The result of the^last 
election was, on May 4th, declared to be: William Melton, H. W. Smith, B. 
C. Wright, A. M. Church, G. H. Peterson, Board of Trustees; Henry Sar- 
gent, Recorder; J. G. McManus, Treasurer; T. P. Maxwell, Marshal; S. P. 
McManus, Assessor and Collector; Trustee Church being elected to the Cor- 
poration Chair. On the 8th, a committee consisting of B. C. Wrio-ht, W. 
Melton, and H. W. Smith, having been appointed to select a suitable place 
wherein the Board should hold their meetings, reported on the 15th, that 
Firebaugh & Watson had tendered the use of a room for that purpose, which 
was duly accepted. At this session W. A. C. Smith was appointed Town 
Clerk, while on the 22d, Trustee Peterson presented to the Board a deed from 
Mrs. Matheson and Jessie Seaman, conveyHgt^ the town the title to certain 
lands to be utilized in the extension of Tucker street, which, on motion, was 
duly accepted and ordered recorded. Hereafter the subject of raising revenue 
for town purposes was brought forward, when it was ordered that the poll-tax 
of one dollar per capita, levied under the provisions of Ordinance No. 6, be 
considered assessed against and collected from the inhabitants for the ensu- 
ing year, and that due notice of the fact be given in the Russian River 
Flag. At the same meeting was also appointed a committee, consisting of B. 
C. Wright, W. Melton, and H. W. Smith, to act as Street Commissioners, 
whose duty should be to ascertain the wants and necessities of the Corpora- 
tion in street matters. June 5th, the alley west of West street was declared 
to be a public thoroughfare, and the Marshal instructed to clear all nui- 
sances therefrom. On July 7th, S. P. McManus having failed to qualify, the 
office of Assessor and Collector was declared vacant, and J. W. Clack 
appointed thereto; on the 17th, D. F. Spur was appointed Town Attorney, 
while, on the 22nd, the office of Street Superintendent was created and J. E. 
Stewart appointed thereto. The Marshall was instructed, on August 11th, 
to notify the two political clubs of the town to make their flag-staffs secure 
against falling, or other accident; the deed of land from J. J. Piper for street 
purposes being accepted on that date, the bid of said Piper to build the fences 
on either side of such land being then acknowledged — said street to be 


opened before the new year; while on the 14th a tax of one day's laboi- was 
levied on each male inhabitant for the purpose of working the streets of the 
town. Tlie office of Olerk becoming vacant on the 2nd October, Thomas 
P. Maxwell was appointed to the position; while on the same date, the 
Assessor was instructed to assess all solvent notes and accounts not secured 
by mortgage. November 20th, the Street Superintendent reported having 
sold a tleatl tree on the plaza for two dollars and fifty cents. On the same 
date James Mitchell was appointed Deputy Marshal, in accordance with the 
terms of Ordinance No. 6, and on December 18th, D. F. Spur was delegated 
to fill the office of Town Clerk, F. F.vice Maxwell resigned. 

The following remarks are taken from the Russian River Flag, and are 
here produced as being most apposite: During the past year (1871) 
Healdsburg has been looking up, and permanent improvements have been 
quite numerous — more so than ever before in a single year. During the 
past few weeks we have taken great pains to ascertain the location and cost 
of every new house erected within the corporate limits (and a few just over 
the line), together with their owner's names. Below we give a list of 
improvements by streets. It is quite probible that some omissions have 
been made, and that mistakes have crept into our figures, but we give the 
list in as correct a shape as possible. 

South street extends from the south-west corner of the plaza, in an easterly 
direction, past three blocks to Fitch street, where it is continued under the 
name of Matheson street. The Odd-Fellows own a lot, fifty feet front, on 
south side of the plaza, on which they have erected two small buildings, one of 
which is occupied by John Call as a shoe-shop, and cost two hundred dollars; 
the other is occupied by Lockwood& Van Slyke, as a bookstore, and cost two 
hundred and twenty-five dollars. Drs. Rupe and Seawell own a lot adjoin- 
ing the Plaza Church on the west, upon which they erected, last Summer, a 
two-story frame building — hard-finish — at a cost of twelve hundred dollars. 
The first floor is occupied by themselves as an office, and the .second story is 
used as a dentist's office by Dr. J. N. Wiley. East of Center street, Silas 
Peter has just completed a two-story building, with forty feet front, hard- 
finished throughout, at a cost of sixteen hundred dollars. It is suited to 
business rooms, but is too far out. It is now used as a tenement house. 
Adjoining this Mr. Peter has erected a small shop, at a cost of two hundred 
and fifty dollars. Nearly opposite, James E. Fenno has rebuilt a small 
house, at a cost of about two hundred and fifty dollars, and uses the same as 
a jewelry shop. 

Matheson street is a continuation of South street, to the east. Dr. Max- 
well's house, on the south side of the street, cost six hundred dollars. Still 
farther out, Jesse Seaman has erected a residence, one and one-half stories 
high, at a cost of twelve luindred dollars. On the north side of the street, 
Mrs. Thurgood has a new residence, costing one thousand dollars. A little 



beyond, C. C. Wheeler has rebuilt an old house, expending thereon about a 
thousand dollars, making quite a cozy residence. To the east of the Univer- 
sity, on the north side of Matheson street, we find D. Grove's new two-story 
residence, costing sixteen hundred dollars ; J. W. Brown's one and one-half 
story residence, costing fifteen hundred, and a barn three hundred dollars; 
Mr. Whitney's small dwelling, erected at a cost of five hundred dollars. 

Tucker street runs parallel to Matheson street, and next to it on the south. 
Jesse Seaman purchased one of the old public school buildings, moved it in to 
a lot on Tucker street, and converted it into a dwelling house, at a cost of 
about five hundred dollars. Hugh Liddle erected a residence on the south 
side of this street, one and one-half stories high, at a cost of about sixteen 
hundred dollars. Adjoining Mr. Hogle's, on the west, E. H. Gates built a 
small residence, costing about four hundred dollars. 

Hayden street runs parallel with Tucker street, next south of it. Charles 
Hassett last Fall, built a small dwelling on the north side of this thorough- 
fare, east of the Methodist Episcopal church costing about two hundred 

North street is the first one north of Matheson and parallel to it. Within 
the last year Mr. Fields has built himself a neat residence, on the north side 
of the street, at a cost of about two-thousand dollars. Next to him W. B. 
Reynolds is now erecting one of the finest residences in the place; a two-story 
frame, hard finish, plate glass windows, and to cost when complete, four 
thousand dollars. Still further east, corner of Sheridan, John Marshall has 
just completed a large two-story dwelling, with a wing, at a cost of three 
thousand five hundred dollars. The next dwelling to the east was erected 
last Fall by Joseph Rosenthal at a cost of about eight hundred dollars. 
Just north of this street, and away from any street now opened, the 
Advent Society built a house of worship last Summer, at a cost of fifteen 
hundred dollars. 

Pijier street is an extension of Dow street, and is located north of the 
slough, parallel to North street. On the north side of the street, west of 
Sheridan, Matt. Hays built a dwelling house last Fall, one and one-half 
stories high, with wing, costing about eight hundred dollars. Just west of 
this I. N. Chapman built a neat residence, at a cost of one thousand one 
hundred dollars; built a new fence and otherwise improved his grounds. 
Across the street Messrs. Canan & Hutton erected a dwelling house at a cost 
of eight hundred and fifty dollars. On the north side of Piper street, east of 
Sheridan, John Rien has erected two small dwelling houses, valued at four 
hundred dollars each. 

Grant sti^eet is next north of Piper. W. S. Canan rebuilt a small dwelling 
house on the south side of this street, west of Sheridan, and made a very cosy 
residence, at a cost of eight hundred and fifty dollars. Next west of this, 
Nicholas Ward has just completed a similar building, at a cost of eight hun- 
dred and fifty dollars. 


Lincoln street comes next, north of Grant street. Mezota, an Italian, 
erected a dwellinfT-house during the past Summer, ou the north side of this 
street, at an expense of about one thousand dollars. It is now occupied by- 
Mrs. Pugh. A little further to the east, on the south side of the street, 
W. T. Garrison has rebuilt a small residence costing about six hundred 

West street is the most westerly one in the town, and is the main busi- 
ness street. It is a continuation of this street to the north that leads up 
Ru.ssian river and Dry creek, and a continuation to the south that leads 
down Russian river on the west side. At the southern extremity of the busi- 
ness portion of the street, Messrs. Heald and Guerne, last Summer, built a 
two-story business house, using the lower story as a lumber office, and the 
second story for a residence. It cost about two thousand dollars. To the 
rear of the Flag office G. L. Cobb built a paint shop costing two hundred 
and fifty dollars; and adjoining the Flag office, on the north, he has just 
completed a gun shop, at an expense of one hundred and seventy-five dol- 
lars. On the lot north of this, Andy Skillmanbuilta blacksmith and wagon 
shop, at a cost of five hundred dollars. B. C. Wright, last Fall, enlarged 
the Sotoyome House by adding a third story and repainting the whole 
building, at a cost of four thousand six hundred dollars. Last Summer, Mrs. 
Thurgood rebuilt the business house now occupied by Charles Mitchell, at a 
• of two hundred dollars. Last Fall, Luke Barlow rebuilt what is now 
known as the " Eagle Saloon," at a cost of three hundred dollars. North of 
the slough, on the west side, J. W. Clack has completed a small residence, at 
a co-st of five hundred dollars,. Just north of this, J. H. McCluskey ha3 
erected a small dwelling, at a cost of about two hundred and fifty dollars. 

Eli Walker, last Fall, built a two-story boarding-house on the west side of 
the street, at a cost of eighteen hundred dollars, and rebuilt a stable adjoin- 
ing, at a cost of two hundred dollars. A little further north, Mrs. Thistle 
built a new residence at an expense of about seven hundred dollars. Tur- 
ner's Bakery, built by Turner &l Son, is also located on the west side of the 
street, and cost about one thousand dollars. A little further north, William 
Williams erected a small .shoe shop, which cost one hundred dollars. 

Center street runs parallel with West street, east of the plaza. One of 
the prominent buildings of tl;e town — the Skating Rink — was erected 
last Summer by Ran.som Powell and John and Samuel P. McManus, on the 
-west side of Center street, north of South street, at a cost of seven thou- 
san*! dollars. 

Johnson street is a continuation of Center street to the north. Bradford 
Bell has recently built a small dwelling, at a cost of about four hundred and 
fifty dollars, on the east side of the street, and just north of Piper street. 
On the south-east corner of Johnson and Lincoln streets, Patrick Ryan has 
just commenced a two-story residence, with wing, which will be hard-finished 


throughout, and will cost about two thousand dollars when completed/ 
Across the street to the north, W. I. Robinson has rebuilt a small house, 
making the residence worth about four hundred dollars. On the west side 
of the street, a little further north, Abraham Chrantz has rebuilt a dwell- 
ing-house, making it worth about one thousand dollar.'^. 

East street runs parallel with Center street, and next to it on the east. 
Near the Methodist Church South, on the west side of the street. Dr. Dain- 
gerfield has rebuilt a small dwelling, making a residence now worth about 
five hundred dollars. W. S. Canan has recently purchased a dwelling on the 
east side of the street, south of North street, and is rebuilding the same. 
It will cost not less than twenty-five hundred dollars when completed. 

Fitch street runs parallel with East street, through the original town 

Sheridan street is a continuation of Fitch street to the north, through 
Knaack's addition. Opposite the Baptist church, north of the slough, J. W. 
Terry is now erecting a neat residence, which will cost, when completed, one 
thousand dollars. Just north of this, Mrs. Mansfield built, last Summer, a 
small residence, at a cost of about five hundred dollars. On the north-west 
corner of this and Piper street, G. J. Wieberts has built a business house, cost- 
ing six hundred dollars; and adjoining, on the north, a residence, costing four 
hundred dollars. On the same side of Sheridan street, William Maxwell, 
last Fall, built a small dwelling-house at an expense of six hundred dollars. 
A little further north, Mrs. L. A. Rawson built a small house, costing three 
hundred dollars. Nearly opposite, A. H. Ingham built a two-story dwell- 
ing-house, with wing, hard-finished throughout, costing about eighteen 
hundred dollars. 

University street constitutes the greater portion of the eastei-n bound- 
ary of the corporation. George Cook built a small dwelling on the east 
side of University street, north of Matheson, costing about three hundred 

Public iTnprovements. — The only public building erect.^d within the cor- 
poration during the year is the Public School House, on the north side of 
Tucker street, between East and Fitch streets, which cost about seven thou- 
sand dollars. The county, last Fall, built a wagon bridge across Russian 
river at this point, of the Howe Truss pattern, which cost twenty thousand 
dollars. Smaller bridges have been repaired, but none built. 

Railroad Improvements. — During the past year the San Francisco and 
North Pacific Railroad has been built past the town, and a railroad bridge 
of the Howe Truss pattern built across Russian river, just above the wagon 
bridge, which cost twenty-three thousand dollars. A depot building was 
erected by the company, at a cost of about seven thousand dollars, which is 
one of the finest on this line of road. 


MhcellaTieous.—C&nKn, Hutton & Smith are now engaged in erecting 
their bank building, on the north side of the Plaza, which will be fire-proof, 
and will cost, wlu-n completed, about forty-five hundred dollars. Walter 
Ffelds, last season, built a residence on Dudley Avenue, north of Piper street, 
which cost about nine hundred dollars, and a small house near it costing one 
hundred more. In the grove, north-west of town and just out of the cor- 
poration, Aaron Hassett has built a very fine two-story residence, at a cost 
of three thousand dollars, and is surrounding it with the comforts of a home. 
His barn has cost about a thousand dollars. In the eastern edge of the 
grove, just across the railroad, Henry Boyle has built a one-story residence 
which cost about seven hundred dollars. These last two buildings are 
located in what might be termed a Western extension of Grant street. In 
the northern part of the grove, James Mitchell built a residence costing about 
three hundred dollars; William Ball built another which cost about two 
hundred and fifty, and Robert Ball built one which also cost two hundred 
and fifty dollars. Just east of the railroad, near the north end of the grove, 
Charles Stewart built a small house costing two hundred and fifty d(^llars. 
North of the grove. Matt. Hale has completed a fine residence costing about 
two thousand dollars, and a barn, at an expense of seven hundred. Mrs. 
Currier has erected a small dwelling on First street, south of Matheson, 
which cost about three hundred dollars. Dr. has built a handsome 
residence, on the street leading to the brick-yard, at a cost of about two 
thousand dollars. Dr. M. G. Kelloofor has erected a residence east of Sheridan 
street, north of Piper, at a cost of six hundred dollars. 

Thus it will be seen that during the year 1871 the total number of build- 
ings constructed or in course of construction was seventy-nine, at an aggre- 
gate cost of about ninety -six thousand and fifty dollars ; the price defrayed for 
the building of bridges being forty-three thousand dollars. Few towns in the 
State can show greater proportionate improvement than this. 

We now take up the ofticial doings of the civil authorities of Healdsburg. 
On January 2, 1872, the following resolution was passed. " Resolved, That 
from and after this date we will prosecute or cause to be presecuted all viola- 
tions in this town of the law against gambling— that is to say — -the law against 
faro, monte, rouge-et-noir, lansquenet, rondo, or other banking games 
at cards or dice. " It was also ordered that the town Attorney draft a charter 
for the city to be submitted to the Legislature for enactment ; while, Commis- 
sioners were at the same time appointed to lay out Piper street and assess 
damages that should accrue upon straightening said street, and that the prop- 
erty-holders claiming such be apprised of their meeting. West street was 
declared established, on February 5th, from the quarter-section line, in a 
straight line, or as near as may be, into the extension of said street, as trav- 
eled, north of said quarter-section line, and D. F. Spur was directed to make 
the necessary survey. The following resolution was also adopted: " Resolved 



That the Attorney be instructed to draft and send to our Representative or 
Senator, a bill for an Act exempting town Elections from the force and effect 
of the Registry Law." February 19th, the Maxim Gas Company of Cali- 
fornia presented a petition to the Board of Trustees which was followed by 
one on the succeeding day from the Premium Gas Company of California, 
both of which were placed on file. After the merits of the two companies 
had been personally presented by their representatives, on motion of Trustee 
Peterson, it was unanimously ordered that a contract be entered into with the 
Maxim Gas Company to supply the town with gas. Messrs. Peterson, Wright 
and Melton being nominated a committee to draft such contract, an Ordi- 
nance granting right of way and franchise to the Gas Company being at the 
time read and adopted by sections. On March 11th, Josiah Brown was 
appointed Street Superintendent vice J. E. Stewart resigned ; and on May 
6th, the following elections took place: L. A. Norton, R. H. Oilman, N. W- 
Bostwick, William Gilmore, Isaac Gum, President, Board of Trustees ; A. M. 
Church, Recorder; S. P. McManus, Assessor and Collector; T. P. Maxwell, 
Marshal; C. K. Jenner, Clerk; H. K. Brown, Treasurer; on the 27th, Trustee 
Gum, however, resigned the chair, R. H. Oilman being elected to that posi- 
tion. An ordinance was passed July 1st, directing all sidewalks to be made 
uniform with, where the street is sixty feet wide, and where less, to be 
eight feet, and on 5th of August the vote of the corporation tax was fixed at 
thirty cents on each hundred dollars. 

In this year as heretofore the history of Healdsburg had been that of pros- 
perity; we have neither time nor space to continue a yearly report of its 
general chronicles; sufficient will it be therefore to record the doings of the 
city Fathers as they have been annually filed. 

J 873. — A. M. Church resigned his position on the 7th January, and Henry 
Sargent was appointed in his stead : on the 8th, the bid of Proctor & Hogle 
for building a fence round the plaza was accepted and the work commenced; 
while on May 5th the following gentlemen were elected to the government 
of the Town: T. W. Hudson, President; George Miller, C. E. Hutton. R. 
Powell, I. N. Chapman, Board of Trustees; H. Sargent, Recorder; S. P. 
McManus, Assessor and Collector; H. R. Brown, Treasurer; J. W. Clack, 
Marshal. August 4th, Trustee Chapman filed — notice of a motion for the 
amendment of Ordinance No. six, so that one per cent should be the maxi- 
mum rate of taxation for Town purposes, instead of one half of one per cent, 
as the law demands. On the 18th, the minority report, viz: the allowance 
of five hundred dollars to H. Dudley and eighty three to I. N. Chapman, for 
damages — of the Commissioners to view and assess damages on Piper street 
was adopted; which street, on motion of Trustee Powell, was ordered to be 
sixty feet in width ; the street Commissioner being instructed to proceed to 
open said thoroughfare through the premises of I. N, Chapman and H 
Dudley, upon receiving notice from the Clerk of the Board of Trustees that 


the amount of damages awarded to each has been tendered to them. On Sep- 
tember 1st, Trustee Chapman objected to the approval and passing of the min- 
utes of the meeting held by the Board on August 18th ( that noted above) on 
the ground that Trustee R. Powell had vacated his office by neglecting to 
qualify for more than ten days after election. Upon this action R. Powell 
presented himself and refused to serve as a Trustee until the question raised 
by I. N. Chajiman had been decided. How the matter was arranged the 
Records do not state; but in future meetings we find Messrs. Powell and 
Chapman voting side by side. John Mulligan, John W. Clack, and W. S. 
Canan were appointed a Committee to investigate and report upon the advisa- 
bility, practicability, and probable cost of draining the slough; it being at 
the same time ordered that the Plaza should be laid out with walks and 
shrubberies under the superintendence of Trustee Miller. On this same date 
H. Dudley was allowed two hundred dollars additional on account of 
damages, etc., on moving buildings for the opening of Piper street. 

On July 24, 1873, J. W. Clack was shot by Ham Briggs, when on official 
duty. Briggs was arrested, tried and sentenced to pay a fine of two thousand 
dollars or be imprisoned for one thousand days. Of Briggs we learn that 
he was afterwards slain by a man named Chambers in Mendocino city in 
1875 or '76. Mr. Clack is now the genial and popular landlord of the Soto- 
yome House in Healdsburg. 

187 J^.. — January 5th the President was instructed to appoint a Committee 
of three to draft a new charter for the Town of Healdsburg, to be submitted 
to the Board; these were Messrs. L. A. Norton, Charles K. Jenner and W. S. 
Canan; Mr. Jenner reported on the 2nd February that a majority of the 
Committee were adverse to framing such an Instrument at the present time ; 
they were therefore discharged, and their report accepted. On motion, C. K. 
Jenner and Isaac Gum were formed into a new Committee for the same pur- 
pose; a draft being submitted on the l7th. it was read section by section and 
adopted as a whole by the Board. On this date a petition signed by L. R. 
Giles and others for the opening of Center street on its former line was read 
and placed on file, as were also the claims of William Milton for five hundred* 
and H. Dudley for three hundred dollars, damages accruing from the above, 
when it was moved by Trustee Chapman that three Commissioners be 
appointed to investigate. The motion was lost. The Deed of certain land 
from H. Dudley to be used in the extension of East street, was accepted on 
March 16th and, on April 18th the undermentioned Municipal officers were 
elected: T. W. Hudson, President ; George Miller, G. J.Turner, W. S. Canan, 
H. R. Brown, Board of Trustees; George Mulligan, Treasurer; S. P. McManus, 
Assessor and Collector ; Henry Sargent, Recorder ; Thomas Stevenson, Street 
Commis.sioner; C. K. Jenner, City Clerk; E. L. Whipple, City Attorney; S. 
B. Martin, Marshal. On August 3d A. Blackington was elected to fill the 
unexpired term of Assessor and Collector vice S. P. McManus failing to qualify, 


and on the 7th of September Josiah Brown was appointed Street Com- 
missioner in place of Thomas Stevenson; while on November 16th the Ordin- 
ance instituting a system of drainage in the city of Healdsburg was adopted. 

1875. — An Ordinance, supplementary to No. 2, to prevent minors, under 
the age of seventeen years, from being on the streets after certain hours, was 
read, and, on motion, passed, on the 2d February ; while, on March 15th, the 
resignation of S. B. Martin, City Marshal, was accepted, he being succeeded 
by J. W. Rose. April 12th, C. Muller appeared before the Board and 
remonstrated against the adoption of the report of the Committee on the 
extension of Grant street; it was therefore resolved that the report be recon- 
sidered and the matter referred back to the Commissioners for further inves- 
tigation; on the 19th, they filed their amended report, awarding one hundred 
and sixty-two dollars as damages to C. Muller. on the opening of said street, 
and assessing benefits to the amount of one hundred and eight dollars. It 
was then, on motion, ordered that a warrant in favor of John D. Hassett, for 
fifty-four dollars, as a tender to C. Muller, for the one-third due him under 
the charter, from the city of Healdsburg, upon the opening of said street which 
was ordered to take place within twenty days from date, be drawn. On May 
10th the following officers were elected to serve 3n the Corporation: T. W. 
Hudson, H. K. Brown, President, G. J. Turner, H. Fried, T. C. Carutheis, 
Board of Trustees; C. K. Jenner, Clerk; George Mulligan, Treasurer; H. 
Sargent, Recorder; A. Black ington. Assessor and Collector; J. W. Rose, Mar- 
shal; E. L. Whipple, City Attorney; the following committees being then 
appointed: Finance, Trustees Turner, Fried and Carruohers; Plaza and 
Streets, T. C. Caruthers. June 7th, the Commissioners on the proposed 
extension of Mason street, filed their report, together with a plat of the same, 
recommending that H. Hutchins be required to open a thoroughfare through 
his property without compensation, which, on being received was placed on 
file and the report adopted. This resolution was afterwards rescinded, and 
damage allowed, to the extent of twenty-five dollars. On the 21st, Charles 
K. Jenner was appointed City Attorney; and, on the 18th of August, the 
clerk was instructed to notify the Marshal to have the sidewalks on West 
street, from North street to the north side of the Plaza, widened, as well as 
upon the north side of the Plaza, from West to Center street. The clerk 
reported to the Board, on September 24th, the decision of Judge Temple, in 
regard to the assessment of mortgages upon property outside of the corporate 
limits; in pursuance of said decision the trustees proceeded to assess the 
mortgages held within the corporation, upon property situated without its 
limits. On the 27th, John N. Bailhache appeared before the corporate 
body, sitting as a Board of Equalization, and presented a petition, adopted at 
a mass meeting of the citizens of Healdsburg, asking for a reconsideration of 
the action of the Board in raising the assessments, so as to leave them as near 
as possible the same as that returned by the City Assessor. On motion, said 


petition was received and placed on file. It was thereupon moved by Trustee 
Turner that the prayer of the petition be adopted. There being a tie vote, 
the President exercised his prerogative and cast in favor of the motion. 
Trustee Turner, after some discussion, stated that he had voted in favor of 
the motion under a misapprehension, he therefore moved to reconsider said 
motion, which, having received a seconder, was duly reconsidered, and, on a 
vote to adopt the prayer being taken, it was declared lost. On the 28th, the 
a^essment for the city of Healdsburg Avas fixed as follows, to wit: AH 
parties not raised by the Board of Equalization was fixed as shown by 
the books of the City Assessor ; all parties raised by the Board who do not 
appear, to have their assessments fixed as raised ; all parties who were raised 
and did appear, to have their assessments fixed according to their state- 
ments of the two-thirds value of their property. On motion, the rate of 
taxation for the fiscal year ending May 1, 1876, was fixed at fifty cents on 
each one hundred dollars. The City Attorney, on October 18th, was 
instructed to draft an ordinance licensing hawkers, peddlers, and itinerant 
venders of goods, etc., and auctioneers and auction houses, which was pre- 
sented and adopted on the 20th. November 6th, W. W, Moreland was 
appointed City Clerk; on the 15th, the Healdsburg Gas Company was 
granted the privilege to lay mains, etc , through the streets of the town, 
provided they leave no holes, nor excavations exposed or uncovered, without 
a signal or light thereat. A Committee, consisting of Trustees Fried and 
Turner, were also appointed to procure a plat and survey of a proposed 
change in West street, power being given to the same committee to employ 
a surveyor. 

1876. — February 7th, an ordinance granting to E. M. Morgan et al., the 
privilege of laying water • pipes in the city of Healdsburg was read and 
passed; and on the 21st a petition was received from forty-six property 
holders on West street asking for its straightening in accordance wdth the 
survey recently made by C. K. Jenner; on motion, C. E. Hutton, Jirah Luce 
and Anson Goodspeed were appointed a Committee to appraise damages and 
benefits to said owners. March 20th— On motion, F. T. Maynard, John 
rritsch and Mr. Bowman were granted the privilege of laying iron water 
mains and pipes throughout all the streets of Healdsburg, they agreeing to 
furnish to the city, free of charge, water for the extinction of fires ; the said 
boon to be granted for the term of fifty years. The City Attorney was, on this 
date, authorized to draw up amendments to the charter in reference to tha 
jurisdiction of the Police Court and forward the same to the Member of 
A.ssembly from Sonoma county to be passed upon by the Legislature ; while 
on the 2^11(1 the auctioneers' license was fixed by the Board at five dollars per 
quarter. The following city officers were elected on May 8th : George Law- 
rence, H. Fried, President, T. C. Caruthers, R. Powell, C. E. Hutton, Boai-d of 
Trustees; George Mulligan, Treasurer; John W. Clack, Assessor and Collectfflr ; 


H. Sargent, Recorder; J. W. Rose, Marshall. July 17th, a remonstrance of 
property holders on West street against the proposed straightening of the 
same was received and filed. It appearing from the said document that some 
of the remonstrants had signed the petition for opening the street through a 
misrepresentation of facts, the Clerk was directed to summon said parties to 
appear before the Board to testify in regard to such, which resulted, on the 
19th, in the passage of the following resolution : — 

Resolved, That all acts of this Board in reference to the straightening of 
West street be, and the same are, hereby rescinded and annulled. On Sep- 
tember 4th, tees were ordered to be placed in the pipes of the Water Com- 
pany at the following places: on Tucker street, at or near the residence of 
A. Blackington; corner of South and Fitch streets; corner of South and Centre 
streets; corner of South and West streets; corner of West and Powell streets; 
corner of North and East streets, and two on West street, in North Healds- 
burg, while on the 18th, hydrants were directed to be placed in position. On 
November 20th a contract was entered into with the Water Company as 
under : the Board agreeing to pay said company forty cents per foot for four- 
inch iron pipe, from Matheson to Tucker street, also sixty dollars for one 
hydrant at the corner of Fitch and Tucker streets. On this date Anson 
Goodspeed was appointed Street Commissioner, in place of Josiah Brown. 

1877. — January 3rd, Trustee Fried was authorized to proceed to San 
Francisco to purchase six hundred feet of carbolized hose and couplings, as 
well as a pipe and hose carriage, for the use of the fire department; on the 
24th, precautionary measures against small pox were ordered to be taken by 
Doctors Ely and Foreman; while on the 14th May the election of civic officers 
took place with the following result: H. Fried, R. Powell, C. E. Hutton, J. 
S. BeU, T. W. Hudson, President, Board of Trustees; W. W. Moreland, Clerk; 
George Mulligan, Treasurer; Henry Sargent, Recorder, A. Blackington, 
Assessor and Collector; J. W. Rose, Mar.shall. On the 18th June, Trustee 
Hutton tendered his resignation, which was accepted and A. H. Ingham 
appointed in his stead. Ordinances prohibiting the hitching of horses to 
shade trees, and the playing of base ball in certain portions of the city, were 
adopted on July 16th; on August 6th, Messrs. Gum, Howard, and West 
were appointed a committee to ascertain the feasibility of draining the 
slough, and on September 17th, the contract for performing that work was 
accorded to G. W. Burrus. 

1878. — A. H. Ingham resigned his position as Trustee on February 18th, 
and was succeeded by N. A. Young. On April 6th, John Turner was nomi- 
nated to the position of Street Commissioner; and on the 13th May were 
appointed the following city officials: D. Thompson, J. S. Bell, T. W. Hud- 
son, John Moflfet, Peter Greist, Board of Trustees, T. W. Hudson being Presi- 
dent; W. W. Moreland, Clerk; J. M. Patrick, Marshall; J. G. McManus 
Assessor and Collector ; Henry Sargent. Recorder ; George Mulligan, Treas- 


urer. On August oth, Trustees Thompson and MofFet were appointed a 
committee to purchase a town lot for the use of the city; on the 21st Octo- 
ber an ordinance for the better protection of the fire department was adopted 
as also one for the prohibition of houses of ill fame, and punishment of persons 
^^sitinf; them. November 18th, W. S. Kerr was appointed City Marshal, 
vice J. iM. Patrick; and, on December 17th, Trustee Thompson, having been 
appointed a committee to confer with the Fire Department, reported that a 
tower had lx?en erected, wherein to hang the bell. 

2S'79. — Elijah Vaughan was appointed City Attorney on the 3rd February, 
in place of W. W. Moreland, resigned; on the same date Trustee Thompson 
■was deputed to take charge of the Plaza and superintend the same, keeping 
it in repair and good order. May 12th, the following gentlemen were 
elected to fill the several corporation offices: John Moffet, T. W. Hudson, 
Thomas Riley, W. P. Miller, D. Thompson, President, Board of Trustees; N. 
W. Bostwick, City Marshall; W. W. Moreland, City Clerk; H. K. Brown, 
Trea.surer; J. P. Emerson, Assessor and Collector; Jirah Luce, Recorder; 
Elijah Vaughan, City Attorney. An ordinance authorizing the taxation of 
dogs, was adopted on June 2nd; and July 21st, the resignation of Trustee 
Greist was accepted, and Charles York appointed in his stead. September 
23rd, the Trustees sitting as a Board of Equalization, adopted a resolution 
to reconsider their action in reference to the "raising" of property, and 
agreed to adopt the assessment of the Assessor, and that a tax of one-half of 
one per cent, be levied in the city of Healdsburg. 

The source from which Healdsburg derives its prosperity are the rich agri- 
cultural lands, of unsurpassed fertility, of which it is the center, divided as 
they are into small farms of from twenty to a hundred acres each. The 
climate is all that can be desired, neither too hot nor too cold, the hills 
which environ the city protecting it from the blustering winds which are so 
rudely felt at places situated near to the coast. She is well supplied with 
beautiful water brought from the Fitch mountain, from whose bosom flows 
a limpid, gurgling stream, whose waters find their way into the city, where 
it is used for domestic and other purposes. All in all, Healdsburg is a lovely 
locality, almost compassing the poet's fancy of, 
" Cataract brooks to the ocean run, 

Fairily-delicate palaces shine 

Mixt with myrtle and clad with vine, 

And over stream 'd and silver-streak 'd 

With many a rivulet high against the Sun, 

The facet of the glorious mountain flash 

Above the valleys of palm and pine." 

The First Baptist Church.— Th\s church was first organized at a school 
house about four miles below Healdsburg in the Summer of 1854, with a 
meml)ership of ten persons, under the pastoral care of Rev. S. S. Riley. 
Subsequently a house of worship was erected in Healdsburg, where the 


congregation held their meetings. The building was located about two blocks 
south of the Plaza, near West street. In 1868, a new church edifice was 
constructed, and dedicated on July 31, 1869, by Rev. J. B. Saxon, now of 
Gradisland, Colusa county, who labored in Healdsburg for six years or 
thereabouts. The new building, which is the one now occupied, is thirty-four 
b yfifty-five feet, and has a seating capacity of three hundred. The church 
owns a broad lot, is situated between Powell and Piper, on Sheridan street, and 
having passed through many trials, is now out of debt. Throughout its 
existence the membership has reached as high as one hundred, and as low as 
twenty-eight, while the number at present is fifty-six, who are enjoying a 
reasonable degree of peace and prosperity under the pastoral care of Rev. 
W. E. Adams. In connection with the church there is a Sabbath-school 
having an average attendance of about sixty scholars, who are under the 
supervision of Deacon A. L. Warner. Since its inauguration this church has 
enjoyed the services and pastoral care of Revs. S. S. Riley, J. D. Bonner, J. 
A. Barnes of Petaluma, C. King of Kentucky, Luke of Tennessee, Bailey 

of Georgia, J. B. Saxon, R, F, Parshall, Parks, T. W. Spanswick and 

W. E. Adams, the present incumbent. 

The First Presbyterian Church of Realdsburg. — The history of this 
church begins with the early history of the place — being among the first of 
the churches established. It was organized, on the 10th of October, 1858, by 
the Rev. James Woods. The following named persons formed the church: 
Mrs. Elizabeth Bledsoe, Mrs. Jane Drum, Mrs. M. M. Bonham, Mrs. E. A. 
Woods, Cyrus Alexander, A. P. Wilson, Charles Shult, A. B. Bonham, H. M. 
Willson. Cyrus Alexander was chosen Ruling Elder, and having previously 
been ordained in the Presbyterian Church of Santa Rosa, was immediately 
installed in office. The church had no building of its own, and for two or 
three years, worshipped in the old building of the Methodist Church South, 
which was situated on the same lot as the present new building. 

The property of M.E. church situated on the south side of the Plaza, being 
for sale, it was proposed by Cyrus Alexander — that if the church would raise 
one thousand dollars, he would give eight hundred and secure the property. 
By a fair and festival the church raised four hundred and fifty dollars; a lot 
worth four hundred and fifty dollars was donated by the New School church, 
four hundred and fifty dollars was raised in the city, and thus ample means 
were secured to purchase and repair the building for services. During the 
existence of the church the following have been the ministers who served 
the congregation: Rev. James Woods, Rev. Benjamin E. S. Ely, Rev. James 
Smith, Rev. R. McCullough, Rev. Hugh McLeod and the present pastor Rev. 
J. S. Todd. The following have been its Ruling Elders: Cyrus Alexander, 
George Shaffer, Josiah Brown, E. H. Gates and John Flack. Its Deacons, 
H. M. Willson and R. Hertel. The church has increased steadily since its 


organization, with the increase of population of the town, and now^ias on its 
cliurch roll sixty members. 

The Church of Christ.— This, usually designated as the Christian Church, 
was organized in Healdsburg, on December 5, 1857, by Elder F. M. Marion, 
upon the Bible, and the Bible alone as its foundation. The building is sit- 
uated in North Healdsburg, on West street. Originally the membership was 
few, only ten ; William H. Tombs was elected Bishop and Nathan More- 
house, Deacon. There have been added three hundred and twenty-two to 
the original ten, making in all three hundred and thirty-iwo names on the 
book ; out of this number, owing to death and other causes, there Is now 
only a membership of one hundred and sixteen. The present clerk is W. W. 

Advent Church, Healdsburg. — The Seventh-Day Adventists of this place 
have a comfortable house of worship, free from debt, built in A. D. 1871, 
with a seating capacity of two hundred. The organization was effected by 
Elder J. N. Loughborough, November 5, 1869. Their present membership 
is thirty-two. They hold regular meetings each seventh day (Saturday), 
and maintain an interesting Sabbath-school. They held their annual camp- 
meeting at this place from September 17th to September 23d, 1879, of which 
the liassian River Flag, September 25, 1879, speaks as follows: — 

" The Seventh-Day Adventists, who have been holding their yearly camp- 
meeting in our midst, have left quite a good impression upon this community. 
The order and system of their arrangements have been excellent. The 
grounds are those owned by Mr. Hassett. There were one hundred and 
eleven tents upon the ground, including the large preaching tent, which is 
sixty by one hundred and twenty feet ; and one fifty feet in diameter, from 
which were dispensed their religious publications, together with a choice 
assortment of English Bibles. 

" A restaurant and provision stand was upon the ground, which was exten- 
sively patronized. As they hold their State Conference in connection with 
their camp-meeting, there were delegates and representative members present 
from many parts of the State. There were nearly six hundred encamped 
upon the ground, while the outside attendance was very good, especially upon 
Sunday, when about two thousand five hundred people were present. 

"The peculiar views advocated by this people are: The soon coming of 
Christ, their belief in the Seventh day as the Sabbath of the Lord, and their 
disbelief in the immortality of the soul. They hold that future life depends 
upon the resurrection. They have their missionary work systematized 
admirably, the State being divided into districts with their local officers. 
These work in harmony with the officers of the State and General Mission- 
ary Societies. The President of the General Missionary Society, Elder S. 
N. Haskell, being present, comiderable interest was manifested in the work. 


Their missions extend to Africa, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, France, Den- 
mark. Norway and England. 

" They are zealous in the cause of temperance, and organized a State 
Temperance Association at this meeting. A monthly, entitled " Good 
Health," is published in Michigan, which is their organ on health and tem- 
perance. Tobacco is banished from the denomination. 

" Resolutions were passed, thanking the owner of the grove and the rail- 
road for the favors shown. It was stated that they had never received equal 
favors from any railroad in the State. It is expected that they will hold 
their next camp-meeting upon the same ground. They represent themselves 
as being much pleased with the treatment they received from the citizens, 
and as far as the writer heard, the citizens expressed equal pleasure with 
the able preaching they heard and the unusual order and quiet in the meet- 
ing. Twenty were baptized in Russian river. The meeting closed yester- 
day morning, and all seemed well pleased with their week's sojourn in the 
groves of Healdsburg." 

In another issue of the same paper we find the following in respect to the 
rules of order preserved on their camp-ground : — 

'• Their rules of order are quite different from those of most camp-meetings. 
They rise at five o'clock in the morning, and have a social meeting in a large 
tent at half -past five. Breakfast at seven; family worship in small tents at 
eight; another social business meeting at nine; preaching at half -past ten. 
In the afternoon, preaching at two ; business at five, and preaching at seven. 
At nine P. M., a bell rings for resting, and at half-past nine all lights are put 
out, and perfect silence reigns till the bell rings at five A. M. for rising. This 
feature of a still night, when all may get quiet rest, seems to be peculiar to 
this people. The consequence is, that all excitement is avoided, and the wor- 
shippers return to their homes refreshed, and no danger of reaction from an 
overtaxed system." 

Protestant Episcopal Church. — The Episcopal Parish at Healdsburg was 
first founded as a Mission early in the year 1878, with the Rev. T. W. Broth- 
erton, M. D., as missionary; F. C. S. Bagge, Senior Warden; John N. Bail- 
hache. Junior Warden, and R. H. Warfield, Treasurer and Secretary. Ser- 
vices were held in the Methodist Episcopal Church South. One year after- 
wards it was changed to a parish, with Rev. Dr. T. W. Brotherton as Rector ; 
F. C. S. Bagge, Secretary, and B. G. Lathrop, Dr. J. M. Willey, R. H. War- 
field, R. D. Moore, and W. G. Swan, Vestrymen. The services are held some- 
times at Grange Hall and sometimes at the South Methodist Church. The 
congregation as yet is small, not exceeding some fifty people, but the pro- 
gress made by the parish, under the guidance of the learned and worthy 
rector, has been great, and his parishioners confidently expect to be able 
before longr to build a church. 

^ 16 


Healdshurg Schools.-^We regret to say that the few notes we have been 
enabled to glean on this subject are anything but as full as they might have 
been, owino- to the records being badly mutilated. The first school was 
taught in 1855 by a man named Fitzgerald, while for three months of the 
same year R. J. Yancy was preceptor; and G. T. Espey held school in 
another part of the district. In 1856 two schools were taught by N. Eaton 
and E. L. Taner, and in 1857 one was opened by R. A. Johnson. In this 
year the first in the town of Healdshurg Avas commenced by Baxter Bonham ; 
he was succeeded in 1858 by E. A. Scott, who, in turn, was followed by 
D, V. Graham. During the years 1859-1860 Rev. E. P. Henderson was 
employed; in 1861 the teachers were E. S. Stockwell -and Charles Huttonj 
1862, E. S. Stockwell and G. M. Green; 1863, J. O. D arrow ; 1864, T. J. B.' 
Cramer; 1865, W. A. C. Smith and wife; 1866, E. F. Baker; 1867, W. A. 
C. Smith — (here some leaves are missing); 1870-71, D. J. Van Slyke ; 1871, 
J. P. Ashby; 1872, C. W. Otis; 1873, T. H. Rose: 1873-74, J. McCly- 
monds; 1874-75, Lucy P. Mathews (now Mrs. Hutton) ; 1875-76, Fanny 
McGaughey; 1877. O. S. Ingham; 1877-79, C. S. Smyth. The school 
houses now occupied were built in 1871 and 1877 ; are constructed to accom- 
modate four hundred pupils, and consist of nine rooms. The grounds, situated 
near the center of the town of Healdshurg, are high, dry and well shaded. 

Sotoyome Lodge, No. 123, F. <& A. M. The first meeting of this Lodge, 
was held under Dispensation on January 23, 1858, the charter being subse- 
quently granted under date. May 13th of that year, the members making 
application being John N. Bailhache, Worshipful Master; E. Sondheimer, 
Senior Warden and Ransom Powell, Junior Warden. The first meeting 
under the charter was had on May 30, 1858 ; the officers at the time being, 
John N. Bailhache, Worshipful Master; E. Sondheimer, Senior Warden; R. 
Powell, Junior Warden; J. G. McManus, Treasurer; A. B. Aull, Secretary. 
Joseph Albertson, Senior Deacon ; Johnston Ireland, Junior Deacon ; William 
Thornton, Tyler. The present membership of the Lodge is seventy-two, 
while financially it is in a flourishing condition; it meets on the Saturday 
next preceding the full moon. The present officers are: W. M., J. N. Bail- 
hache; S. W., John Young; J. W., Martin V. Hooten ; Treasurer, George 
Miller; Secretary, James E. Fenno; S. D., Jonas Bloom; J. D., Josiah G. Best; 
Marshal, D. D. Philips; Stewards, Matthias Raabe, F. Z. Cunningham ; Tyler, 
John Call. 

Healdshurg Encampment, No. 56, 1. 0. 0. /''.—This Encampment was insti- 
tuted March 7, 1876, the charter members being: J. H. Curtis, J. F. Seaman, 
J. L. Bates, George J. Turner, William B. Tucker, George Allison, and John 
R. Paul. The first officers were: John R. Paul, C. P.; George J. Turner, H. 
P.; George Allison, S. W.; William B. Tucker, J. W.; John L. Bates, S.; Jesse 
F. Seaman, T. ; J. H. Curtis, Sentinel. The Lodge, which consists of thirty 


'mGtnbers, is in a flourishing condition, and fiieets ontlie first and third Thurs- 
day of each month. The present office bearers are: C B. Proctor. C P.; 
Levi Appley, H. P.; E. W. Biddle, S. W.; J. H. Curtis, J. W. ; N. A. Young,, 
S. ; L. J. Hall, T. The Lodge-room is situated in a handsome brick building 
on the south-west corner of the Plaza. , 

Healdsbarg Lodge, No. 64, I. 0. 0. F. — This Lodge was originally started 
in Analy township, the meetings being for the most part at the town of 
Bloomfield. Its number then was the same as that borne by it now, but m 
the year 1868 it was moved from that place to Healdsburg and its namie 
changed from Analy Lodge, by the Grand Lodge, to that which it now bears. 
The following officers served from their election in November, 1863, when 
the Lodge was moved, and were re-elected on January 1, 1864, their 
names also appearing on the charter granted by the Grand Lodge: H. M. 
Willson, N. G. ; John Young, V. G. ; D. Lamphier, Secretary; Ransom 
Powell, J. J. Piper and G. Allison. The Lodge is in a flourishing condition, 
has a large membership and meets every Tuesday evening. The present 
officers are: J. F. Seaman, N. G.; John Young, V. G. ; Levi Appley, Re- 
cording Secretary; W. B. Whitney, Permanent Secretary; H. K. Brown, 
Treasurer; J. H. Curtis, Warden; John Turner, Conductor; H. M. Willson, 
R. S. N. G.; John Marshall, L. S. N. G.; W. F. Hall, R. S. V. G.; J. F. 
Nicholls, L. S. N. G.; William McCormick, I. G.; C. B. Proctor, O. G. 

Star of Hope Lodge, No. 32, L 0. G. T. — This Lodge was instituted May 
12, 1861, by D. S. Cutter, of San Francisco, the following being the charter 
members: Mary Jane Downing, Mary E. Fenno, E. Antoinette Bagley, 
Livonia M. Lombard, Vesta L. Macey, John D. Hassett, Henry D. Ley, J. H. 
Colwell, T. O. Thompson, W. A. Maxwell, Henry Sargent, Edwin Collins, S. 
E. Hassett, Thomas R. Ley, John W. Bayley. The present membership is 
forty-five and the ofilcers: C. B. Proctor, W. C. T.; Mrs. M. E. Fenno, W. 
R. H. S.; Mrs. C. Carter, W. L. H. S.; Miss L. Porter, W. V. T.; G. W. Dow, 
W. S.; S. A. Inglehart, W. F. S.; Miss Amanda Smith, W. T.; S. S. Smith, 
W. M.; Miss Bertie Burton, W. D. M.; Rev. W. E, Adams, W. C; Miss 
Annie Porter, W. I. G.; A. A. York, P. W. C. T. 

Healdsburg Fire Department. — This Department had its incipience in the 
year 1858 in the shape of a Hook and Ladder Company, which was estab- 
lished, with Henry D. Lee as Foreman, by a subscription raised among the 
members. It took part and did good service in two large fires that occurred 
in 1859, when most of their gear was destroyed, causing the company to dis- 
band. Several inefiectual attempts were made to reconstruct the corps, it 
was not, however, until water was introduced into the city that anything 
like a fire organization was attempted. At this time a Hose Company was 
started with the following officers: T. C. Caruthers, Foreman; N. W. Bost- 
wick, First Assistant Engineer ; Henry Sargent, Treasurer ; " the complement 


was tlien twenty. The departfhent now musters twenty-two active and 
thirty honorary members under the following officers: President, L. A. 
Norton; Foreman, P. Lannan; First Assistant Engineer, Thomas Riley; 
Second Assistant Engineer, Thomas Ward; Secretary, James E. Fenno; 
Treasurer, Henry Sargent. Their head-quarters are on the principal business 
thoroughfare of the city, opposite the Sotoyome House. 

The Bank of Healdshurg. — This institution was organized on June 3, 
1S74, with a capital of one hundred thousand dollars, paid up, in United 
States gold coin. Its original management was under W. S. Canan, Presi- 
dent, and Charles E. Hutton, Cashier ; the Directors being W. S. Canan, J. 
B. Smith, John D. Hassett, H. M. Willson, and J. N. Bailhache. The officers 
at present are: Jonas Bloom, President; J. N. Bailhache, Cashier, and L. 
Kuo-ler, Secretary ; the Directors being John D. Hassett, H. M. Willson, J. 
N. Bailhache, William Mulligan, and Jonas Bloom. The bank building oc- 
cupies a prominent position on the north-west corner of the Plaza, where a 
general banking and exchange business is transacted. It issues letters of 
credit available in all parts of the United States and Europe, while its cor- 
respondents in San Francisco and New York are Lazard Freres, and Lazard 
Bros. & Co. in London. 

Farmers and Mechanics' Bank of Healdshurg. — This bank was organized 
on September 1, 1877, with an authorized capital of two hundred thousand 
dollars, under the management of E. Harrison Barnes, President, and R. H, 
Wartield, Cashier, the Directors being E. Harrison Barnes, A. B. Nally, L. 
A. Norton, A. Hassett, A. C. Bledsoe, R. Powell, and G. H. Jacobs. The 
present management is under E. Harrison Barnes, President, and R. H. 
Warfield, Cashier; the directorate being E. H. Barnes, A. B. Nally, L. A. 
Norton, A. Hassett, R. Powell, G. H. Jacobs, and John Moffet. The Farmers' 
and Mechanics' Bank transacts its affairs in a commodious building on the 
Plaza, near the Grangers' handsome building, where they carry on a general 
banking busine&s. Their correspondents are, in San Francisco, the London 
and San Francisco Bank (Limited), and in New York, Drexel, Morgan & Co. 

Healdshurg Flouting Mills. — These extensive mills were established by 
Hassett Brothers in the year 1858. In 1872 they sold out to Caruthers and 
Co., who in 1877 disposed of them to Risden and Tucker and they trans- 
ferred an interest, on January 1, 1878, to W. N. Gladden who. purchasing 
the remaining .shares in November of that year, became the present pro- 
prietor. The premises are situated on West street, in convenient proximity 
to the depot of the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad and occupy 
an area of seventy-two by fifty six feet. The works are driven by a steam 
engine of forty power, using two run of stones, one for flour and the 
other for coarser work. The capacity of out-turn is forty barrels in twelve 
hours for wheat, and for barley, corn-meal, etc., twelve tons in the same 


period. The premises comprise the mill building, barn, woodshed, and pig 
pens. There is a storage capacity of one hundred tons, while the business 
carried on is both merchant and custom. These mills were the first erected 
and are still the only ones in the town. 

Geyser Flouring Mill. — Was established at the mouth of Sausal Canon 
Alexander valley, eight miles east of Healdsburg, in the year 1856, by Joshua 
Jordan, of Bangor, Maine, but more recently of La Porte, Indiana, a resident 
of California since 1853. The mill was run by a thirty -foot over-shot 
water-wheel and had two run of burrs. Burned by incendiaries some time 
after 1860; no insurance. Rebuilt and sold under mortgage to Laufer and 
H. Alexander. Afterwards insured by them for their benefit and burned, 
iucendiarily. The decease of Joshua Jordan threw the mill-site into the 
hands of A. D., Leslie A., and Frank T. Jordan, after by Leslie A. Jordan, 
succeeded by Wm. Mulligan, present owner of the site., 

Healdsburg Water Works. — Healdsburg has first-class water works, con- 
structed in 1876, and owned by John Fritsch and F. T. Maynard of Peta- 
luma. The water is obtained from unfailing springs, which gush from the 
base of "Fitch mountain," two miles from the town. It is conveyed and 
distributed through seven miles of iron pipes, with thirty water gates; nine 
four-inch hydrants are set at the most important points for putting out fires. 
The reservoir is one hundred and seventy feet above the town level, afford- 
ing sufficient pressure to throw a stream over the highest buildings. The 
water is always clear, soft and abundant. 

Healdsburg Gas Company. — The city of Healdsburg was first illuminated 
by Joseph Rosenthal with the substance produced from gasolyne, an article 
which was formerly procured from rosin and fish oils, but now is the first 
running from petroleum. The premises wherein was manufactured this 
article were situated on West, between North and Fitch streets. The gas, 
not fulfilling the requirements of a large and increasing population, its diffu- 
sion was discontinued, and the works disused after the completion of the 
present premises. These are situated at the foot of South street, and are the 
property of the Healdsburg Gas Company. They comprise the necessary 
buildings, occupying an area of one acre, and has a gasometer capable of 
making four thousand feet per diem. The gas is produced entirely from 
Sydney coal, specially imported ; it is disseminated through nearly one mile 
of mains and pipes, while John N. Bailhache is the sole proprietor, and Peter 
Dirvin the Superintendent. 

Healdsburg Brewery. — This institution was established in the year 1866 
by Carl Muller and Henry Fried in North Healdsburg, but in 1876 it was 
transferred to its present location on the corner of North and West streets. 
In 1874, Mr. Muller bought out the interest of his partner, and has since 
continued the business. The dimensions of the buildings are thirty-six by 


seventy feet, a saloon and dwelling-house contiguous to it occupying twenty- 
live by seventy feet. The establish men t is well supplied with the necessary 
brewing-houses and appliances, and is the only one of the kind in the city. 
In 1878 about two hundred barrels of beer was manufactured, most of 
which is retailed by the proprietor on the premises. 

Buasian River Flag. — This newspaper. Republican in its politics, was 
established at Healdsburg, November 19, 1868, by John G. Howell, who was 
joined by S. S. Howell on July 22, 1869. Howell Brothers were succeeded 
by Leslie A. Jordan, July 12, 1865, since which date A. D. Jordan, S. P. 
Jilead, J. ^^^ Fergusson and Oscar Weil have been connected with it cither as 
partners or assistant editors. The present associate editor is Frederick C. S. 
Bagge. The size of the paper is twenty-five by thirty-eight, of thirty-two 
columns. The appearance of the paper is a credit to the typographical 
energy of its proprietor. The office is situated in the Granger's Block, on 
the Plaza, at Healdsburg. 

Healdsburg Enterprise. — The Enterprise was established in Healdsburg, 
m May, 1876, by John F. and Felix B. E. Mulgrew, and Sam A. Englehart. 
Politically, the paper is Democratic, of the conservative order. In July, 1876, 
the wide-awake publishers commenced the publication of a semi-weekly, and 
although the original size of the paper, twenty -four by thirty-six, was retained, 
the subscription price and advertising rates were not increased. The semi- 
weekly was continued during the Presidential campaign of that year, and 
then, as per intention, the paper was made a weekly, and improved by the 
addition of new and interesting features. Subsequently the interest of Mr. 
Englehart was absorbed by the Messrs. Mulgrew, who are 'at present sole 
proprietors. The editorial management of the Enterprise is in the hands of 
the Junior member of the firm, Felix B. Mulgrew, while the business and 
mechanical departments are under the supervision of John F. Mulgrew. 
From the date of the paper's existence it has gone onward and upward. The 
proprietors being young men, grown up with the community, and charac- 
terized by their industry, enterprise and special fitness, the success of the 
Enterprise has been a natural result, and the large circulation the paper has 
achieved places it in the van of all oCliers in northern Sonoma county. Con- 
nected with the office are complete and first class facilities for job printing, 
making the establishment by far the best in Healdsburg. The aim of the 
pubUshers has been to make theirs the representative paper of northern 
Sonoma county, and in this they have certainly succeeded. 



Geography. — Ocean township lies on the western side of Sonoma county, 
bordering on the Pacific ocean. It is bounded on the east by Mendocino, 
Redwood and Bodega townships, on the south by Bodega township, on the 
west by the Pacific ocean, and on the north by Salt Point township. Its 
boundaiy lines are very irregular, not following any direction for any great 
distance, thus giving to the township a very jagged and peculiar shape. 
Russian river, " Rio de los Rusos, " and Austin creek, so named for an old 
pioneer settler, are its only streams of any importance whatever. Neither of 
these are navigable. The river however is quite a stream, and is very deep 
and wide in places, but quite narrow and shallow in others. It is easily 
forded during the greater portion of the year at the present site of Duncan's 
Mill, but in the Winter season both the river and the creek become swollen 
by the rains, and are veritable mountain torrents. The water rushes sea- 
ward with relentless fury, and everything in its pathway is swept into the 
broad bosom of the Pacific. There is no place however within the limits of 
this township on the river which affords water power privileges. It is a 
beautiful mountain stream and abounds in certain kinds of fish. 

Topograjphy . — -The topography of this Township is very varied; extending 
from the level valley to the high mountain peaks. There is but comparatively 
little level land in it, and but little but what is so nearly set upon edge 
that it cannot be practically farmed, that portion of it lying south of the 
Russian River and also that along the ocean is well adapted to grazing and 
dairying purposes, but farther in the interior the mountains are very steep 
and high, and aflTord only timber. Of course these mountains are inter- 
spersed with rich valleys which are very productive. A birds-eye view of 
the whole township would reveal one grand panoramic view of hill and dale, 
of mountain and valley, extending over its entire length and breadth, threaded 
from east to west, near its southern end by the Russian river, and near its 
eastern border by Austin creek. At the north west corner, Black mountain 
stands out in bold relief rearing its head high above the ocean level. 

Soil. — The soil of this township is made up of sandy loams and different 
clays. There is no adobe in it. The sandy loams are found in all the valleys 
and on the knolls and hillocks, while the mountain sides are covered with 
clays. The loams are very productive, all kinds of cereals and tubers thrive 
in them. The clays grow good grazing grasses quite profusely, while all 
kinds of trees and vines find their native element in them. 


Climate. — The climate of this township is generally pleasant and cool^ 
though in the valleys it sometimes becomes oppressively warm. Fogs are 
quite common, coming in from the sea early in the afternoon, and remaining 
to cast a shadow of gloom over the face of nature till the day is well ad- 
vanced. Strong winds prevail along the coast and rush up the valleys, 
leadincT from the ocean, with great force, radiating into the various side 
valleys, thus reducing the temperature in them, making their climate the 
most temperate and salubrious. During the winter season it is not so cold as 
farther in the interior, it being so near the ocean. 

Products. — The products of the township are as varied as is the face of 
the country. In the valleys the finest of wheat, oats, barley and corn is 
grown, also fruits, grapes, berries, melons, and all kinds of vegetables grow 
in rank luxuriance. On the hill sides fruit trees and vines thrive the best. 
The principal exports, however, are lumber, fence posts, cord wood, tan-bark 
and charcoal. There seems to be an almost boundless supply of the last 
named articles in the hills and mountains of this township, thus affording 
employment for a large force of men during the greater portion of the year. 
Of these, of course, lumber is the principal product and export. Extensive 
forests of redwood abound in this section and their yield of lumber is enor- 
mous. To give an idea of the great amount of lumber in this township we 
will give the estimates made in 1877 by the various mill proprietors in the 
township: Duncan's Mill Land and Lumber Company own three thousand 
six hundred acres on the north side of Russian river, which will yield say 
two hundred and sixteen million feet. The Russian River Land and Lumber 
Association own nine thousand acres lying west of Howard's Canon and 
south of Russian river, on which there is say four hundred and fifty million 
feet of lumber. This would make a total at that time of six hundred and 
sixty-six million feet in this township. Since then, it is not probable that 
over ten milion feet have been cut as the mills have not been running lately, 
leaving say at least six hundred and fifty million feet still standing. Next 
to lumber in the amount of export may probably be ranked fence posts. Of there is a boundless supply, as there is enough timber in one of those 
giant redwoods to make enough posts to load a train of cars. Next in 
amount exported comes cord wood. This wood is mostly pine and oak. The 
bark is stripped from the oak tree and it is then worked up into cordwood 
and sent to market. Tan bark is no mean item of export, every train almost 
taking cai-s loaded with it to the city. Large quantities of charcoal are also 
burned in this section and shipped to San Francisco. Another export from 
the redwood section is the pickets used so extensively in this and adjoining 
counties in constructing rough picket fences. Some little grain is shipped to 
market, but the most of it is used for home consumption, while hay is an 
item of import, as large quantities of it are consumed by the many teams 
employed in this section. Fruits and vegetables are mostly disposed of in 

(l^ .^^^k<g^^^-^-'^--t.e^. 


the local markets. Dairy products form no inconsiderable item of export 
during the year. 

Early Settlement. -^The settlement of this township does not date back as 
far as many others in the county. From the fact that it was so rough and 
mountainous it did not appear to be a very desirable location for a home, 
and while better places remaimed to be had for the asking as it were, no one 
seemed inclined to locate here. It is probable that Henry Austin was about 
the first settler in the township. However, the following named gentlemen 
all came in about the same time, 1856, and it js probable that as much honor 
is due to one as to another: Hugh Breen, Mr, Jackson, Philip Crauley, John 
Orr, James Sheridan, F. Sheridan, and J. Chenneworth. All these gentlemen 
took up claims, and many of them remain there to this day. Mr. Orr 
chanced to locate his claim where the now beautiful little town of Duncan's 
Mill is situated, and now has the satisfaction of having seen the dense wilder- 
ness of twenty-four years ago converted into a coterie of happj^ homes. He 
has accepted the new order of things with good grace and may be found any 
day at his place of business, a hale, genial gentleman, full to overflowing with 
the genuine old pioneer free-heartedness. Things went on very quietly in 
that far-away mountain section among the old settlers until 1860, when 
Messrs. S. M. & A. Duncan began operations, at a point one and one-half 
miles inland froin the mouth of Russian River, on a saw-mill. Soon the 
woodman's ax was heard on all the hill sides in that section and the hum of 
the saw began to fill the valleys with its music. Ever3'thing was then life 
and animation. Soon quite a little town sprung up ; a store and hotel were 
opened. A post-oSice was established here, December 20, 1862, with Thos. 
Beacom Postmaster; there was also a telegraph and express ofiice in the town. 
Everything flourished in the village. Communication with the city was had 
by schooner in the earlier days of the town's existence, but it was subse- 
quently supplemented by a fine steamer, the " Ellen Duncan." For seventeen 
years the ceaseless whir of the saw and the crack of the woodsman's ax was 
heard in the valleys and on the hill sides adjacent to the mill site, and even 
extending their operations far up the river, floating the logs down on its 
bosom. But there came a time when a change must be made. The trees 
were too far awaj'^ from the mill to be profitable. Just at this time, in 1877, 
the North Pacific Coast Narrow Gauge Railroad had reached the Russian 
River, and a question arose where it should make its terminus. Mr. Duncan, 
being just on the eve of a change, was consulted in the matter, and after due 
mutual consideration the present site of the town of Duncan's Mill was 
decided upon as the best place to cross the river and the most suitable 
location for a town site. 

Duncan's Mill. — As stated above, the establishment of the site on which 
the town of Duncan's Mill now stands was the result of a conference between 
the officers of the North Pacific Coast Railroad and Mr. A. Duncan, the 


parties most interested. In the Spring of 1877 Mr. Duncan moved his mill 
to its present location, and the Kailroad con.structed a handsome and 
durable bridge across the Russian river, just below the mill, and erected the 
necessary station buildings, and also an engine house. Mr. Duncan, and his 
son, S. M. Duncan, erected elegant residences. The residence of Mr. A. 
Duncan is especially worthy of note, being situated on an eminence to the 
northward of the town it commands a lovely view of the town and adjacent 
valley. Its rooms are spacious and everything about it has an air of sub- 
stantial and ornamental utility. In the center of the town stands the 
Russian River Hotel, a very large and spacious building, having room for 
the accommodation of a great number of guests. During the Summer season 
this house is more than full of guests, as the town is fast growing into favor 
as a place of resort. It certainly deserves to be a favorite with the pleasure 
and health seeker. It lies nestled amid the mountain.s, on the banks of a 
most beautiful stream of water. Rambles on the mountain sides and boating 
upon the stream can be indulged in by the gentler sex, wdiile a broad tield 
for the operations of the Nimrod lies on every side of the town. Communi- 
cation with the city is quick and comfortable. The North Pacific Coast 
Railroad trains make the round trip to San Francisco and back daily, while 
on Sundays an excursion train is run from that city to Duncan's Mill and 
return. The road passes through some of the most lovely mountain views 
to be found on the Pacific coast. The scenery, as the trains sweep through 
Howard's canon is one grand kaleidoscopic panorama, each curve of the road, 
and there are hosts of them, revealing some new and beautiful vista. Com- 
munication northward is had by a line of stages, owned and operated by 
Messrs. AUman & Queen. The business is under the immediate control of 
Mr. Queen, and he has made the route a great favorite with the traveling 
public. The stages leave daily for Mendocino City. 

The business interests of the town are represented by one saw-mill, two 
hotels, one store, one saloon, one meat market, one blacksmith shop, one shoe 
shop, one livery and stage stable, and one notion store. The official directory 
Is as follows : S. M. Duncan, Postmaster; Thos. Beacom, Justice of the Peace ; 
Chas. H. Thompson, Constable; C. Queen, Agent Wells, Fargo & Co., and 
M. Moses, Telegraph Operator and Station Agent. 

Brotherhood Lodge, F. d: A. il/.— Brotherhood Lodge, No. 2.51, F. & A. M., 
was organized Under Dispensation, June 8, 1878. The charter members were 
John Orr, Thomas Beacom, Silas D. Ingraham, Samuel Rien, A. H. HetFron, 
James Sheridan, S. M. Duncan, Charles E. Tibbetts, B. R. Wiltse, A. S. Pat- 
terson, and Charles F. Roix. The officers U. D. were: John Orr, W. M.; B. 
R. Wiltse, S. W.; Charles E. Tibbetts. J. W,; Samuel Rien, Treasurer; and 
S. M. Duncan, Secretary. The same gentlemen have been continued in 
their respective offices till the present time. The present membership 13 
sixteen, and more are being added from time to time. The Lodge meets in 


a nice hall arranged expressly for their use, and will shortly now be finely 

Presbyterian Church. — The Duncan's Mill Presbyterian Church was 
brganized in June, 1878, with the following names upon the church roll: 
Mrs. Alex. Duncan, Thomas Beacom, S. M. Duncan, P. Shaw, and William 
Fleming. Reverend Hugh McLeod organized the Church, and is the 
present pastor. There is a Sabbath School connected with the church, 
which is well attended by old as well as young. 

Schools. — The one great redeeming feature of California is its public 
school system, and no matter how far removed one is from the great centers 
of habitation, even amid the wildest and most rugged mountains, there will 
be found the school-house. And so it is in this township. Here, in the very 
heart of the wilderness, are found enough schools to accommodate all the 
children. The Scotta, Ocean, Laurel HiU, and Duncan's Mill Districts 
include all the territory in the township. The school at Duncan's Mill is, 
of course, the largest and best attended. 

Mills. — There are several very large saw-mills in this township, in fact, 
there is more mill capacity in it than in any other in the county at the 
present time, aggregating about one hundred and fifty thousand feet daily. 
The Duncan's Mill Land and Lumber Association's mill will cut thirty 
thousand feet a day. The mills owned by the Russian River Land and 
Lumber Association at Moscow, Tyrone, Russian River Station, and at 
other points in the Howard Canon, Avill each cut thirty thousand feet daily ; 
none of the mills belonging to the last named association are running at 
the present time, but the mill of the first named is in operation. To give 
a history of Duncan's mill, we must needs go back to the pioneer da^'s 
both of California and of saw-milling. In 1849 a number of carpenters, 
employed in the erection of the barracks at Benicia, conceived the idea of 
forming into a company and starting a saw-mill. Lumber at that time was 
worth three hundred dollars per thousand feet, and oi course at that rate the 
business would pay far better profits than even mining. The company wai 
organized under the name of the Blumedale Saw-mill and Lumber Co., in 
honor of F. G. Blume, of whom they leased the timber land. It was located 
on Ebabias creek, in Analy township, a few miles east of the present site 
of Freestone. Chas. McDermot was President, and John Bailiff, Secretary 
of the company. They formed the company and rented the land in 1848, 
bub it was not until November of 1849 that the mill was got into operation, 
but by this time the price of lumber had so materially decreased, and the 
expense of getting it to market was so great, that but little lumber was ever 
cut by this company. In 1850, Gen. George Stoneman (then lieutenant), 
Joshua Hendy, and Samuel M. Duncan purchased the property of the 
Blumedale Mill and Lumber Co., and continued to run it at that place until 


the Spring of 1852. In the meantime, however, either late in 1851 or early 
in 1852, Stoneman disposed of his interest to his partners, and they con- 
tinued in business under the firm name of Hendj'- & Duncan. 

In 1852, Messrs. Hendy &; Duncan moved their mill to a mining camp 
known as Yankee Jim's. Here they remained a year, and in 1853 the 
maciiinery Avas moved to Michigan Blutfs, another mining town. In 1854, 
they brought the machinery back to Sonoma county, locating at Salt Point 
and establishing the first steam saw-mill in Sonoma county, north of Russian 
river. Up to this time the capacity of the mill had only been five thousand feet 
per day, but the new boilers were procured, making it a sixteen-horse power 
engine, and increasing the capacity to twelve thousand feet a day. In 1855, 
Joshua Hendy disposed of his interest to Alex. Duncan, and under the firm 
name of Duncan Brothers, the business was conducted very ?5uccessfully 
at this point until 18G0, when the luill was moved to the old mill site near 
the mouth of Russian river. 

While at Salt Point they sawed thirty million feet of lumber, being an 
average of five million per year. At the time the mill was moved to Russian 
river, its machinery was greatly enlarged and improved, and its capacity 
increased to twenty-five thousand per diem. While the mill was located at 
this place, they cut about one hundred million feet of lumber. No one has 
any conception of what those figures mean, or how much lumber it ls; yet 
even that great number would have been greatly increased, had it not been 
that almost every year large quantities of logs were carried out to sea during 
the freshets. The winter of 1862 was the worst, carrying away probably seven 
million feet of lumber in the logs. It seemed almost impossible to construct 
booms strong enough to withstand the mighty force of the raging floods of 
water. In 1877, the Duncan's Mill, Land and Lumber Association was 
formed, and the mill moved to its present location. At that time it was 
enlarged to a capacity of thirty-five thousand feet per day, which is about 
the greatest capacity of any mill in this section. The machinery in the mill 
consists of one pair of double circular saws, each sixty inches in diameter ; 
one pony saw, forty inches in diameter ; one muley saw, capable of cutting 
a log eight feet in diameter ; two planing machines, one picket header, one 
shingle machine, together with edgers, jointers, trimmers, and all the neces- 
sary machinery and appliances for conducting the business of sawing and 
working up lumber expeditiously. 

We will now give a detailed description of the modus operandi of convert- 
ing monster redwood trees into lumber, as we saw it done at this mill. We 
will begin with the tree as it stands on the mountain side. The woodsman 
chooses his tree, then proceeds to build a scaffold up beside it that will elevate 
him to such a hp.ight as he may decide upon cutting the stump. Many of 
the trees have been burned about the roots, or have grown ill-shaped near 
the ground, so that it is often necessary to build the scaffold from ten to 


twenty feet high. This scaffold, by the way, is an ingenious contrivance. 
Notches are cut at intervals around the tree at the proper height, deep enough 
for the end of a cross-piece to rest in securely. One end of the cross-piece is 
then inserted in the notch, and the other is made fast to an upright post, out 
some distance from the tree. Loose boards are then laid upon these cross- 
pieces, and the scaffold is completed. The work of felling the tree then 
begins. If the tree is above four feet in diameter an ax is used with an extra 
long helve, when one man works alone, but the usual method is for two men 
to work together, one chopping "right-handed" and the other "left-handed." 
When the tree is once down it is carefully trimmed up as far as it will do for 
saw-logs. A cross-cut saw is now brought into requisition, which one man 
plies with ease in the largest of logs, and the tree is cut into the required 
lengths. The logs are then stripped of their bark, which process is accom- 
plished sometimes by burning it off Then the ox-team puts in an appear- 
ance. These teams usually consist of three or more yoke of oxen. The 
chain is divided into two parts near the end, and on the end of each part 
there is a nearly right-angled hook. One of these hooks is driven into either 
side of the log, near the end next the team, and then, with many a surge, a 
gee, and a haw, and an occasional (?) oath, the log is drawn out to the main 
trail to the landing-place. If on the road there should be any up hill, or 
otherwise rough ground, the trail is frequently wet, so that the logs may slip 
along the more easily. Once at the landing-place, the hooks at the end of 
the chain are withdrawn, and the oxen move slowly back into the woods for 
another log. The train has just come up, and our log, a great eight-foot fel- 
low, is carefully loaded on one of the cars. As we go along the track on this 
novel train on our road to the mill let us examine it a little. Beginning at 
the foundation, we will look at the track first. We find that the road-bed 
has been well graded, cuts made where necessary, fills made when practica- 
ble, and trestle work constructed where needed. On the ground are laid 
heavy cross-ties, and on them a six by six square timber. On this an iron 
bar, about half an inch thick and two and a half inches wide, is spiked the 
entire length of the track. The two rails are five feet and five inches apart, 
and the entire length of the tramway is five miles. Now we come to the 
cars which run on this queerly-constructed track. They are made nearly 
square, but so arranged that by fastening them together with ropes a com- 
bination car of almost any length can be formed. And lastly, but by no 
means the least, we come to the peculiarly-contrived piece of machinery 
which they call a "dummy," which is the motor power on this railroad. 
This engine, boiler, tender and all, stands on four wheels, each about two and 
a half feet in diameter. They are connected together on each side by a shaft. 
On the axle of the front pair of wheels is placed a large cog-wheel. Into 
this a very small cog-wheel works, which is on a shaft, to which the power 
of the engine is applied. There is an engineer on either side of the boiler. 


and they have a reverse lever, so that the " dummy" can go one way as well 

as another. By the cog-wheel combination great power is gained, but not so 
much can be said for its speed, though a maximum of five miles an ;hour can 
be obtained. On our way to the mill we passed through a little village of 
shanties and cottages, which proved to be the residences of the choppers and 
men engaged in the woods. Farther on we pass through a barren, deserted 
section, whence the trees have all been cut years ago, and naught but their 
blackened stumps stand noM', grim vestiges of the pristine glory of the forest 
primeval. Now we pass around a grade, high, overhanging the river, and, 
with a grand sweep, enter the limits of the mill-yard. Our great log is 
rolled off the car on to the platform, and in his turn passes to the small car 
used for drawing logs up into the mill. A long rope attached to a drum in 
the mill is fastened to the car, and slowly, but surely, it travels up to the 
platform near the saw. Our log is too large to go at once to the double cir- 
cular, hence the " muley," a long saw, similar to a cross-cut saw, only it 
is a rip saw, and stands perpendicular, must rip it in two in the middle to 
get it into such a size that the double circular can reach through it. This is 
rather a slow process, and as we have nearly thirty minutes on our hands 
while waiting for our log to pass through this saw, let us pay a visit to the 
shingle machine. This we find on a lower floor. The timber out of which 
shingles are made is cut into triangular or wedge-shaped pieces, about four 
feet long, and about sixteen inches in diameter. These are called " bolts." 
The first process is to saw them off into proper lengths. These blocks are 
then fastened into a rack, which passes by a saw, and as the rack passes back 
a ratchet is brought into requisition, which moves the bottom of the block 
in toward the saw, just the thickness of the thick end of the shingle and the 
top end in to correspond with the thickness of the thin end. The block is 
then shoved past the saw, and a shingle is made, except that the edges are, 
of course, rough, and the two ends probably not at all of the same width. 
To remedy all this, the edge of the shingle is subjected to a trimmer, when it 
becomes a first-class shingle. They are packed into bunches, and are then 
ready for the market. We will now return to our log. It has just been run 
back on the carriage, and awaits further processes. A rope attached to a 
side drum is made fast to one-half of it, and it is soon lying on its back on the 
carriage in front of the double circular saws. Through this it passes in 
rapid rotation till it is sawed into broad slabs of the proper thickness to 
make the desired lumber. It is then passed along on rollers to the " pony" 
saw, when it is again cut in pieces of lumber of difierent sizes as required, 
such as two by four, four by four, four by six, etc. It is then piled upon a 
truck and wheeled into the yard, and piled up ready for the market. The 
other half of the log is sawed into boards, three-quarters of an inch thick. 
At the " pony" saw, part of it is ripped into boards, ten inches wide, and part 
into plank, four inches wide. The boards, ten inches wide, pass along to a 


planing machine, and it comes out rustic siding. The four-inch plank passes 
through another planing machine, and comes out tongued and grooved ceiling. 
The heavy slabs which we saw come off the first and second time the saw 
passed through the log are cut into different lengths, and sawed into the 
right size for pickets. They are then passed through a planer, then through 
a picket-header, a machine with a series of revolving knives, which cut out 
the design of the picket-head the same as the different members of a molding 
are cut out. Thus have we taken our readers through the entire process of 
converting the mighty forest monarchs into lumber. We hope we have suc- 
ceeded in making the description of the process, in a small measure at least, 
as interesting to our readers as it was to us when, for the first time, we wit- 
nessed it. When you have witnessed the process of making lumber in one 
mill you have seen it in all, with the exception of here and there a minor 
detail. There are but few mills which use a " dummy" engine to draw their 
logs to the mill, most of them using hoi'ses or cattle on the tramways. The 
lumber and wood industries of this township will always make it of consider- 
able importance, and a prosperous future may reasonably be expected. 



The derivation of the name given to this Township and City is still a 
matter of conjecture. There are those who assert that it came from the 
Indian words, meaning "duck hills," while others declare it to signify "Uttle 
hills." In the latter apellation there would appear to be more reason than in 
the former, from the number of mounds or hillocks which are still traceable 
throuo-hout the valley, though now less noticeable than on the first settlement 
of the district when cultivation was not so general. 

Petaluma creek is an arm of the San Pablo bay, having enough water at 
high tide to make it easy navigation for schooners, sloops, scows and small 
steamers of light draft. From about three thousand yards above the city, 
where the stream is lost, it finds its winding course through a district, 
principally of marsh or tule-land, until it merges with the salt water after 
having travelled a distance of sixteen miles. As has been elsewhere shown 
this was the water-way which Captain Quiros and a party of explorers 
ascended in September, 177G, in the vain endeavor of finding a connecting 
stream with the ocean at Bodega bay. In the year 1850, when the township 
was first commencing to be settled, the depth of the creek was considerably 
greater than it is to-day; debris had not yet been cast into its clear waters 
nor had mud formed in such vast quantities on its banks, it was a clear 
stream of pure water, and free from all obstructions, save where the fallen 
timbers may have spanned its width making a natural bridge for the hunters 
and their prey, who then roamed about the district. 

'J'hc next record of a visit having been paid to the Petaluma valley is that 
of Father Altimira, in 1823, when on his search for a suitable site whereon 
to found a Mission to the north of the Bay of San Francisco. On this expe- 
dition the Holy Father's party passed the point at or near to where the city 
now stands, then named by the Spaniards " Puntade losEsteros," but known 
to the Indians as "Chocuali," and, crossing the creek to its east side, en- 
camped that night, June 25th, on the site of the adobe house built by General 
Valkjo, at this time known as the "Arroyo Lema." No settlement was 
however made in the Petaluma valley at this juncture. 

In 1836 General Vallejo built the first house in the valley on a grant, 
known as the Petaluma Rancho, which had for its boundaries the Sonoma 
creek on the east, the San Pablo bay on the south, and Petaluma creek on the 
west, thus evidencing his proprietory rights over that vast tract wherein is 
included the portion of the city known as East Petaluma. Two years later 





the land on the opposite, or west side of the creek was settled on by Juan 
Miranda, who built a residence about two miles from the city of Petaluma, 
wherein he established himself with his family. In the year 1844, after an 
occupation of six years, he made application to the Mexican government that 
this tract should be granted to him, and, in order to attain this, Jacob P. 
Leese, then Alcalde of the district of Sonoma, certified that he was the only 
occupant; an order directing the issue of the usual title was made by Gov- 
ernor Micheltorena on October 8, 1844, but was never executed by reason of 
the political disturbances which ensued and resulted in the downfall of the 
Governor's power. 

Mr. Robert A. Thompson, formerly of the Sonoma Devnocrat, in a descriptive 
sketch of Sonoma counnty tells the rest of the story of this grant in the fol- 
lowing words: Miranda was the father of many children, and one of his 
daughters, Francisca, married a Mexican named Antonio Ortega, who had no 
settled habitation, but lived sometimes with his wife's family, at this rancho, 
sometimes with the priests at the different Missions, and for .several years in 
Oregon. On the ground of his occasional visits to his father-in-law he set 
up a claim to being the real occupant of the rancho, and succeeded in obtain- 
ing from Governor Alvarado a decree for the land, purporting to have been 
made August 10, 1840. 

Thus there were two conflicting claims to the same tract of land. After 
the death of Miranda, at San Rafael, in 1850, his title was sold by order of 
the probate court of Marin county, and was purchased by T. B. Valentine of 
San Francisco. Whether the proceedings at this sale were regular, so as to 
vest in the purchaser a perfect title, is at least doubtful. The title of Ortega 
was conveyed to Charles White, of San Jose. 

After the establishment of the land Commission, both of these claims were 
presented to that tribunal for adjudication. Valentine put in some testimony 
which was thought to be rather damaging to the success of the Ortega claim, 
providing that the testimony should be suppressed, the Miranda claim with- 
drawn, the Ortega claim pressed for confirmation and the proceeds of the 
sale of the lands covered by it divided between the contracting parties. 

The Miranda title was thus summarily disposed of by the act of its holder. 
To clear away the Ortega title by the slow machinery of the law, took several 
years. It was confirmed by the land commission, was twice before the United 
States District Court — first confirmed and afterwards rejected; and twice 
before the United States Supreme Court, where it was finally rejected in 1863. 

The land embraced within the limits of the rancho thus became public domain 
of the United States, and government surveys were extended over it. That 
portion within the boundaries of the incorporated limits of Petaluma was 
ceded to that city by act of Congress of March 1, 1867, and the occupants 
of all the remainder obtained patents under the pre-emption law. 

Valentine besieged the doors of Congress for many years to get an act passed 



allowing him to present his title to the courts for confirmation. Such a 
measure would have been a great injustice to the occupants of the land, for 
althou<'-h the original title was undoubtedly genuine, and would have been 
confirmed, he prevented a confirmation by his voluntary withdrawal of it. 
He was finally satisfied by receiving from the government an issue of very 
valuable land-scrip for the same number of acres embraced within his grant. 

The first settler.? therefore were the General at his adobe, where he kept a 
large number of Indians under the authority and guardianship of one of his 
sons, and Juan Mir-anda last mentioned. 

At the time of which we write, and until the American settlers com- 
menced to arrive, the country was one vast wilderness covered with wild 
oats interspersed with flowers of every hue, backed by almost impenetrable 
forests of redwood, black,white and live oak, that fought for existence with the 
California laurel and other indiginous trees, the line of timber being then with- 
in the limits of the city. Through the dense waste of tangled weeds roamed 
cattle and horses that had never known the soothing hand of man. Did 
the hunter prove unsuccessful in the chase, he replenished his empty larder 
by slaying a "beef," perfectly regardless as to whose property it might be; 
timber was plentiful, so with his trusty ax he felled the stately trees, hew- 
ing planks therefrom wherewith to frame himself a shantie, while in later 
years, partnerships were formed among the trappers, who hunted elk, deer 
and feathered game, afterwards transporting them by boat to San Francisco, 
there receiving profitable prices in coin and produce. 

Early in the year 1850, Dr. August F. Heyermann built a log cabin on a 
piece of ground afterward owned by A. W. Rogers. In the month of Octo- 
ber, 1850, Tom. Lockwood, who had but recently arrived' in the State, left 
San Francisco, hearing glowing accounts of the quantity of game obtainable 
in this region, with a party, purchased a ship's whale-boat, and pursued 
their way across the bay until they gained the mouth of the Petaluma creek, 
which they ascended cautiously, and finally halting, camped in a grove of oak 
trees just above the town, on what is now the property of the w^idow Bell. 
What a lifeof unvarying change must have been this of Lockwood and his com- 
panions. At the season of the year when they tarried on the plain, we can 
imagine the rain pouring down in torrents, accompanied by driving winds, 
but rarely varied by a fitful ray of sunshine. How cold too were the morn- 
ings and evenings, as they started to, or returned, mayhap, empty-handed 
from the fatigues of the chase, to drop off to' sleep on the damp grass, 
or perchance lie awake until dawn would bring back the weary monoto- 
nous round. Alone did they pursue this avocation for two long dreary 
months, their small craft making periodical trips to San Francisco to dispose 
of their spoils and lay in stores. On January 3, 1851, they were joined by 
Leinarcus Wiatt and John Linus, who arrived on the scene, not with the 
specific object of locating, but rather to repair their health, which had been 


shattered by a residence in the mines. Here the new comers found Lock- 
wood, Pendleton, and Levi Pyburn, and with these three pitched their tent 
under the friendly shadow of the oaks. Not long after, Thomas Baylis and 
David Flogdell wandered into this region, who falling in with the others,- 
increased the size of the camp, and pursued the same occupation. Of these, 
Lockwood and Wiatt are still residents of Petaluma; Baylis and Flogdell^ 
of whom mention will be again made under their historical firm name 
of " Tom and Dave," remained in the city for years, and after earning 
comfort and respect were gathered to their fathers, while the others too 
have gone, and the site which they were the first to occupy knows them 
no more. These were the men who gave Petaluma its first start as a ship- 
ping point. In the Summer of 1851, Wiatt and Linus erected a small 
trading post on the bend of the creek, a little above the bridge on Washing- 
ton street, while in October their example was followed by Baylis and 
Flogdell, who had moved from their position half-a-mile away, and con- 
structed a small store on the bank of the creek opposite the position now 
occupied by the Odd Fellows' hall. Keller, who had pre-empted the land 
in the previous year, about this time put up an edifice of a nondescript 
character, where he kept a ware-house, eating-house, store, and also a few 
bunks for sleeping accommodation. There was also constructed this Summer 
a ware-house by James M. Hudspeth, then, as now, a resident of Green 
valley, Analy township, who had thus early found the advantages possessed 
by the site as a place of shij)ment. This building stood at the foot of Wash- 
ington street, on the creek, just below the bridge. That autumn it was 
stored to its fullest capacity with potatoes, the proprietor at the same time 
cutting and baling upwards of a hundred tons of hay, in close proximity to 
the town, all of which he shipped to Sacramento, making the first export of 
produce of any magnitude from Sonoma by way of Petaluma. In this Fall 
there were then resident in the district the following families :The Sing- 
leys, Starkeys, Terrills, Samuels, Tustins, and Lewises, which were further 
augmented by the arrival of the Douglases and Hathaways, who came from 
Antioch, Contra Costa county, and having brought the frames of their houses 
with them, the elder Douglas erected his, where it stands to-day, a little 
above the Brooklyn Hotel, that of the Hathaways being constructed by 
Robert Douglas, Jr., on or near to the site of the Washington Hotel. These 
were the first dwelling houses raised in the city of Petaluma. Mr. Douglas 
now resides on a pleasant ranch near Freestone, in Bodega township. 

As has been before remarked, the town-site had been already located by 
Mr. Keller. In the winter of 1851-2 the population of the embryo city 
increased considerably; a meeting of the settlers was therefore called, who 
requested Mr. Keller to lay out the plat of a town, guaranteeing him there 
and then Uie purchase of every other lot and at the same time promising 
that all his rights should be respected. The survey, which commenced at a 


point on Petalunia creek, between Prospect and Oak streets, running thence 
west to the westerly line of Liberty street, near Kent, then southerly along 
Liberty street to A, then on the northerly line of A and a continuation of 
that line north-easterly to Petaluma creek, the area being in the vicinity of 
forty acres, was effected by J. A. Brewster on January 3, 1852. It is said 
that Major Singley and Tom Lockwood carried the chain for this survey. 
Early in 1852 the new city connnenced to show signs of considerable activity, 
a very fine store was established by W. D. Kent on the site now occupied by 
the photographic gallery of George Ross on the east side of Main street; he 
shortlv after admitted into partnership a man named Smith, when the firm 
became Kent & Smith, and F. H. Coe purchasing into the business at a later 
date the establishment was known as that of Kent, Smith & Coe. There was 
also a f^rocery store kept by one Samuels on the corner of Main and Wash- 
in o-ton streets. In this year " Tom & Dave " had an establishment for the 
entertainment of travelers, called the Pioneer Hotel, which may be said 
to have been the first hostelry started in Petaluma; it joined their building 
already mentioned. It is certain that the Douglas and Hathaway families 
kept boarders but no regular building for the accommodation and sole use of 
transient guests was extant until late in the year, for in the Fall, Samuel N. 
Teirill commenced the Petaluma House on ground now occupied by the Odd 
Fellows' hall, and Robert Douglas, the younger, the erection of the Amer- 
ican Hotel on the site of the present building of that name. The Petaluma 
House was the first in working order. In January, 1852, William Zartman 
and John Fritsch, with James F. Reed, commenced business as blacksmiths, 
building their forge on the place now occupied by Gilbert's cheap cash store. 
Reed afterwards lost his life on a voyage to the Eastern States on the ill- 
fated " Atlantic." Major Singley, the present agent of the San Francisco 
and North Pacific Railroad in this city, who located in August, 1851, on the 
west side of the creek, about half-a-mile above town, on land afterward 
occupied by Mr. Kerry, is of opinion that the first postmaster in Petaluma 
was a German named H. P. Hentzlemann, who had his office in a house 
which stood on the south-east corner of Main and Washington streets; 
but the weight of evidence goes to prove that W. D. Kent was the 
pioneer postmaster and that he distributed the mails from his own store. 
Kent was succeeded by Doctor Brown, who in turn gave place to Samuel 
N. Terrill.* Mail matter was transported from Benicia, Solano county, on 
horse-back, once a week, by way of Sonoma, Miller & Walker's store, 
now called Sebastopol, to Petaluma, thence to San Rafael, Marin county — a 
rather tortuous way ot receiving news when compared with the swift, certain, 
and frequent transmission of correspondence which obtains to-day. The 
religious and instructive cares of the city had not, up to this period, received 

any especial care. Two wandering preachers named Gurnsey, who com- 

. • 

• We have since learned that Garrett W. Keller was the first Postmaster. See pajfe 131. 


bined with the repairing of souls the occupation of a chair manufacturer, 

and Bateman, were wont to minister to the wants of the residents in this 

particular until the settlement of Mr. Hunter as pastor of the Methodist 

church, which stood on the site of the present city prison, his wife, noble 

woman, being the first to open a school for the education of the young, of 

whom there were now a few; in this laudable undertaking she was succeeded 

by A. B. Bowers, who taught in a building then occupying the position of 

the present magnificent brick edifice which would be an ornament to any 

city. The 4th of July, 1852, the National holiday, was celebrated by a 

grand ball which took place in the building wherein was situated the 

store of Kent, Smith & Coe, when one hundred and fifty guests from all 

parts of the country took part in the merry-making — the tickets on the 

occasion being ten dollars each. Here we have the first mention of the 

gaieties of a city life having taken hold. We can imagine with what keen 

excitement was the auspicious occasion looked forward to, for reunions of 

any kind in these early days were all but impossible; there were not the 

facilities which are found in places of more mature growth; the distances 

were too magnificent to permit of frequent intercourse between neighbors 

separated by twenty miles of country, entirely innocent of roads or bridges; 

men and maidens had little opportunity of meeting or becoming acquainted, 

is it therefore any wonder that dances were danced with a vim,, the like of 

which has never been witnessed, or that songs were sung and stories tol(], 

healths drank and eternal friendships sworn, the like of which could never 

occur again — the oldest living residents never forget this evening when 

"Soft love look'd love to eyes, which spake again. 
And. all went merry as a marriage bell. " . 

The first Justice of the Peace was M. G. Lewis, while of the lawyers there 
were William Churchman, Jackson Temple, and J. B. Southard, who suc- 
ceeded Judge E. W. McKinstry on the bench of the Court of the Seventh 
Judicial District, a position which he occupied for several years. The first 
marriage in the district was that of Dr. August F. Heyermann, but this did 
not take place within the city ; the first in these limits was that of Robert 
Douglas, Jr., to Miss Hannah Hathaway, which took place on the 31st day 
of December, 1852, before Samuel N. Terrill, Justice of the Peace- The next 
wedding was that of Alexander Woodworth. The first child born in Peta- 
luma was a girl, to Mr. and Mrs. R. Douglas, who did not survive but twelve 
days ; while the first death was that of a man named Fraser, who was killed 
by falling off" a wagon and being run over. He was buried in the square 
now known as the Plaza. The next to cross the dark river was also a 
transient guest ; he was putting up at the American Hotel and had visited 
the country in quest of health, but consumption, from which he suffered, 
carried him off", and he found a stranger's grave on the hill at the top of Wash- 
ington street ; shortly after these two, was also buried the infant girl men- 


tioned above. At a late date, the bones of these three were exhumed, and 
found a final r&sting place in the Oak-Hill Cemetery, where a Miss Smith 
was the first to be buried. The first doctor was A. F. Heyermann, who prac- 
tised occasionally ; he was in turn succeeded by doctors McClure and Brown, 
the latter of whom had a small laboratory; while the first drug store was 
openeil by S. C. Haydon. In this year the first livery stable was started by 
Charles Robinson, who ran a stage via Sebastopol, then known, as has been 
said, by the name of Miller & Walker's score, to Bodega ; while another gen- 
eral store was opened by P. H. Nevvbill. At the end of 1852, the population 
was estimated to have been somewhere about twelve hundred in all. 

The first stroke against the welfare of the young city was struck by 
Majors H. P. Hentzleman and Lewis, in the attempted establishment of a 
rival town on the east side of the creek, which was intended to rob Peta- 
luma of all its present and prospective glories. They named it the city of 
Petaluma. New Town, the place was called; the residents being situated 
within the precincts of the Vallejo Township — notice of it will be found in 
the history of that section. But to proceed : Major Lewis disposed of his 
interest in this settlement at San Francisco, to Colonel J. B. Huie, makins: 
it a sine qua non, however, that a steamer of a certain tonnage and draft 
should proceed thither. The " Bed Jacket," afterwards rechristened " Kate 
Hayes," succeeded in this endeavor in November, 1852, under the command 
of Captain Van Pelt. She continued plying to that point during the Winter, 
the projectors of New Town, in the interval, doing their utmost to proclaim 
far antl near that that was the head of navigation. A triumph so gained 
could be but short lived. The Petalumans paid a visit to this pioneer steam 
wonder ; much bantering was given and taken on the occasion ; the most 
persuasive eloquence of the visitors was put forth, to the end that their city 
was the true head of navigation. To prove the contrary, steam was got up, 
shriek after shriek was sent from the whistle in mocking derision. The 
" Red Jacket " started, she found plenty of water, arrived off the city of 
Petaluma without mishap, and thus the claims of New Town veritably van- 
ished in smoke. When the stranger in this year of grace 1870, inquires as 
to its locality, he is answered by a vague sweep of the head and the words 
ocer there. While on the subject of steamers, we would here mention that 
the second steamer to make regular trips on the Petaluma Creek was the 
" Sioc," which had been bi'ought from the Sacramento river, where she ran 
as the " Jack Hayes." Andrew Henry, agent for Wells, Fargo & Co., was 
on her when she made her first trip up the creek. She continued on the 
route until September, 1853, her captain and part owner being for a time 
ex-Sheriff" Lataj)ie. The name of the vessel was changed after to the "Rein- 
deer." The first steamboat to ply at stated times between Petaluma and 
San Francisco was the " E. Corning," the fare being six dollars. She was 
for a time under the command of Captain Charles M. Baxter, who after- 


wards took charge of the " Petaluma," a craft constructed expressly for this 

At the time of Mr. Henry's arrival in the " Sioc," there were then in all 
about fifty houses in the city, situated principally between the streets now 
known as Washington on the north, B. on the south, with the creek as a 
frontage and back to Keller or thereabouts. The American Hotel was then 
"well up town." This was in September, 1853. In November, we are told 
there were two hotels, besides the three already named, viz: the City Hotel, 
which stood on the site of the present building of that name, and the Union 
Hotel, where it now stands on Main a little below English street. At this 
period the American was kept by Brown & Rexford, the City by Veeder, 
who had moved it hither from Vallejo, Solano county, the Petaluma House by 
Bassett, who was not long after succeeded by Van Dor-^n & Cooper, and last 
though not least the Pioneer by " Tom & Dave." 

In the years 1853, '54 and '55 the growth of the town was gradual but 
sure from the advantages possessed by her as a port of shipment, the settlers 
of the valleys to the north and south of it repaired hither to export their 
produce and lay in supplies; it was the only shipping outlet easy of access to 
the San Francisco market for the crops of Sonoma and Mendocino counties; 
as the rapidly increasing population extended their veutures, the necessity for 
such a spot made itself felt; more ground was tilled, fruit trees planted and 
butter made, while the country was yet thickly covered with splendid timber, 
all of which found its way to Petaluma; as her commerce became greater 
her capital increased, as capital increased labor became plentiful until she 
gained, early in her existence, the proud position among the thriving cities of 
California which she holds to-day. 

In the year 1855 the first newspaper was started — The Petaluina Weekly 
Journal and Sonoma County Advertiser. The inaugural number was issued 
on Saturday, August 18, 1855, by Thomas L. Thompson, and is in all a most 
readable sheet. From its advertising columns we cull the following names, 
many of them being to-day " familiar in our mouths as household words:" 
Wm. D. Bliss, Wm. A, Cornwall, J. Chandler, I. G. Wickersham, Attorneys 
at Law, most of whom would appear to have been established on Main 
street. We find that the Petaluma Line of Packets running between Peta- 
luma, San Francisco, Sacramento and Stockton, consisting of the schooners 
"Petaluma," Captain Baylis; "Enterprise," Captain Rutherford ; "Blue-Wing," 
Captain Cutter, and the sloops " Cleopatra," Captain Sullivan; " Star of the 
West," Captain Adams, and "Ned Beale," Captain Kelley, left for these ports 
daily, their agents being in this city A. J. Moses & Co., and at San Francisco 
Kittrell & Co. We note that Dr. W. D. Trinque was a surgeon dentist on 
Main street ; that Anthony G. Oakes, proprietor of the American Hotel, 
which had been thoroughly renovated was " prepared to extend the comforts 
of a Home and a Hearty Welcome to all who may favor him with a visit," 


while there were the following attractions: "Table Supplied with all the 
Delicacies," " Lines of stages from all parts," as well as " Extensive Livery- 
Stables;" and S. C. Haydon offered at his drug and book store such commodi- 
ties as Epsom salts and blank deeds, Cologne water and McGuffy's readers, 
hair oils and tooth-brushes, turpentine and the San Francisco and Atlantic 
newspapei-s and magazines. 

Let us li'ditly glance at the resources of Petaluma at that date. The 
Journal in an early article tells us, that the growth of Petaluma has been 
rapid, but yet of a substantial character; and not withstanding the several 
successive failures of the crops of the adjacent country, the ruinous prices of 
agricultural productions, and the late monetary depression in this State, the 
prosperity of the town has been greatly enhanced, and its permanency fully 
secured within the past six months, by valuable improvements and judicious 
investment of capital. Petaluma is the depot and outlet for the whole fanning 
and grazing interest of the immense tract of surrounding country; and partic- 
ularly for that lying awa}'^ to the north, including the rich lands of Russian 
river and its tributaries, and even extending to the fertile borders of Clear 

In addition to the trade carried on by the extensive operations of the dai- 
ries; the shipment of live stock of all the various kinds, and the productions 
of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, there has been a great quantity of cord- 
wood cut in the vicinity of the town, which has formed an important source 
of wealth. Butter, cheese, eggs, potatoes, barley, wheat, and wood, make up 
the substantial and unfailing currency of Sonoma county, and Petaluma has 
been built up as the most accessible depot from whence the necessary ship- 
ments of these valuable articles of trade can be easily made, by steam or 
sailing vessels, to the different markets of the State. 

The population of this town and immediate neighborhood, have all the 
elements of future prosperity — a people moral, industrious and frugal, a 
delightful and healthy climate, invigorating to the laborer — a fertile soil 
which yields rich returns both to the grazier, by its voluntary crops of grasses, 
and to the agriculturist by fully rewarding him for the labor bestowed 
upon its cultivation. The wealth of the town depends on the prosperity of 
the farmers. It is the center of a large and rich agricultural district. 

Within a few months past a number of fireproof, brick and stone buildings, 
have been erected here. There are about twenty stores, and several com- 
modious hotels on Main street; which street lies nearest to the creek. Churches 
and school-houses have been erected sufficient to meet the wants of the 
increa.sing population. Different charitable associations have been fully 
organized here, and a])pear to be in a flourishing condition. The hall recently 
finished for the Odd-Fellows, is a beautiful structure, built of brick with an 
imposing front of cut stone. 

On November 24, 1855, one of those heart-rending calamities, for which 

H \ 

J^^^^;;^^ /f^^c^ 


California had then become noted, occurred at Petaluma. At about five 
minutes past ten in the morning, while the steamer " Georgina " was lying 
at her wharf, shipping freight and passengers, her boiler exploded, with a 
terrific crack, doing a fearful work of death and destruction. The force of 
the explosion was such as to completely demolish the top work of the boat 
and to carry the boiler — which was shot directly through the cabin and out 
astern — a distance of about three hundred feet, striking considerably beyond 
the landing used by the " Kate Hayes," which had, by the merest luck, 
hauled farther up the creek, to take on freight. Of the wounded only one 
belonged to Sonoma county, viz: George Funk, proprietor of the Oak Grove 
House, about four miles from the city, on the Bodega road. November 28th 
was noted for the establishment of the Petaluma Library Association, and 
its inauguration with a lecture, by the Rev. A. A. Baker, on the subject of 
"The Lyceum, and its relation to Education and to Practical Life," this being 
followed by a course of three lectures, delivered by Doctor Galland, " On 
Boreal Observations and Phenomena." As a criterion of what the increase 
of population was in this year, we note that the vote of the city was four 
hundred and eighty-one, while the number of children in the township, 
between the ages of four and eighteen years of age, was two hundred and 
eighty-four. Of this number there were attending school in the Liberty 
district thirty-three ; Iowa district, sixty-one ; Walker district, forty-three, 
and Petaluma district one hundred and forty-seven. The number of boys was 
one hundred and fifty-two, distributed as follows : Liberty district, sixteen; 
Iowa districtt, thirty-two; Walker district, twenty -four; Petaluma district, 
eighty ; while the number of girls was one hundred and thirty-two, appor- 
tioned thus: Liberty district, seventeen ; Iowa district, twenty-nine; Walker 
district, nineteen, and Petaluma district, sixty-seven. This prosperous year 
was brought to a close with a most severe spell of cold weather, there being 
ice to the extent of half an inch in thickness in the early morning, while in 
some portions of the State, notably in Sacramento, snow fell to a considerable 

On the second day of the new year the dread visitant, fire, which had hith- 
erto steered clear of our fair city, consumed the residence of James Hosmer, 
situated on Washington street. As is almost always the case, it requires some 
dire calamity to make apparent existing danger. Consequent on this confla- 
gration, energetic measures were at once taken to form a Fire Company, 
a want which had been long felt and urged. The public spirit thus early 
evinced, has developed into a department amply able to cope with any duties 
which it may be called upon to perform, while as one of the sinews of the 
city it is a credit to the corporation and citizens. At this period was also 
permanently organized a military company, under the name of the " Peta- 
luma Guards," having for its oflicers the following named gentlemen : Cap- 
tain, P. B, Hewlett ; First Lieutenant, J. H. Siddons ; Second Lieutenant, 


Francis Bray ; Brevet Lieutenant, Thomas F. Baylis ; First Sergeant, F. J. 
Benjamin; Second, \V. H. Jose; Third, G. B. Mathers; Fourth, Warren G. 
Gibbs; First Corporal, O. T. Baldwin; Second, J. K. Cramer; Third, B. F. 
Cooper; Fourth, Samuel Brown. The company mustered some forty or 
fifty, rank and file, and in addition to their military duties proposed to serve 
as firemen, when provided with the necessary paraphernalia. 

A change had now come to the growing place whose history we record. 
She became ambitious to be invested with civic honors. To this end, corres- 
pondents mooted the question in the public prints, while leaders appeared in 
the columns of the newspapers advocating the incorporation of Petaluma as 
a city, or, at least, a town. It was advocated that she was already one of 
some importance, without a doubt of its continued increase. In order to 
make it a desirable place of residence the streets should be graded to a uni- 
form width, sidewalks put in order, the town cleared of nuisances, and prop- 
erty protected from accidents by fire, arising from carelessness in the fixtures 
connected with stove pipes and fire-places. A town hall w^asfelt to be much 
needed, in which to hold elections and lectures, as well as for the use of the 
the military, and various other purposes. It was argued by some that a cor- 
poration is too expensive a luxury, while others urged that, by having a char- 
ter, with proper restrictions and constructions, the government of the town 
and its general appearance would he much enhanced. How the boon was 
finally obtained will appear in the progress of this record. On April 2G, 185G, 
the interest of Mr. Thompson ceased in the Petaluma Journal, Henry L. 
Weston becoming its editor and proprietor, who made his bow" to the public in 
the following well-chosen sentences: "In making our appearance before the 
readers of the Journal and the public in the capacity of a public journalist 
we deeply feel our need of their sympathy as well as patronage. To us it is, 
in a measure, a new position, and we feel that should it be our good fortune 
to merit and receive the commendation of the public, that we are rather of 
that class upon whom honors are thrust, than otherwise. At its commence- 
ment the Journal was started as an independent paper, rather than as a 
political organ, and u[) to this time it has maintained its neutrality. Such 
we propose it shall ever remain, if such a course be possible in a community 
like ours. With politics we have little to do; and with its tricks and turns, 
nothing ; neither do we intend to, unless forced into the arena by stern neces- 
sity. It is our aim and purpose, on the contrary, to make the Journal 
emphatically a family paper — one that shall ever prove a welcome visitor to 
the family circle of each and every settler in this and adjoining counties. 
While, therefore, our aim will ever be to avoid a public preference for either 
of the political parties of the day, our neutrality shall never prevent a free 
and fearle^ss expression of our views upon whatever acts may be perpetrated 
or measures proposed by them which may trespass upon the rights and 
interests of tlie people. That it may never be our duty to take more than 


a casual glance at any of their acts is our earnest, desire. If, however, 
occasion should occur, let not the opposite party hope to find in us an ally, 
unless theirs be a right against wrong — liberalism against bigotry and 
fanaticism. And while we claim for ourself this privilege, we freely accord 
equal latitude to all, and to this end will ever open our columns to the discus- 
sion of all matters and questions of interest which may from time to time pre- 
sent themselves, provided the writers do not wish to occupy too much space, 
and the subject treated be calmly discussed, otherwise their articles will not 
find a place in the Journal!' 

We have now to record a rather unusual accident in the affairs of cities. 
On the morning of August 4th of this same year, at about three o'clock, 
the citizens were aroused from their slumbers by a crushing sound, and the cry 
of " fire '" The cause of the alarm proved to be the falling of a two-story, 
fire-proof building on Main street, owned by Gowan & McKay, and occu- 
pied on the first fioor by L. Chapman as a furniture store, and on the second 
by the Odd Fellows and Free Masons. The front of the building fell into 
the street, the north side upon the adjoining building (a wooden structure 
owned and occupied by S. C. Haydon as a drug store and express office of 
Wells, Fargo & Co.), completely demolishing it, and destroying the stock 
of goods. The building had been erected the previous year at an expense 
of five thousand dollars. The loss on the occasion was considerable; that 
of the proprietors could not have been much less than the original cost of 
the structure; while that of Mr. Haydon — who nearly lost his life while in 
his chamber by the falling beams — was about twelve hundred dollars; Mr. 
Chapman, one thousand; and the Masonic and Odd Fellow s' societies being 
considerable also, for they had but recently fitted up the Hall at an expense 
of fifteen hundred dollars. 

In May, 1857, water was for the first time introduced into Petaluma by 
William Henley. The spring from which it was procured was distant from 
Main street about one hundred and fifty rods, and, at the time, ran seven to 
eight hundred gallons per hour, which could be increased if necessary. This 
was not the only improvement, however, in course of construction or even 
contemplated. What does the Journal say in this regard? " Noth with- 
standing the almost fabulous rapidity with which residences and stores have 
sprung into existence in Petaluma, during the past fifteen months, the 
demand continues to exceed the supply. In fact, for some months past, the 
only certain method for a new-comer to procure a dwelling, has been to either 
build himself, or enter into a contract previous to the erection of a building. 
Everything capable of being used, either as a store or residence, is constantly 
occupied. As a consequence, rents have become somewhat high, for a pUcc 
of this size. Residences which could have been secured at fifteen dollars a 
month, one year ago, are now readily sought for at twenty and twenty-fivo 
per month. But this increased demand for buildings is not confined to resi- 


dences alone ; stores of all kinds, and more especially those which are sup- 
poeeil to Ik? fireproof, are in equal demand, and at a greater premium. We 
are told that a gentleman from the interior wishing to engage in trade in 
Petaluma, a few days since authorized a friend of his to offer a premium of 
five hundre<l dollars for a lease of one of the stores in Phoenix Block. If our 
town is springing thus rapidly into a great and populous village, notwith- 
stamling the almost overwhelming obstacle which it has to encounter incon- 
secjuence of the uncertainty of land titles, what will it not do, and what may 
it not become, when her citizens and the people of the county generally, 
know in whom the titles are vested. When this great desideratum is attained, 
business, in Petaluma and Sdhoma county at large, will receive an impetus 
which it never has, and never can otherwise experience. The future is big 
with promise for our town and our county." Hand in hand with these signs 
of the times, we find that the Eagle Brewery had already been started by 
Thomas Edwards; S. G. McCollough had cleared a lot on Main street and 
commenced the erection of a fire-proof stable which was contemplated to be 
two stories high with dimensions of thirty by one hundred feet; the front 
l)eing of dre.ssed granite; and a new Flouring mill was in the course of con- 
struction by Messrs. G. W. Veatch and W. A. Hutchinson of San Francisco 
on a site opposite the Revere House on Main street. 

East Petaluma is that portion of the town which lies on the east bank of 
the creek, being part of the incorporated city. The tract on which it stands 
was originally purchased from General Vallejo by Tom Hopper, but on 
August 27, 1857, he conveyed the two hundred and seventy acres to W. D. 
Bliss, John Kaulkfman, and Stephen C Haydon, divided into shares of one- 
fourth each. Hitherto it had formed no connection with that portion situ- 
ated on the west side; indeed, there were no means of crossing the creek, 
save by a not over-steady bridge, above the city. The Corporation at once 
constructed a draw-bridge at the foot of Washington street, and surveyed, and 
subdivided the land into lots ; soon after buildings commenced to rise on 
the newly chosen site and to-day it is no inconsiderable portion of Petaluma 

Petaluma, at this epoch in her career, had made such commendable pro- 
gress, and so firmly established herself as a thriving and rising center of 
commerce, that she was granted a charter, in accordance with an Act of the 
Legislature of the State of California, approved April 12. 1858, entitled 
" An Act to incorporate the Town of Petaluma." Consequent on the passage 
of this law an election of municipal ofhcers was held on the nineteenth of the 
said month, when the following gentlemen were chosen as the first Board of 
Trustees of the city; William Elder, W. L. Anderson, E. B. Cooper, Samuel 
Tustin, William Ordway. On the twenty -sixth, at a full meeting of the 
Board, Mr. Elder was chosen President of the Corporation, and O. T. Bald- 
wm, Clerk ; while certificates of election were issued to the following named: 


Recorder, William Hayden : Treasurer, Lewis Lamberton ; Assessor, Moses 
Arras; Marshal, James H. Siddons; D. D. Carder being sworn as a Justice 
of the Peace. Committees were appointed to procure suitable accommo- 
dation for the sessions of the Board, as also to draft By-laws for its govern- 
ment; these being adopted, with a few recommendations, on April 28, 1858. 
On May 3d, John Brown was appointed Municipal Policeman, on a salary of 
sixty dollars a month ; a memorial signed by the citizens being upon the same 
date laid on the table, praying that a street be opened on the bank of the 
Petaluma creek, to be called Front street, commencing at a point at the foot 
of B. street and terminating at Hatch & Pickett's lumber yard. Motions were 
at the same time made "for the health and government of the city, as well as 
for matters of general good, a stand being made against the permitting of 
hogs, goats, and other animals to roam at large about the public highways 
within the corporate limits. Three Fire-Wardens, in the persons of W. L. 
Van Doren, William Zartman, and William F. Lyon, were appointed on the 
17th by the President. The Board, in meeting assembled, on this occasion 
considered the opening of the proposed Front street ; on discussion, however, 
the motion proposing its adoption was lost, by a vote of three againt the 
opening to two for it. The subject was again brought up for reconsideration 
on the 19th, when its adoption was deferred till the next day, the ordinance 
" To define Front street," being then adopted by sections, and directions 
given for its publication in the Sonoma County Herald. In due time bids 
for the building of a City prison were opened, and decrees concerning disor- 
derly conduct, the suppression of houses of ill-fame, the storage of wood and 
gunpowder, and the prevention of public nuisances adopted. The completion 
of the prison was reported June 21st. On July 19th, English street, from 
the creek to Upham street, was declared open, and on the 26th the survey of 
the corporate limits was announced to be completed. August 19th a tax of 
one per cent, was ordered to be levied upon the assessed property of the city, 
which was objected to by T. F. Baylis, who thought an injustice was done 
him by such a levy on vessels owned by him. The matter was referred to 
Messrs. Anderson and Cooper, as a committee, to investigate the law in ref- 
erence to the tax on craft running on Petaluma creek. On September 23d, 
a committee, composed of H. Gowan, J. McCune, A. B. Derby, John S. 
Robberson and J. L. Pickett, citizens of Petaluma, was appointed to estab- 
lish a grade on Main street, beginning at the crossing at Jackson and Lusk's 
building, and extending to Stanley hill. A survey was ordered to be made 
of the square bounded by Main, Washington, Liberty and English streets, on 
the 29th ; while at this time a full and correct statement of all business 
transacted in the different offices of the municipality, and all monies received 
and paid from the time of their entering upon their duties up to the first 
Monday in October, was directed to be prepared for presentation to the 
Board of Trustees, who in turn should make a report of the financial condi- 


tion of the city, which was done, and finally approved and ordered printed, 
October Gth ; November 9th, the Board determined their willingness to 
receive bids for the construction of two brick fire-cisterns, of the capacity of 
twenty thousand gallons each; on December 8th, a committee, appointed to 
carry out the scheme, reported that a contract had been entered into with J. 
B. Kean, for seven hundred and ninety-nine dollars, for the construction of 
the same, one to be situated at the intersection of English and Kentucky 
streets, and the other at the crossing of the latter street with Washington. 
So much for the doings of the Board of Trustees during the year 1858; we 
will now revert to other matters of more general interest. 

In the Fall of the year 1858 the subject of providing a suitable school 
house was taken up with a strong will by the residents, and a well attended 
meeting to consider the means to be adopted was held on the evening of 
Friday, September 3rd, when it was conceded on every hand that such an 
institution was imperatively needed. A resolution was accordingly passed 
requesting the School Trustees to issue a call for an election to vote an 
assessment of five thousand dollars for this object. About this period 
another school, kept by Mrs. Varney and named the Hill Seminary, would 
appear to have had an existence, while it is recorded that a large bell of a 
thousand pounds weight was placed in the steeple of the newly completed Bap- 
tist church. In this regard Petalumahad certainly made considerable advance ; 
three jears before she possessed but one church, the Methodist, and that of the 
most meagre dimensions ; with the completion of the Baptist she boasted four 
large and commodious places of worship, to wit : a Methodist, a Congregational, 
a Catholic, and that already named, besides which the Episcopalians had a 
building in course of construction. Mr. Barnes, the School Marshal for the 
city reports the number of children, for the past year, between four and 
eighteen years of age to be four hundred and four ; under four years, one 
hundred and eighty-seven, showing a total of five hundred and ninety -one. 
Of this number two hundred and eighty-nine are boys and three hundred 
and two girls; of these one hundred and ninety-six are California born, 
while thirty-four are orphans. The year 1858 also saw many business im- 
provements, among them being the erection of a brick building for a machine 
shop, also the building of a tannery in East Petaluma, while the streets 
which the previous winter were a " slough of despond " promised soon to 
rival the works of that " colosus of roads" McAdam. Several new buildings 
were being put up and arrangements made for the construction of others — 
everything was prosperous, as may be gleaned from the following words of a 
local writer: "The growth of Petaluma, unlike many California towns, is 
like the oaks upon the hills — every inch gained in size is firmly and securely 
put together and bound to stick." With all this, yet she wanted more. She 
de-sired a postal route hence, to Humboldt bay via Bloomfield, Tomales, 
Bodega, Fort, and other points along the coast; a railroad by way of 


Santa Rosa to Healdsburg was another; and the straightening of the creek 
between the city and Rudesill's Landing, and proper locks put up so as to 
make navigation easy. Taking it all in all, the year 1858 developed new 
elements of wealth, an increase of population and a spirit of content amono- 
the people of the city which it will be our duty to show has never decreased 
to the present time. 

"fhe year 1859 was ushered in, as has been shown, by a promise of lasting 
plenty. On the 3d of January the Petaluma Hook and Ladder Companv, 
No. 1, and Petaluma Engine Company No. 1, were recognized by the Board 
of Trustees as independent companies, while for the better protection of 
property from fire, an ordinance requiring house-holders to keep a certain 
supply of water on their premises was ordered to be drafted. In this month 
a petition to the Legislature was put in circulation asking the repeal of the 
act incorporating the city; but it did not receive much encouragement from 
the tax-paying portion of the community, nor the press. The Journal of 
January 21st, on this question remarks: "That there are objections to be 
urged against the charter itself, we are well aware, but against municipal gov- 
ernment they are very few. The defects which have manifested themselves in 
the charter should be reduced. Thus far, imperfect as it may be, it has worked 
advantageously, and that, too, at but trifling cost to our citizens. With 
some alterations we believe it will work to the satisfaction of all. " At the 
meeting held on February 17th, an ordinance creating a Fire Department was 
passed and instructions given for its official publication, while other reo-u- 
lations were adopted in regard to the better protection against fire. The 
office of Fire- Wardens was abolished, the Foremen of the companies beino- 
required to fulfil the duties of these offices. J. E. Congleton was on this date 
appointed Constable in place of J. K. Brown, dismissed. March 7tb, the 
resignation of E. B. Cooper from the Board was accepted, the following 
resolution being adopted on his retirement: "Resolved, That in acceptino- 
the resignation of E. B. Cooper, we take this occasion to bear testimony to 
his uniform courtesy, fidelity and efficiency as a member of this Board. " On 
this secession from office Frank W. Shattuck was appointed in his stead, 
while on the same date George Walker and Frank Bray were elected Chief 
and Assistant engineers of the Fire Department. Thus was the first year 
of office closed with what record the long list of business transacted, only 
partially quoted by us, will speak for itself. 

On April 18, 1859, the second election for municipal offices was held with 
the following result: Board of Trustees, William Ordway, Thomas F. 
Baylis, James N. McCune, J. Q. Shirley and William L. Anderson, President; 
Recorder, S. Abell; Marshal, J. D. Cross; Treasurer, Lewis Lamberton; Asses- 
sor, F. Post; Clerk, O. T. Baldwin; Constable, William Blower. The books 
and papers having been handed over to the appointees, the requisite com- 
mittees on ways and means were nominated forthwith. On May 5th, an 


ordinance regulating the duties of the municipal police was passed, followed 
on the 2Gth by another regulating the width of sidewalks to be eight feet, 
excepting on English, Potato, Mary and Martha streets, which should be six 
feet wide. Placing obstructions on the trotloirs was at the same time made 
a punishable offence. A lengthy dissertation hereafter followed on the nature 
of the pavement to be used which was finally left in the hands of a com- 
mittee, while another was appointed to devise means for the improvement of 
the creek. An ordinance was passed on August 8th authorizing the arrest of 
intoxicated persons, and directing their trial, when sober, by the Recorder; 
on the same day a tax of two dollars to establish a school fund was author- 
ized. December 19th, a petition was received from the resident physicians of 
the city of Petaluma praying that the Board of Trustees confer with the 
Supervisors of Sonoma county in regard to the establishment of a fund to 
be devoted to the care of the indigent sick, a motion which was referred to 
a committee. The last act of the year was the resignation on December 30th 
of Treasurer Lamberton and the appointment of Smith D. Towne in his 

During the year 1859, the city would appear to have still kept up its 
onAvard march; real estate had increased in value, the brick building on 
Main street, opposite the American Hotel, erected by Captain P. B. Hew- 
lett, having been disposed of for six thousand six hundred dollars to L. 
Lewis, while E. R. Moffet had purchased the lot adjoining on the south from 
the same gentleman for four thousand four hundred. On the east side of 
the creek building had proceeded briskly, and as a matter of consequence 
the value of lots in that part of the city had materially advanced, as high 
as five hundred dollars having been refused for a lot measuring eighty by one 
hundred feet. Roads, too, were being located with all speed ; among others, 
the Supervisors had directed the commencement of one from Petaluma, and 
one from Lakeville, to Sonoma; one from Petaluma to the Marin county line, 
to intersect the San Rafael road; one from Petaluma, via Two-Rock valley, 
to the Marin county line; and one from Petaluma to Bodega. 

In June, 1859, a movement was started by several of the prominent citi- 
zens of Petaluma to raise the sum of ten thousand dollars for the purpose 
of erecting a first-class institution of learning. The plan of operation 
intended was the formation of a joint-stock company, the shares to be 
placed at five hundred dollars each, the building to be constructed of brick 
or stone, and to be arranged after the most approved style of modern board- 
ing schools, so as to offer every accommodation to pupils from a distance as 
well as to those in the district. As a first step, the old house was sold on 
July 9th, when it brought ninety-nine dollars and eighty-five cents, which 
was after augmented to an even sum by a contribution of fifteen cents from 
some generous-hearted citizen. No time was lost in the commencement of 
the new building or the letting of contracts, and on August 6th the 



^^^^^f 1^ 


corner-stone was laid with much ceremony, and the finest school building 
in the State was looked for at no distant date. The lot on waich the struc- 
ture stands is centrally located, it being one hundred and fifty by three hun- 
dred and ninety feet in area, while the building itself covers forty-eight by 
ninety-four feet, ground measure. The rooms are arranged for three sev- 
eral departments — primary, intermediate and grammar. The room for the 
primary department is on the first floor, and is twenty-eight by forty-two 
feet. That for the intermediate, also on the first floor, and having an inde- 
pendent entrance, is forty-two feet square, with recitation room fourteen 
by sixteen feet. The grammar, or classical department, occupies the upper 
floor. The main room is forty -five by fifty-four feet, connected with which 
are two recitation rooms, each fourteen by twenty-two feet, and a library 
room, fourteen by fourteen feet. The entire cost of the building is estimated 
at eleven thousand three hundred and forty-one dollars and ten cents. While 
on the subject of this noble effort on the part of the city of Petaluma it 
may be well to mention that the school-house was dedicated on Monday, 
February 20, 1860, under the most auspicious circumstances. 

On Tuesday, August 30, 1859, an interesting ceremony took place in the 
presentation to the Petaluma Guards of a stand of colors, by Miss Louise 
Perkins, who, on behalf of the " matrons and maidens of Petaluma," made 
a neat and felicitous speech on the occasion. Among other events in this 
year, worthy of being recorded, several dastardly attempts to fire the city 
should not be omitted. It would appear that no less than three efforts had 
been made, the first being on the night of the 6th October, in the lumber or 
store-house connected with the carriage factory of William Ordway, located 
at the lower end of the business part of the town; a second attempt was 
made in the rear of the Franklin Hotel, on the night of October 8th; 
the third took place on the evening of the 10th, while yet another, and per- 
haps the boldest attempt at arson yet made, was discovered on the evening 
of November 20th, on the premises of Porter Brothers, on Keokuk street. 
Fortunately the work of the villainous incendiaries was on each occasion 
discovered ere any harm could be done. The newspapers of the day report 
a mysterious murder to have occurred about this time. On the last named 
date the dead body of a man named James Neary was discovered lying on a 
pile of wood, near the Occidental Mills, on the east side of the creek, with a 
wound in the left breast, which, upon examination, proved to have been 
inflicted by a large knife. The blow was one of great force, literally split- 
ting the fifth rib and passing through the heart. A most rigid and thorough 
investigation of all the evidence in the case was had, but without eliciting 
positive proof of who committed the deed. Deceased had for some time 
previously been living at Bodega, but more recently had been employed at 
Two-Rock Valley, which place he left and came to the city on the Saturday. 
He was last seen at two o'clock on Sunday morning, in company with one 



Haley, who was accordingly arrested, circumstances pointing strongly to 
him as the author ; he was therefore held for trial, and committed to the 
county prison. 

In casting a retrospective glance upon the city for the year 1859, we find 
prosperity still on the increase, and Petaluma, from an unimportant country 
town, rapidly becoming a city of opulence, refinement and cultui'e. Its red- 
wood shake stores and ware-houses had long ago given place to elegant and 
capacious brick and freestone edifices, its uneven, irregular and muddy 
thoroughfares to well graded and paved streets; its rough and unpainted 
shanties, unblessed by the light of woman's smile, to neat and inviting 
cottages and comfortable homes, around whose hearthstones clustered groups 
of prattling children ; its places of worship had increased four-fold, and its 
population in a like ratio. The open waste of meadow land was being fast 
inclosed ; cultivated fields appeared on every hand, and the hills covered 
with flocks and herds. A number of families, not only from the Eastern 
States, and from the mining regions of the State, but from the surrounding 
towns of Sonoma and Marin counties had moved into Petaluma, with the 
determination of making it their permanent home, while the promise for the 
future was as hopeful as ever. 

With the above described state of prosperity the city commenced the year 
1860. Early in February the citizens presented a petition to the Board of 
Trustees, praying for an official survey of Petaluma, and on March 26th it 
was ordered that W. A. Eliason be employed to make such survey, he being 
paid therefor at the rate of two hundred dollars per month, the corporation 
furnishing him with two assistants. On April 16th, the election of munici- 
pal officers took place; however, before giving the names of these gentlemen 
we would here quote from the Journal what were the issues of the day to 
be considered in connection with the election: " Let none other than such 
persons as will pledge themselves to use their best effbrts to have the naviga- 
tion of Petaluma creek improved, receive your votes. Let this be the test, 
for with the Board of Trustees to be elected on that day depends the fate of 
the charter for improving the navigation of Petaluma creek. 

" One year has passed since the Legislature of this State granted us a 
charter for the improving of the creek, and conceding to the corporation 
each and every point asked, and yet the city authorities have failed to avail 
themselves of its advantages. The provisions of the bill are of a most liberal 
character, so much so, indeed, that it is a well-known fact that like privileges 
could not have been obtained by any private body of citizens. By its pro- 
visions it became the duty of the city to commence the work within one year 
from the passage of the act, and to have the work completed within two 
year.s. Enough money has probably been expended on the creek to prevent 
a foi-feiture. To secure to our city the full benefit of the improvements, a 
provision was inserted that the Board of Trustees " shall have power to sell. 


transfer and convey, all or any part of the right, privileges, franchises and 
immunities," to such parties as may agree to make the required improve- 
ments " on the most favorable terras, and giving a good and satisfactory bond' 
for the faithful performance of the contract." For improving the creek the 
city is granted the right to collect a " toll of seven cents per ton for all 
vessels passing through the lock or locks, either way for the past ten years, 
and five cents per ton for ten additional years." The choice of the people fell 
on Frank W. Lougee, William Ordway, William L. Anderson, President; 
Edward Barnes and D. D. Carder as a Board of Trustees, with the foUowino- 
ofiicers: Clerk, 0. T. Baldwin; Recorder, L. C. Reyburn; Assessor, Smith D. 
Towne; Marshal, George L. Bradley; Street Commissioner, J. B. Hinkle. 
On April 17th, a contract was entered into with W. A. Eliason for surveying 
the city and defining the blocks and streets; and, on the 23rd the Clerk was 
authorized to procure a Corporation seal for the Board. It was made a mis- 
demeanor, on June 19th, for the owner or driver of any animal or team to 
permit it to stand in the street in front of an engine house, under a penalty 
of not more than ten or less than two dollars; while on July 16th privilege 
was granted to John Cavanagh, George L. Bradley and John Robbins, to 
convey fresh water from their springs in pipes along the several streets in 
the city, and to supply the same to such citizens as may desire to purchase 
it. The above mentioned gentlemen, having incorporated themselves into 
the Petaluma Mountain Water Company, had surveyed a route between the 
city and the Adobe creek and proposed the introduction of water from that 
stream, the distance being estimated at four and a half miles. Such was the 
want of this commodity that on December 17th the Board of Trustees un- 
hesitatingly passed the following resolution: " That the Petaluma Mountain 
Water Company have the right to introduce water from the Adobe creek 
through any lands, streets, alleys or public places over which the city has 
control, provided the city have the free use of the water so introduced for 
fire purposes and for public schools." July 30th, an ordinance prohibiting dis- 
orderly conduct within the city limits was passed, it being at the same time 
resolved " that hereafter this Board will refuse to audit any bills against the 
city for the trial of any person or persons for misdemeanor wherein Justices 
of the Peace have concurrent jurisdiction with Recorder's Court," the follow- 
ing commendable rule being also made, that the Clerk of the Board be required 
to draw warrants upon the Treasurer according to priority of numbers. The 
resignation of Street Commissioner Hinkle was received and accepted on 
October 1st; on the 26th the name of the street hitherto distinguished by 
the appellation of Potato, was changed to the more euphonious one of Pros- 
pect, while on November 9th, the map drawn by W. A. Eliason, after such 
alterations as were ordered had been made, was accepted and adopted as the 
official map of the city of Petaluma. 

In this year we have the first mention of a railroad having taken any- 


thing likxi a definite shape. It would appear that A. P. Overton had asked 
tlie Loo-islature for the right to construct a rail track between Petaluma and 
a point on the creek known as the Italian garden. By some the project was 
loudly berated as an outrageous attempt to despoil, rob, and even to remove 
Petaluma to Saucelito! By others it was advocated, with considerable 
warmth. Another railroad scheme mooted about this time would appear to 
have found c-reater favor in the eyes of the public, for no less than two suip- 
veys are reported to have been made for a railroad down the creek from 
Petaluma, the first being ior a track from May's landing, four miles in length, 
cutting ott" about twelve miles of meandering creek navigation, at a cost of 
forty -five thousand five hundred and twenty-eight dollars; and the second, 
on the opposite or eastern side of the creek, commencing at Lakeville, the 
distance being six miles from Petaluma, and costing forty-nine thousand five 
hundred and thirty-five dollars. The last route was adopted on account of 
readier facilities for the earlier completion of the undertaking, and the cut- 
ting ofif of some difficult navigation. We must now record the opening up of 
stage communication with Tomales bay, as also the occurrence of two fires 
on the 8th and 10th of May, when a stable belonging to J. A. Gaston, and 
the carpenter's shop uf Eli Mullen were totally destroyed. Mention should also 
be made of a pronounced desire on the part of residents in Marin to petition 
the Legislature that their county line should be extended eastward, so as to 
include all that portion of Sonoma lying between the then county line of 
Marin and Sonoma, and the Napa line, and as far north as may be necessary 
to embrace Two-Rock valley, Big valley, etc., thence on to the mouth of the 
E.stero Americano, and that Petaluma should become the county seat of 
Marin; all of which found some advocates, but not in sufficient numbers to 
carry the plan into effect. In this year of grace, too, was opened the pub- 
lic road between Sonoma and this city, though it was not completed without 
considerable opposition from many whose lands it ran through. In the month 
of November a contract was awarded to Rudesill & Parsons for carrying a 
semi-weekly mail between Petaluma and Sacramento, while on December 
14th the Petaluma Savings and Loan Society was established, rules and regu- 
lations adopted, and the following officers elected: President, F. W. Lougee; 
Vice-President, William Ordway ; Secretary, I. S. Church; Trustees — F. W. 
Lougee, James N. McCune, William Ordway, S. H. Wagener, B. F. Tuttle and 
I. 1). Cross. 

In 18Gl,the city records show that on January loth the Clerk of the 
Boanl of Trustees was instructed to set forth to the representative in the 
Legislature the desire of the Board to have the city map as made out by W. 
A. Elia-son, legalized. We also find that an election was called for March 
4th to select officers for the Fire Department, but no record is extant as to 
who were chosen on the occasion, neither is the result of an election ordei'ed 
to take place on the 2.5th of March in accordance with an act of the Legisla- 


ture providing for an*"election on the question of the repeal of the chaVter, 
recorded. From the periodicals of the day we glean that the city of Pet'a- 
luma was divided on the question of the repeal of the charter; there were 
those who opposed it solely on the grounds of its alleged defects, but who 
were honest in their purpose to destroy it in order to secure a new one that 
would in their judgment better promote the interests of the city, while the 
opposite party took the ground that though the charter was not without 
its defects, still, it had accomplished much good for the city, and, as it could 
neither tax citizens nor involve them in debt, it would be certainly more 
prudent to retain it in its original form until something better should be 
found to take its place. We here produce the following terse and apposite 
remarks on the subject from the columns of the Sonoma County Joiimat 
of March 22, 1861. "As citizens of this young and giowing city we have 
interests which are peculiarly our own, and we are threatened by dangers 
and animated by hopes that do not directly affect our fellow citizens of the 
surrounding country. The Legislature has conferred upon us the privilege 
of fostering, pi'otecting, and building up these interests, by the adoption of 
any wise and prudent means that our judgment may approve, or our circum- 
stances allow. We are also clothed with the power of self protection against 
all the evils and dangers that threaten us, whether it be the safety, the 
peace, the order, or the morality of the city that is violated. Under such 
circumstances, by a union of eft'ort, directed by a prudent regard f.^r our 
own interest, Petaluma may continue to increase in wealth, prosperity an J 
commercial importance, until our highest hopes are realized. But if we say to- 
the Legislature, take back the privilege you have conferred upon us, we 
have no interests to foster, no evils to eradicate, no dangers to avert, no hopes 
to realize through such a union of energy and enterprise as these charter 
privileges were designed to promote — then we publish to the world the indu- 
bitable evidence of our want of enterprise and public spirit, and deliberately 
abandon the only means that wisdom and experience have been able to- 
devise to meet the wants and interests, and secure prosperity of communi- 
ties such as ours. If we allow selfishness, jealousy, folly or caprice to hood- 
wink us into the perpetration of an act that will so completely cripple our 
progress and prostrate our interests, we can look to the future with no joyous, 
anticipations, and henceforth will have everything to fear and nothing t© 
hope." The annual election of municipal officers was held on April 15th, 
with the following result: E. Barnes, President, Samuel C. Brown, I. D. Cross,. 
E. Elliot, B. F. Tuttle, Board of Trustees; Marshal, D. F. Strother; Recorder, 
J. Chandler; Treasurer, S. D. Towne; Assessor, W. L. Anderson; Street 
Commissioner, L. N. Harmon; Clerk, O. T. Baldwin. On 23d April, 
Surveyor Eliason was instructed to set five monuments within the limits of 
his survey of the city, commencing at the intersection of English and Main, 
streets, while on October 7th the resignation of O. T. Baldwin was accepted, 
and F. D. Colton appointed Clerk to the Board in his stead. 


In the month of March, 1861, a petition numerously signed was put into 
circulation, having as its intention the asking the Legislature to pass an act 
allowiuo- the citizens of Sonoma county the privilege of voting on the re- 
moval of the county-seat from Santa Rosa to Petaluma. To this end, on 
the 4th of April, a bill was introduced in the Senate by Senator Edgerton 
of Napa entitled " An Act to re-locate the county-seat of Sonoma county 
by the qualified votes of Sonoma county ; " but from the fact of Santa Rosa 
beino- still the capital, nothing would appear to have come of the movement. 
Up to this period several ineffectual attempts had been made to secure tele- 
graphic communication with San Francisco and other portions of the State. 
Mr. J. E. Skidmure, acting as the deputy of the Bonicia and Napa Tele- 
graphic Company, visited this city for the purpose of entering into a contract 
with its citizens for the extension of the line from Napa, by way of Sonoma, 
to Petaluma, agreeing on his part to perform the work for the sum of two 
thousand five hundred dollars. Shares to be placed at fifty dollars each and 
the Su[»eiintendent of the above company to take ten shares, he promising 
at the same time to have the line in working order in six weeks; a project 
which was ultimately successful. Another improvement then effected was 
the opening up of a new street along tlie bank of the creek, forty feet in 
width, from Washington street to ■' Tom's Stable. " The original intention 
had been to open it from Washington to English street, but the project was 
partially deleated b}^ the propiietojs of the Franklin Hotel who claimed 
damages to a large amount. The only other party asking damages was 
Mr. Hill, corner of Washington and Main street, whose property would 
have been seriously affected by the new street, and who claimed the sum 
of twelve hundred dollars. The amovmt was speedily raised by the pro- 
perty holders along the contemplated thoroughfare and work immediately 
proceeded with. The railroad scheme had no sooner taken tangible shape 
than the necessity for its extension to Heald.sburg was immediately felt ; 
how it succeeded will be shown hereafter. At the end of 18G1, the school 
census for the 3'ear placed the number of scholars in the city, between 
the ages of fuur and e'ighteen years of age, at five hundred and fourteen; 
between eighteen and tM'^enty-one, forty-seven; total number of scholars 
in the district, five hundred and sixty-one; of which number two hundred 
and fifty-nine were males and two hundred and fifty-five females. Number 
of cliildren born in California, four hundred and twenty-five. Number 
in the district under four years of age, two hundred and seventy-two, thus 
making a total of eight hundred and thirty-three inhabitants under twenty- 
one yeats of age. 

In c(mcluding the record of this year, a most momentous one in history, 
for to the entire American nation it had been fraught with deep pain, we 
must not omit to mention, in terms most laudatory, the right feeling which 
sustained the inhabitants of this city in the hour of trial. We would here 



quote Bayard Taylor's stirring ode to the American people, as best portray- 
ing the feelings of the time : — 

That late, in half -despair, I said : 
The nation's ancient life is dead; 
Her arm is weak, her blood is cold ; 
She hugs the peace that gives her gold, — 
The shameful peace, that sees expire 
Each beacon-light of patriot fire, 
And makes her court a traitor's den," — 
Forgive me this, my countrymen ! 

O, in your long forbearance grand, 
Slow to suspect the treason planned. 
Enduring wrong, yet hoping good 
For sake of olden brotherhood. 
How grander, how sublimer far 
At the roused eagle's call ye are. 
Leaping from slumber to the fight 
Eor Freedom and for Chartered Right ! 

Throughout the land there goes a cry ; 
A sudden splendor fills the sky : 
From every hill the banners burst. 
Like buds by April breezes nurst ; 
In every hamlet, home, and mart. 
The fire-beat of a single heart 
Keeps time to strains whose pulses mix 
Our blood with that of Seventy-six ! 

The shot whereby the old flag fell 
From Sumter's battered citadel 
Struck down the lines of party creed 
And made ye One in soul and deed, — 

One mighty People, stern and strong 
To crush the consummated wrong ; 
Indignant with the wrath whose rod 
Smites as the awful sword of God ! 

The cup is full ! They thought ye blind : 
The props of State they undermined ; 
Abused your trust, your strength defied. 
And stained the Nation's name of pride. 
Now lift to Heaven your loyal brows. 
Swear once again your fathers' vows. 
And cut through traitor hearts a track 
To nobler fame and freedom back ! 

Draw forth your million blades as one ; 
Complete the battle then begun ! 
God fights with ye, and overhead 
Floats the dear banner of your dead. 
They, and the glories of the Past, 
The Future, dawning dim and vast, 
And all the holiest hopes of Man, 
Are beaming triumph in your van ! 

Slow to resolve, be swift to do ! 
Teach ye the false how fight the true ! 
How bucklered perfidy shall feel 
In her black heart the patriot's steel ; 
How sure the bolt that justice wings ; 
How weak the arm a traitor brings ; 
How mighty they, who steadfast stand 
For Freedom's Flag and Freedom's Land ! 

At this epoch what a wail went throughout the nation ! Bravfe men fell 
in battle on American soil. Fathers lost sons, sons fathers, brothers brothers* 
and the land was loud with the lamentations of the widow and orphan. In 
the midst of this woe, how pleasant it is to record that the ranks of the 
volunteer regiments of California were almost daily receiving accessions to 
their strength, and still more pleasing is it to remember that Petaluma did its 
share on the side of Freedom by sending Company D, Captain William E. 
Hull, into the regular service. 

We will now continue our resume of the transactions of the Board of 
Trustees. On January 20, 1862, a committee was appointed to draft amend- 
ments to the city charter, as also one to define rules for the government of 
the Board, while on the 25th the following ordinances were adopted: Those 
relating to licenses ; fire department ; meetings of Board ; disorderly conduct ; 
street commissioner; grades on Main and Washington streets; nuisances ; 
swine and goats; well in East Petaluma; water rights to John Cavanagh 
et al.; repeal of certain ordinances; and a set of rules for the guidance of the 
municipality in their counsels was introduced and passed. On April 21st, 


the annual election was held with the following result: B. F. Tuttle, E, 
Elliott, I. D. Cross, Samuel Brown, W. D. Bliss, President, Board of Trustees; 
Recorder, Josiah C^iandler; Treasurer, F. T. Maynard; Marshal, John Cava- 
naffh; Assessor, T. S. Lindsey; Street Commissioner, J. M. Lightner; Clerk, 
F. D. Colton, who on the 28th July was appointed City Attorney in addition 
to his other duties. On August 19th, the plaza was directed to be enclosed 
by a fence, and on September 26th, a meeting of citizens was directed to be 
convened for the purpose of considering the propriety of raising a patriotic 
fund for the relief of sick and wounded soldiers of the war. 

Early in the year, the much vexed question of creek navigation was taken 
up, and a steam dredge set to work to deepen the channel; this was not the 
work of the corporation, however, but that of Mr. Minturn of the steamboat 
company. He purposed making the creek navigable only as far as the 
point known as the Italian garden, where he would place the steamer 
landing, the balance he left with the citizens. At this period the 
question of the horse railroad from that point was again mooted, 
and a committee composed of Messrs. Lamberton, Overton, Baylis, 
Louf^ee, Barnes, Ordway, and Sawyer, were appointed to draft a bill to be 
submitted at a meeting to be subsequently convened. On the 4th March 
such meeting was duly held and the approval of the bill was unanimously 
sio'nified by the assembly. Its provisions were that H. J. May, Charles M. 
Baxter, William Kohl, and those whom they may associate with them, shall 
lay out a railroad, on which horses and mules shall be used, from the Italian 
garden to any point in Petaluma, provided that the road shall not extend 
north of Washington street. It further provided that the corporation shall 
collect passage and freight on said road, the rate to be fixed by the Trustees 
of the city of Petaluma, which shall not be less than eighteen per cent, a 
year on the amount of capital invested, unless by consent of the company, 
giving them the right to so collect for twenty years. It also provided that 
the work on the road shall be commenced within six months, and com- 
pleted within twenty-two months. In this enterprise the city had not been 
asked to render any assistance ; individual enterprise alone appeared in the 
work which should apparently have been taken hold of by the community; 
how it prospered will, in the course of our labors, be shown. In the month 
of March a bill to amend the charter of Petaluma was laid before the Legis- 
lature. In reporting the movement the Alta of the 11th of that month 
says: "Mr. Reed moved to suspend the rules, consider engrossed, on part 
or final passage. Mr. Dudley, of Placer, asked for the reading of the bill, 
and after it was read, he characterized it as a most extraordinary bill. It 
proposed to allow the city to exact licenses from billiard tables, dram-shops, 
etc., and he thought it would interfere with the general revenue law. He 
moved toVecommit it to the delegation from Sonoma for revision: Mr. Reed 
said it was in no respect an extraordinary bill, and did not conflict with the 


revenue law at all. It simply asked the same privilege for Petaluma that 
was enjoyed by San Francisco, Sacramento, and all the other cities. The 
motion to suspend the rules was sustained, and the bill passed," We repro- 
duce from the Journal of May 30, 1862, an article which goes far to show 
the attitude of public feeling, on the subject of the city charter a decade 
after the settlement of the town was commenced. " Since discussions of 
many important enterprises had, of late among our citizens have invariably 
closed in the expression that nothing at present can be done, while at the 
same time all have admitted the necessity of the measures we have made 
bold to express, wherein lays the cause of nonaction; and as a result almost 
always find that the assistance and co-operation of Petaluma as an incorpor- 
ated people, is needed ; but that, being restricted by its charter in its action, 
is powerless for good, and thus in its shackled condition, all large enter- 
prises needing its endorsement, fall palsied, still-born, to the ground. A 
glance at the charter and we are convinced that powerless indeed is Peta- 
luma, as an incorporated city, for the accomplishment of any great result. 
Like a child has she been bound; no tool of cunning placed in its hands but 
its effective edge is first carefully rounded off, lest, forsooth, it cuts its fingers, 
and there be a doctor's bill to piiy. 

" We have no disposition to rebuke those individuals who first conceived 
the idea of restricting the city in its action; but we are free to say that 
such a course was a decided protest to the great principles of republican 
government, " that the people are able to govern themselves." It has 
always been a principle of law that when power is given to individuals and 
bodies to do certain acts, that all minor powers necessary to perform these 
acts, go with the gift. In Petaluma's case, however, the rule has been 
changed; she has been made a city in name, privileges vested in' her to do 
certain things, but the means for doing, no matter what the wishes 
of the people, are carefully and wisely ( ?) taken from her. How like the 
child is she, whose father sends her to school to be educated, but fails to pro- 
vide the necessary books to learn from ; or the mechanic that is expected to 
execute a fine piece of work, but has neither the tools nor material to do it 

" Such is the condition of Petaluma, her hands tied to the performance of 
every great work. Better by far would it be that she had no pretensions at 
all, rather than a vain sounding title, without the means to adorn it and 
make it useful. Her means must be frittered away in half finished founda- 
tions, whilst the superstructure never is raised. The objection has been 
offered that the city might be run in debt if her people, through their 
Trustees, were permitted to do such things as her wants really demand. If 
such is the fear, and if that is a good reason for the restriction, why have a 
city at all ? Why not remain as a township, with the County Supervisors 
to j udge and provide for our wants as they deem necessary. * * » 


As a conclusion, we may remark that there are many enterprises which, if 
they had a few years since been carried through, would by this time have 
paid for themselves by taxation on the increased value of property, besides 
the laro-ely increased one of population and business. No more appropriate 
occa,sion than the present has ever presented itself in which to make a 
movement for the abandonment of the narrow-minded policy which has so 
lono- governed us. The disputed land claim upon which our city rests, about 
to be settled, the individual enterprise of some of our citizens invite the 
the people to step forth and declare, that to govern themselves they need not 
be restricted by others." 

Let us now continue our note of events: On the night of the 10th 
April, a fiendish attempt to destroy the city prison by fire was made by an 
intoxicated person named Crane. Fortunately for him the flames w^ere dis- 
covered in sufficient time to check their progress, else he would have perished 
on a pyre of his own raising. Again, on Thursday July 3d, the first con- 
•fiagration of any magnitude which the city had experienced broke out in a 
building occupied by Mr. Pierson. Although the fire company labored man- 
fully, yet, spite of all efforts, the property belonging to Mr. Pierson, that of 
William Ayrcs, occupied by R. Lansdon as a livery stable, and the Artesian 
Water Works of Mr. Armstrong were burned to the ground, considerable 
damage being also done to the premises of the Sonoma County Journal and 
others. The losses on the occasion w^ere not far short of three thousand 

Among all the prospects for the future in which the mind of man is 
engrosfsed, unlooked for death occasionally steals in to prove that we are but 
mortal. On the 30th of January, 1862, Doctor S. W. Brown, one of the 
earliest of the city's residents, was struck down in the full strength and vigor 
of a useful life, esteemed, respected, and sorrowed for by all. He was a 
native of Hartford, Connecticut, and at the time of his death was about sixty 
years of age. He emigrated to California in 1849, and located in Sacra- 
mento, where he continued to reside until the Spring of 1852, at which time 
he removed to Petaluma, where he had since resided. He was a man of 
much literary attainment, and a warm friend of education, and had been 
untiring in his eflforts for its advancement in this city. In 1860 he was a 
candidate on the Republican ticket for State Superintendent of Public 

" 8o live, that when thy summons comes to joiu 
The innumerable caravan that moves 
To the pale realms of shade, where each shall take 
His chamber in the silent halls of death, 
Thou go not, like the quarry slave, at night 
Scourged to his dungeon; but sustained and soothed 
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave 
Like one who wraps the drapery of his couch 
About him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 


At this period of her existence Petaluma entered into a career of prosper- 
ity unequalled by any portion of her past history. The first real estate sales 
of any moment which had taken place in two years indicated flattering 
prospects for the future; while wood shanties made way for more substan- 
tial fabrics, notable among these being the removal of the American Hotel 
back a distance of sixty feet, and the contemplated substitution of a three- 
storied brick edifice. This building was finished and ready for the occupa- 
tion of guests early in 1863. In addition to these signs of prosperity we 
should not omit to mention that in this year (1862) the city was well stocked 
with mechanical establishments ; of these enterprises there being, the black- 
smithing and wheelwright shops of William Ordway, the tannery of Mr. 
Bailey, the carriage and blacksmith emporium of Fritsch, Zartman & Co., 
the foundry and machine shop of Hatch & Cobb ; and in East Petaluma, the 
match factory under charge of Mr. Hutchings. Another indication of pros- 
perity which made itself apparent at this time was the fact of their being 
so few unoccupied houses, while all through the town signs of increase in 
building accommodation was to be seen. Once moi-e the incendiary's black- 
ened hand had been to work! On the 7th November, the Petaluma Steam 
Flouring Mills, situated at the north end of Main street, were totally 
destroyed by fire, notwithstanding every effort was made to save them by 
the Fire Department. The building was erected by Veatch & Hutchinson, 
in 1857, at a cost of upwards of twenty thousand dollars. 

On March 7, 1863, the records of the city announce the election of T. F. 
Baylis and A. P. Mallory as Chief and Assistant Engineers of tlie Fire Depart- 
ment, and on April 20th, the annual election of city officers was held, when 
the following body coiporate was chosen: B' arJ of Trustees, O. Sweetland, 
President; Lee Ellsworth, John Shroufe, William Ordway, and H. L. WesLon ; 
Recorder, Josiah Chandler ; Marshal, John Cavanagh ; Treasurer, F. T. 
Maynard; Assessor, T. K.Wilson; Street Commissioner, J. M. Lightner; 
Clerk, F. D. Colton. At the session succeeding the election the thanks of 
the meeting were tendered to W. D. Bliss, the retiring President, for the 
dignity and impartiality with which he had presided over their deliberations 
during his term of office. A report of the Committee appointed to investi- 
gate the working of the ordinance relative to the Fire Department was 
accepted on May 25th, while on the day following a law was passed granting 
to C. M. Baxter and others the right to erect gas works and lay pipes 
through the streets of the city. On November 9th, a petition was 
presented by certain citizens to oe allowed to erect a bridge over the ravine 
at the junction of Fifth and Sixth streets; a Committee . was appointed to 
investigate the necessity of such, and reported adversely, but recommended 
the substitution of a few planks to be placed across the chasm at that point ; 
however, on December 14th, the bridge was finally ordered to be constructed, 
the city furnishing the material, notwithstanding the willingness of the resi- 
dents in that section to defray the cost thereof. 


About half-past four o'clock on t'.ie morning of February 18, 1863, the 
bell a<min rang out its clarion tones to arouse the slumbering firemen. The 
Petaluma House was the scene of the alarm — the kitchen, or ell, ot which 
was discovered to be in flames. This building, as also those immediately 
adjoinincr on either side, being wooden and of the most combustible character, 
the flames spread rapidly, and soon cleared a space of about one hundred 
and twenty-five feet on Main street, notwithstanding the noble efforts put 
forth by the firemen to stay its course. That the fire was the work of an 
incendiary admits of not a doubt The hotel in which it originated had not 
been occupied for several weeks. The sufferers were Charles Hunt, of Peta- 
luma, and H. H. Parkell, of San Francisco, owners of the hotel ; B. Newman, 
owner of the building adjoining it on the south ; Fritsch, Zartman & Co., 
owners of that adjoining it on the north, and the Pohelraan Brothers, butch- 
ers, occupants of the same. 

About the time tliat the firemen were congratulating themselves that the 
danger of a general conflagration had passed, and there being scarcely a 
breath of air stirring, notwithstanding the magnitude of the fire, they were 
appalled by the startling intelligence that the rear of the brick building on 
the east side of the street, owned by Doctor J. L. Bond, and occupied by 
Thomas Hagans, as a stable (tlie building that stopped the fire of July 3d, 
from sweeping that side of the street) was in flames ! Upon turning their 
attention to this quarter, it was found that the hay, in the shed adjoining the 
building and standing immediately upon the bank of the creek, had been 
fired, and that the flames had already extended through the back door to the 
stables and roof of the brick building. All efforts to save it proved unavail- 
ing, and the roof soon fell in with a loud crash. The horses, carriages, 
and portion of the harness were removed. The loss of property — 
building, hay, grain, harness, etc.— is estimated at from twelve to fifteen 
hundred dollars. The walls of the building having been of great thickness 
and durability they escaped with little or no damage. 

Once more we have to record the arrival of the dread messenger. On 
March 2(1, Samuel Tustin, one of the oldest and most esteemed citizens of 
Petaluma, was called to cross the dark river, at the advanced age of seventy- 
three years. Mr. Tustin and his family were among the pioneers of this 
coast and State, having emigrated from Illinois to Oregon in 1847, from 
which point they came to California in 1849, settling at Sacramento, where 
he remained until 1851, when he moved to Petaluma, then an open plain, 
but from the bosom of which he lived to see spring into existence a numer- 
ous, happy and prosperous community. Having always taken an active 
part in all matters of a local character, upon the prerogative of a city govern- 
ment, he was chosen a member of the first Board of Trustees. The evening 
of the 19th of December was the city for the first time lit by gas, while a 
month earlier, the Central Flouring Mills commenced work, under thedirec- 


tioB of A. P. Mallory, making the third floui- mill erected in the city. 
Among the other occurrences of the year was that of a prize-fight, which 
took place on the bank of the creek, about one mile below Lakeville, between 
Johnny Lazarus and Pete Daley. 

The school census for Petaluma District during the year was as follows : 
Males^ over four and under eighteen years of age, two hundred and seventy; 
females over four and under eighteen, two hundred and fifty-one ; total 
ma}es and females, five hundred and twenty-one. Under four years of a<^e, 
two hundred and sixteen ; between eighteen and twenty-one years, thirty > 
lander twenty-one, born in California, four hundred and seventy ; between 
four and six years, ninety-one ; between these ages attending public school, 
sixty-eight ; total attending public school, ninety-three ; total attendino- 
private school, eighty-two ; not attending any school, one hundred and forty- 
ikree; Indian children, ten; negro, five; deaf and dumb, three. 

The first record of any interest to be found in the proceedings of the 
Board of Trustees for the year 1864 is the election of the Corporation, on 
April 18th, these being: Board of Trustees — Lee Ellsworth, William Ord- 
way^ John Sroufe, O. Sweetland, President, and A. P. Whitney ; Recorder, 
€r. W. Reed; Assessor, T. K. Wilson; Marshal, John Cavanagh; Treasurer, 
F. T. Maynard; Street Commissioner, Almon Johnson; Clerk, F. B. Colton. 
On the 25th, the question of a salary to the Recorder was mooted, a com- 
mittee was, therefore, appointed to investigate the amount of emolument 
received in former years by that officer, so that the rate which should be 
■Vfoted, might be determined. In this regard the committee reported on May 
3d that the average of salaries for the past three years had not exceeded one 
hundred and fifty dollars, while the sums received showed a yearly decrease; 
it was, therefore, on motion, ordered that the salary of the Recorder of the 
city of Petaluma be fixed and established at one hundred and twenty-five 
dollars per annum. 

Although the subject of railroads had been for long occupying the 
attention of the City Fathers, the first mention of one in their minute-book 
is found on May 23d, which appears in these words: "A petition was received 
from C. Minturn to set aside the plaza, near the Union Hotel, for a railroad 
depot for twenty -five years, which was laid over under the rules of procedure." 
On June 13th, it was taken up and read, as was also a remonstrance against 
the granting of the prayer of the petition, signed by T. F. Baylis k Co., and 
others. On motion, it was ordered that the said petition and remonstrance, 
and the consideration thereof be indefinitely postponed. July 2oth, it was 
voted that the President be authorized to take the steps in his judgment 
proper to ascertain the amount, and what public lands the city authorities 
can pre-empt, and to make application for a pre-emption of the same ; to this 
end inquiries were instituted, and a report made on August 8th, that the 
law enabling the Board of Trustees to pre-empt land had lately been repealed. 


We find, on October 4th, the report of the City Recorder was referred back 
to him that he should make a more definite report, specifying each case tried 
with amount of fees of different officers in each, amount of fines in each 
and sums collected in each. 

On February 19, 18G4, the Sonoma County Journal issued its valedictory 
address, the plant and good will having been purchased by the Argus, 
a paper which had been previously established. In this place we will add 
our slight tribute of praise to the very excellent manner in which this, 
the father of journalistic effort in Petalu ma, was conducted; we must not 
foro-et to say how thankful we are for the host of valuable information in 
connection with this work which we have been enabled to glean from its 
columns, information which it would have been impossible to arrive at save 
from a newspaper. In the early part of the year 1864, complaints were rife 
in regard to the high prices whi6h obtained for grain, flour, hay — indeed, 
every article of consumption f'^r man and beast — a circumstance then causing 
the most gloom}' forebodings. Let us not dwell, however, on these dark pic- 
tures; it is sufficient for our work to record their existence; more pleasurable 
is it to turn to the brighter and more progressive spots in Petaluma's history. 
At the epoch of which we write her many churches were all in a flourishing 
condition, new fire companies were organized as the necessity for them arose, 
while the public, as well as the private schools, showed commendable pros- 
perity and increase in attendance. The following remarks will illustrate the 
roll of scholars of the public schools for the year under consideration : Num- 
ber of boys between four and eighteen years of age, three hundred and fifty; 
number of girls between the same ages, three hundred and thirty-nine; total 
number of white children between these ages, six hundred and eighty -nine. 
Number of white children under four years, three hundred and thir- 
teen; number between eighteen and twenty-one years, twenty-six. Num- 
ber of white children under twenty-one years born in California, six 
hundred and fifty-five; number between four and six, one hundred and forty- 
seven; number of white children between four and six attending school, 
twenty-five. Number of Indian children between four and eighteen, fifteen; 
number of Negro children of same age, nine. In the month of May we find 
the residents of the city much concerned in the matter of a bell, the story of 
which shall be told in as few words as possible : Several years before this 
period of which we write, the citizens were afflicted with a bell mania. The 
inhabitants of the lower portion of the city having, by contribution, pur- 
chased a bell for the Congregational church, those of the upper portion of the 
town at once determined to obtain another that would weioh more and sound 
louder than the one destined to call the residents of Lower Petaluma to their 
devotions. The result of this determinatipn was the contributing, by divers 
and sundry persons, of a sum amounting to six or seven hundred dollars^ 
which was entrusted to M. Doyle, who with it purchased the old Vigilance 


Committee bell at San Francisco, the solemn cadence of which had warned 
Casey, Cora, and others that the time had come for them to shuffle off this 
mortal coil. By common consent the bell was hung in the belfrey of the 
First Baptist church in this city, with the conditions that it w^as to be used, 
not only as a church bell, but by the city, on all occasions when bells are 
usually in requisition; and in accordance with this arrangement, the city 
had kept a man employed to ring the bell at morning, noon and night. In 
consequence of the revolution which then shook the country irom center to 
circumference, a revolution on a small scale was inaugurated in the Baptist 
congregation, and the result was the enacting of a set of loyal resolutions 
very unpalatable to the secession element of the community. On this cer- 
tain parties felt themselves aggrieved, foremost among whom was Mr. Doyle, 
and the y determined that the bell should not give forth its brazen notes 
over a " d — d Abolition congregation;" and as he (Doyle) had invested the 
sum of one hundred and five dollars in the aforesaid bell, he proceeded with 
a posse of men, and by means of a block and tackle, hoisted the bell from 
the belfry, placed it on a di ay, and stored it in a convenient warehouse, much 
to the detriment of sleepy citizens who were wont to be released from the 
embrace of the drowsy god by its familiar peals. The excitement consequent 
upon this defiant disregard of the feelings and rights of the community was 
for a time intense, but it subsided when it became manifest that Doyle, with his 
bell, occupied as unenviable a position as did the man who drew the elephant in 
the lottery. At a future date public opinion demanded the rehanging of the 
bell, it was subsequently cracked, and to-day rings out in discordant notes, 
in lively contrast with the other chimes which gladden the sounds of the 
early Sabbath morn. We will close our remarks on the year 1864 by stat- 
ing that once more the fire-fiend was agog — on September 9th the steamboat 
warehouse having been burnt to the ground, causing a loss of fully ten 
thousand dollars, a Bloomfield firm who were shipping a new stock of goods 
being the heaviest losers. 

The proceedings of the municipality were inaugurated in the year 1865, 
by the election of a new house for engine company Sonoma No. 2, while, in 
conformity with a petition presented by E. Barnes, it was ordered, on the 27th 
March, that at the time of the election of city officers, a box should be pro- 
vided so that the citizens might have the opportunity of expressing their 
wishes in the matter of taxing the city to improve the Petaluma creek. 
April 15th, it was announced to the Board by Trustee Ellsworth that infor- 
mation had been just received of the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, 
President of the United States, on the previous evening, and thereupon moved 
that, in respect to his memory, " the Board do now adjourn." Allusion to this 
dire calamity will be found further on. A petition of the heirs of the late 
Samuel Tustin was on the same date presented, praying that the City prison be 
removed fr«m its present location, and a committee appointed to attend to the 


matter. On April I7th the under-mentioned gentlemen were chosen City 
officers: Board of Trustees, O. Sweetland, President; John Sroufe, A. P. 
Whitney, Lee Ellsworth, and John Stewart; Recorder, Josiah Chandler; 
Marshal, James K. Knowles ; Treasurer, F. T. Ma>Tiard ; Assessor, A. P. 
Mallory; Street Commissioner, A. Johnson; Clerk, F. D. Colton. On the 
same date the following resolution was introduced in respect to the murder 
of President Lincoln : " Whereas, This Board, in common with the whole 
family of our beloved country, are called upon to mourn the decease of our 
honored Chief Magistrate, stricken down by the hand of an assassin, in the 
height of his power and usefulness, and at a time when all manly hearts 
yearned for a speedy restoration of peace in our land, therefore be it 
Besolved, That w^e regard the death of Abraham Lincoln a great National 
calamity, and view with horror the atrocity of the crime that has deprived 
our country of him whom we regarded as the safeguard of liberty. Besolved 
fiLrther, That these proceedings be entered upon our book of records, and 
also that we wear crape for thirty days. Resolved further, That this Board 
do now^ adjourn." 

The ordinance requiring the collection of the street tax was read the third 
time on May 22d, and passed. On June 26th, President Sweetland resigned 
his place on the Board, he being succeeded by M. Hinman. Consequent on 
the petition of E. Barnes and others, an ordinance w^as passed on the 23d of 
October, regulating the blowing of steam whistles within the city limits ; 
while on the same date Recorder Chandler tendered his resignation, which 
was accepted, George W. Reed being appointed in his stead, on the day fol- 
lowing. On December 9th, the committee which had been appointed to 
make a contract and superintend the building of a turn-table bridge across 
the creek at the foot of Washington street, reported that they had contracted 
with John Caddy to put in a tuin-table, etc., for the sum of eight hundred 
and twenty-three dollars ; that the said contract had been carried out and 
the bridge completed, whereupon payment w^as ordered. 

The event of gi-eatest consequence, which occurred in the year 1865, was 
unquestionably the dastardly assassination of Abraham Lincoln, in Ford's 
Theatre, Washington, D. C, by John Wilkes Booth, on the evening of the 
14th April. Perhaps no calamity of a like nature had ever occurred to any 
nation ; is it any wonder, then, that the whole land was flooded with tears, 
and each mourned as if a father had been taken, and was he not a father to 
the people ? In him was vested the rule and safeguard of the people, at a 
juncture when a head and a pure heart, above all, was needed ; he had 
labored indefatigably in their behalf, was even then toiling to bring about 
an honorable peace, honorable to friend and foe alike, and then to be cut off 
in the very zenith of his power ; is it any wonder, we say, that the Nation, 
from the Atlantic to tlie Pacific, wept as one gigantic household for him who 
had led them through the uncertain quicksands of statecraft. In Petaluma 


y^. ,y( u^r^^ ^- 


the intelligence was received with everj sign of respectful grief; stores were 
closed, business suspended, while a special funeral service was held, when the 
citizens turned out en masse, and, after forming in procession, listened to an 
impressive sermon by Professor E. S. Lippett, on the life and death of the 
noble martyr. It may not be inappropriate here to quote the following 

tribute from the Petaluma Journal and Argus of April 20, 1865 : 

" Fulness of speech may not be indulged, while a sable-clad Nation weeps 
at the tomb of its mighty fallen. Pearly drops from humid eyes, speak a 
language that tongue cannot utter, nor pen indite; the language of the heart 
as it has been since the stars sang together on the morn of creation. As 
Mary knelt weeping by the sepulchre of the World's Redeemer, eighteen 
hundred years ago, even so now a Nation mourns at the tomb of its Saviour. 
The harsh notes of trumpet-tongued courier did not blazon his fall, but 
from where the boisterous Atlantic hurls its crested waves against Plymouth 
Rock to where the placid Pacific laves our golden shores, the swift-winged 
messenger, with the rapidity of thought, and the low cadence of Summer 
winds, told the story of the assassin's deed; and scarce had the vaulted arch 
of Heaven been cleft to receive his noble spirit up on high, before around a 
million hearths sat unmanned manhood weeping, as it is seemly that women 
alone might weep. Never since the earth reeled as if rocked by a mighty 
tempest, and the vail of the temple was rent in twain, has mankind, uni- 
versal, bled in the representative of principle so pure, so lofty, and so God- 
like in their adaptability to all the wants and requirements of humanity, 
the world over, as in the person of Abraham Lincoln. Not like the meteor's 
fitful gleam athwart the sky, fading into the dark chaos of night, has been 
his going out; but as the bright orb of day sinking to rest behind the western 
hills leaves its last golden rays illumining the mountain gorge, and beetling 
cliff, so too will the light of his pure self-sacrificing devotion to Justice and 
Freedom, irradiate the dark corners of the earth, and the history of his life 
and the story of his death, will be asigned a place in the world's archives; 
will be read by the glare of lamp.s, trimmed by servile hands, and do the 
bidding of those who claim to rule by right Divine ; will be studied by 
peasants on sunny plains and Alpine hills; and yet farther on, where day 
and night comes and goes but once a year, the fur-clad Laplander, by the 
amber light of the Aurora Borealis will read the story, and pray that the 
assassin who struck him down, may be exiled to some frigid clime, where 
even the rays of a polar sun may be denied him. A Chieftain has fallen; 
his grave is in the hearts of his countrymen ; let those pay heed whose foul 
tongues, in umbridled license, have aspersed his name! The assassin has 

done your work! Leave ns alone with our dead!" Thus had the mio-htv 

" Hush, the Dead March wails ia the people's ears: 
The dark crowd moves, and there aresoba and tears: 
The black earth yawns; the mortal disappears, 



Ashes to ashes, dust to dust ; 

He is gone who seemed so great — 

Gone; but nothing can bereave hira 

Of the force he made his own 

Being here, and we believe him 

Something far advanced in State, 

And that he wears a truer crown 

Than any wreath that man can weave him. 

Speak no more of his renown, 

Lay your eartlaly fancies down, 

And in the vast leave him. 

God accept him, Christ receive him." 

One of the absorbing topics which held the minds of the citizens of Peta- 
hinia in this year was that of a raih'oad between this city and Healdsburg. 
To consider the best means of procuring it a meeting was held on March 13th, 
at McCune's Hall, when the question was fully discussed by gentlemen from 
all parts of the county. In the course of its proceedings J. R. Myers, of 
Windsor, estimated that a subscription of five hundred thousand dollars by 
Sonoma county would insure the completion of the work, but he could not 
correctly approximate what the income would be — he thought the cost 
would be about twenty-five thousand dollars per mile, with three thousand 
dollars as a survey fee. Though this meeting was informal, and indefinite 
as the proceedings were, it showed an earnest desire on the part of the people 
to seek the most feasible plan to lead to the desired result. It was thought 
that with a railroad to Healdsburg and the creek rendered navigable to the 
wharves, Petaluma would soon take the position which nature had designed 
her to occupy, that of only the second city in importance in the State. At a 
subsequent meeting, held October 30th, Articles of Association for the proposed 
Petaluma and Healdsburg Railroad were adopted, and, on " motion of Judge 
Langdon, A. W. Thompson and L. A. Norton were appointed a Committee 
to ascertain the amount of stock subscribed, and they reported that thirty- 
two thousand three hundred dollars were subscribed, ten per cent, of which 
had been paid to the Treasurer. On motion, Messrs. A. W. Thompson, J. R. 
Myers, and T. W. Hudson, were appointed a committee on credentials. On 
motion adjourned to meet at seven o'clock p. m. The meeting having reas- 
sembled at the appointed hour, on motion, C. W. Langdon, proceeded to the 
election of seven Directors. The Chair appointed as Tellers, J. Sroufe, J. 
M. Williams, and R. Ives. L. A. Norton and R. Powell, of Healdsburg; L. 
S. B. Slusser, of Windsor; C. W. Langdon, of Santa Rosa; S. D. Towne, I. 
G. Wickersham, and A. P. Overton, of Petaluma, having received two hun- 
dred and eighty-three votes, were declared duly elected Directors of the 
Company." Another public meeting of considerable importance to the city of 
Petaluma was convened at McCune's Hall on the 9th day of December, 1865, 
for the purpose of considermg the question of changing the boundary line 
between the counties of Marin and Sonoma. 0. Sweetland in the chair. 


The subject had already occupied much public attention; this, however, was 
the first occasion of its assuming a definite shape in this section of the county. 
At the meeting J. H. McNabb introduced the following resolution, which was 
adopted. "Resolved, That the citizens of Petaluma and vicinity are in 
favor of changing the boundary line of Marin county, so as to include all that 
part of Sonoma county, lying south and east of Santa Rosa creek, so that 
the northern boundary line of Marin county shall be as follows: Commenc- 
ing at a point in the Pacific ocean, three miles, in a west line, from the mouth 
of Russian river ; thence running up said Russian river to the mouth of a 
creek called both Mill creek and Mark West creek; thence up said Mill 
creek or Mark West creek to the mouth of the Laguna; thence up the 
center of said Laguna to the mouth of north Santa Rosa creek ; thence up 
said Santa Rosa creek, following the main branch thereof, by the toM'^n of 
Santa Rosa, to the line of Napa county." The proceedings were of the most 
harmonious and unanimous character, resulting in the appointment of a 
committee of nine, consisting of J. M. Bowles, F. D. Colton, William Hill, E. 
Denman, G. Warner, William Zartman, Charles Hunt, L. W. Walker, and 
J. M. Charles, to prepare and circulate a petition for the signatures of all 
favorable to the change. Of the buildings erected in this year the principal 
one was the new Methodist Episcopal church, the estimated cost of which, 
when completed, would be nearly twenty-five thousand dollars. At 
the time of which we write. May, 1865, the society proposed to 
simply enclose it and finish the basement, at an expense of about fifteen 
thousand dollars. On the 20th of that month the ceremony of breaking 
ground for the edifice took place, when the Rev. E. S. Lippett, after a few 
remarks appropriate to the occasion, struck the first pick, in commencement 
of excavating the foundation, and on the 22d June the corner-stone was 
laid, with becoming ceremony. Other structures also sprang up in this 
year on every side, and progress was the watchword. At this period Peta- 
luma was unquestionably one of the most flourishing interior towns in Cali- 
fornia. The streets were crowded with wagons, and their merry tinkling 
bells; improvements were being pushed on every hand; there was little if 
any lounging on the sidewalks ; everything presenting the appearance of 
business activity and energy. 

Let us now resume the transactions of the municipality. On April 23, 
1866, a communication was received from John Cavanagh and others asking 
for a recount of the votes given and cast at the city election held on the 
16th, the oflicers elected • being : Board of Trustees, Joseph S. Cutter, Lee 
Ellsworth, President, J. B. Hinkle, B. F. Tuttle, and G. Warner; Clerk, F. 
W. Shattuck; Recorder, Edward Cole; Treasurer, F. T. Maynard; Assessor, 
D. A. Sackett ; Marshal, James K. Knowles ; Street Commissioner, Almon John- 
son. On motion it was ordered that the ballots cast at the election be care- 
fully preserved for the purpose of enabling any one to contest any election 


of any officer at said election. A connnittee was appointed April 24th to 
draw up a l)i 11 to be sent to Congress to enable the Trustees to carry out the 
provisions of an act of the Legislature in relation to the improvement of 
Pctaluma creek. To this end a preliminary survey was made by Mr. 
IJrooks, C E., and on May 29th it was directed that a notice be published 
in the local papers tailing for tenders for the erection of a Lock, and the con- 
Btruction of a Dam on some point on the Petaluma creek, to be hereafter 
desi<Tiat(Hl. June 11 th, ])ennission was granted the County Road Commis- 
sioners to o]>en a road within the city limits from Lakeville to Petaluma; 
action was also taken at this time to prevent the throwing of loose paper on 
tlie streets, which tended to the frightening of horses, and thereby the occas- 
ioning of accidents. The city prison having, about this date been removed 
from its original location, we find the necessity for the erection of a new one 
was beinf discu.'^sed. On the 25th of June, D. D. Carder was elected to the 
office of City Attornejs while, on the same date, a remonstronce signed by 
citizens against the proposed manner of improving Petaluma creek was pre- 
sented, in which the levying of a tax each year for the purpose was recom- 
mended, and that the bends be cut as money is collected from the same source. 
On motion the further consideration of the petition was indefinitely postponed. 
July 2nd, bids were received and opened for cutting off the bends in Petaluma 
creek and building the lock and dam, and that of E. Gay, for cutting the bends 
was accepted, action in the matter of the latter being indefinitely postponed. 
Juilge J. B. Southard appeared before the Board on August 26th, and 
objected to his assesment on the ground that he had no title to the land- 
He intimated that a magnanimous city should withdraw its opposition, and 
that between the City Fathers and one of their children there should be no 
gouging. In respect to the above, on August 28th, the following resolution 
was introduced by Trustee Hinkle and adopted: "Resolved, That the city 
of Petaluma does hereby surrender up and forever abandon all claim that it 
may have asserted to a parcel or lot of land filed on by J. B. Southard, 
adjoining lot number five hundred and forty-five (545) as laid down and 
described upon the official map of the said city as surveyed by the United 
States Surveyor General for California, and particularly all claim to a strip 
of land twelve feet (12) in width running along said lot on Howard street, 
the same having been claimed and filed upon by the said J. B. Southard. 
And, we, the Trustees of the said city, at a regular meeting assembled, do 
hereby authorize and re(]uest the Register and Receiver of the United States 
Land Office at the city of San Francisco and State of California to withdraw 
from their files and cancel any claim the said city may have filed to said 
lan«l, and any proceedings had thereon, hereby agreeing and consenting that 
said J. B. S(;uthard receive a patent from the United States for the land 
upon which he has filed his claim and made proof as required by law." 
September 17th, a petition numerously signed by cititizens and tax-payers 


was presented, praying the Board to order the suspension of further work 
on the creek, and to reduce the tax for the current year from one-and-a-half 
to one per cent. The following minute appears on November 26th : " The 
members of the Board being desirous of attending the lecture of ' Mark 
Twain,' " by order of the President, the members concurring, the meeting 
was adjourned accordingly, until the 27th at half past seven o'clock in the 
evening:. On the convening of the meeting, on the last mentioned date, it is 
placed on record that " Messrs. Pearce and Wood, attorneys at law, appeared 
before the Board and presented the claim Isaac Caplinger against the city 
for five thousand five hundred dollars damages sustained by him by falling 
and breaking his leg on the east side of Main street, north of Washington, 
on the 27th day of September, said damages being sustained by reason, as is 
alleged, of the neglect and omission of the City Trustees to lay out, keep 
open and in repair the side walk in the locality above named, through and 
by means of which negligence and omission he, the said Caplinger, fell and 
broke his leg, and to loss of time, expense in curing his wounds and ailment, 
and incidental costs, doctor's bills, medicines, etc., amounting altogether to 
the sum named." December 8d, in order to reduce the expenditure to the 
city, it was directed that S. M. Hutchinson, from and after this date, cease 
to ring the bell morning, noon and evening, and cease to open and shut or 
attend to the draw-bridge on account of the city; it was also, on motion, 
ordered tliat the City Marshal cease to keep a night-watch or rent the city 
pound from and after this date on same account. 

Perhaps the most interesting event which occurred in Petaluma during the 
year 1866, was the holding of a mass meeting of its citizens to take action 
in regard to the introduction of the bill in the Legislature entitled, " An Act 
to quiet titles in the city of Petaluma," held.on Saturday evening the 24th 
March, Hon. J. H. McNabb in the chair. The object of the bill will be 
gathered from the following resolutions drafted by a committee consisting of 
L. C. Reyburn, Hon. J. W. Owen, and A. P. Whitney: "Whereas, The 
Senator from Sonoma, the Hon. George Pearce, has introduced into the 
Legislature of California, an act entitled, ' An Act to quiet titles in the city 
of Petaluma;' and Whereas, We are satisfied that neither said act, nor a 
request therefor, came from the municipal officers of said city, or from any 
citizens thereof uninterested in the grant itself ; and Whereas, We believe said 
Act, if passed, would be ruinous to the citizens and property -owners of said 
city, and would benefit only our old-time enemy, Valentine, and his associates. 
That our titles, now in a fair way to be perfected, would thereby be 
unsettled, property depreciated, improvements checked, and business become 
stagnant; and the attempt, so long and persistently made, to obtain a special 
act reinstating the Miranda claim in court, made almost certain. Therefore, 
Resolved, That we disapprove of the action of our Senator, in thus intro- 
ducing a bill of such vital importance without consulting the wishes of the 


pai'ties to be affected thereby. Resolved, That wo do not desire to purchase, 
on any terms, the so-called Miranda claim; that we are satisfied with our 
titles, and most respectfully request the honorable Senator to cease his solici- 
tude in our behalf in this respect. Resolved, That we most earnestly urge 
our Senator to withdraw said act, if within his power, or to inform the 
Senate that his constituents are opposed to its passage, and permit the same 
to be indefinitely postponed. On motion of Mr. Campbell, a committee of 
three, consisting of George Campbell, Hon. George W. Reed, Captain T. F. 
Baylis, were appointed to draw up a petition to the Legislature, remonstra- 
ting against the passage of the act, which was duly reported and numerously 
sio-ned by those present." One more matter of importance which presented 
itself in this year, was the proposed establishment of a Baptist College in 
Petaluma. To secure the location of it in this city, a sum of twenty thou- 
sand dollars was wanted from Sonoma county by way of subscription; any 
amount pledged in the county being payable whenever a like amount was 
secured elsewhere in the State, while it was decided that a prepare to ry 
department should be opened about the middle of the following August. 
The subject, however, dropped through want of appreciation of the benefits 
accruing to a place by reason of the possession of such a seat of learning. 
We now pass on to record another of those painful catastrophes which cause 
the blool to run cold through one's veins. On the morning of the 27th of. 
August, the boiler of the locomotive that ran between this city and the steamer 
blew up, causing sad havoc. Of the occurrence an eye-witness writes: 
" Arriving at the depot we found the greatest consternation and confusion 
prevailing; people running hither and thither, some wringing their hands 
wildly, frantically; others using their utmost endeavors to relieve the killed 
and wounded from the wreck of the locomotive and one baggage-car, which 
were thrown against the side of the depot building. Stepping upon the plat- 
form, the first object that greeted our sight was a human body, unrecogniz- 
able to us, literally torn from limb to limb, which proved to be Joshua H. 
Lewis, the owner of the depot building. Upon the top of a baggage-car 
lay the mangled remains of Arthur Thompson, son of J. D. Thompson of tliis 
city. From these sickening sights we turned into the depot building, to 
behold S. B. Dodge, keeper of the warehouse, stretched upon the floor a 
corpse, and the engineer lying on the track a few rods in advance of where 
the locomotive had stood, mangled and inanimate. These were all beyond 
the reach of suffering, and needed not to be ministered to by mortal hands. 
There were others, however, the sight of whom w(udd have moved the most 
unfeeling heart, most prominent among them was Charles Yeomans, so 
well known to all who have traveled on the steamer Petaluma. His face 
was mangled in a frightful manner, rendering his recovery extremely doubt- 
ful. Kind hands did every thing in human power to alleviate his suffering, and 
he was soon removed to his residence, where the skill of surgery was called 


to his aid. Captain White, of Newtown, was badly, but it is hoped not 
fatally injured. Mr. Rekert, a hand employed on the track, was badly, and 
it is feared fatally injured; so was a Mr. Flinn, also a laborer on the track, 
and Dan Barton, an employe in the warehouse. Others there were who 
received slight wounds and bruises, among whom are John A. McNear, Dan. 
Brown, J. W. Brier, Jr., and Rev. Jehu Barnes. None of these, however, 
suffer serious inconvenience from their wounds. Had the boiler exploded a 
few minutes sooner than it did, it is fearful to contemplate what would have 
been the terrible destruction of life. As it was, the word had been given, 
' All aboard,' and the consequence was that sixty or seventy passengers, who 
a few minutes before were massed where the missiles of death swept, had 
taken their seats in the passenger cars, which hardly suffered a scratch. The 
boiler was literally blown to fragments, one piece weighing several hundred 
pounds falling at the foot of Main street, and another in the canal near the 
warehouse of McNear »fe Bro. The locomotive was completely demolished, 
not a wheel being left whole." The verdict of the coroner's jury was, " We 
find that the explosion occurred from the incompetency of the man in charge 
of the locomotive at the time." On the 26th of June, the city was again 
visited by a considerable conflagration, the fire on this occasion being confined 
to the Sullivan and Franklin hotels, the loss being in tiie neighborhood of 
six thousand dollars. The Public Library, inaugurated by the order of Odd 
Fellows, was started on this year, while we have to record the death at Santa 
Rosa of William Ordway, on the 5th of January, an old and highly esteemed 
resident of Petaluma. 

Once more we turn to the records of the city. On January 4, 1867, we 
find that a petition from the citizens praying for the appointmeut of S. Odell 
as special policeman, night watchman and bell-ringer was presented to the 
Board, they, at the same time, agreeing to pay for his services as such, a 
matter which received the consent of the Trustees. Complaint was made, 
on February 11th, of the obstruction in the creek caused by the sinking of 
the old steamer " Oroville," whereby a bar was being formed to the detri- 
mefft of navigation ; while, on the 15th day of April, the Municipal election 
was held, and the following officers selected : Board of Trustees, J. G. Cutter, 
President, H. B. Hasbrouck, N. B. Lane, B. F. Tuttle, and George P. Land; 
Recorder, E. Cole; Marshal, James H. Knowles; Assessor, Charles Humphries; 
Street Commissioner, Al. Johnson; Treasurer, F. T. Maynard; Attorney, D. 
D. Carder; Clerk, Frank W. Shattuck. There would appear to have been 
some question as to the correctness of this return, for we find a special meet- 
ing called on May 27th, when the President stated that the object of conven- 
ing it was to cause to be dra\^ and delivered to I. G. Wickersham a war- 
rant or city order for one hundred and sixty-five dollars, being money 
advanced for the city of Petaluma in the matter of the suit to test the 
legality of the election of city officers for the year 1867. It was afterwards 


discovered that N. B. Lane had not been duly elected. July 11th, the office of 
Assessor was declared vacant through the absence, without leave, of D. A. 
Sackett, Charles Humphries being appointed in his stead. It was also ordered 
at this meeting that the Gity Clerk, with the assistance of the City Attorney> 
give notice that the Board of Trustees will, on and after the 2d day of Sep- 
tember, A. D. 1867, commence executing deeds to the lands donated to the 
city by Act of Congress, and to notify all persons owning lands in said city 
to file their claim to same with the Clerk of the Board of Trustees prior to 
that date; therefore, on September 16th, the following applications, they 
being the first, were heard by the Board: Hugh Stockdale, Frank Nason, 
James Galandett, Joseph G. Smith, Addison Crandall, John McGrath, I. G. 
Wickersham, William Sweeney, Delia Lane. On this date was also adopted 
the Seal of the City of Petaluma — a portentious impression, emblematic of 
the productions, trade and commerce of the district of which it is the center. 
About this period numerous applications for deeds were contested and argued 
before the Board, and, on October 28th, an Ordinance prohibiting bathing 
in the creek was amended, so that the reading should be during daylight. 

Throughout the year 1867, the all absorbing topic was the railroad. Meet- 
ings were held at different times having this object in view, tending to show 
that unless speedy and prompt action were taken a road from Napa into 
the Russian river valley would be built, which would deprive Petaluma of 
all the up-country trade and travel ; thus, they became fully aroused to the 
necessity of connecting this city with Healdsburg by rail, and the ball being 
once put in motion, the following result was speedily gained: " The under- 
signed, proposing to build a railroad in the county of Sonoma, in the State of 
California, from the city of Petaluma to Healdsburg, with a branch from 
some point on the line to Bloomfield, and of the length of about forty miles ; in 
order to form an incorporation under the provisions of an Act of the Legislatuj-e 
of the State of California, approved May 20, 1861, entitled 'An Act to pro- 
vide for the incorporation of railroad companies, and the management of the 
affairs thereof, and other matters relating thereto,' and the several j^pts 
amendatory thereof, do hereby severally subscribe the amount af capital 
stock of such contemplated railroad company set opposite our respective 
names. And the subscribers do hereby name and appoint William P. Hill 
of Petaluma to be Treasurer of said company. " Here follow these names 
with the sum of two thousand dollars opposite each: William Hill, Smith 
D. Towne, William D. Bliss, McNear & Brother, H. Mecham, P. E. Weeks, 
Isaac Fuller, N. E. Manning, John Sroufe, William Zartman, C. Temple, J. 
S. Van Doren, J. M. Bowles, E. Barnes, A. B. Derby, A. P. W^hitney, J. S. 
Cutter, Alex. McCune, Henry Hall, Thomas Ilbpper. We would also men- 
tion that in this year the residence and grounds of Judge J. B. Southard 
were purchased by the Sisters of Charity for the establishment of a Convent 
school, and that the College would appear to have made slight progress while 

^^^^^^ ^'^v^^^^^^a^ut^- 


in the month of July the school census for the Petaluma District showed the 
following satisfactory results: Number of boys between five and fifteen 
years of age, three hundred and twenty -three; number of girls of same age, 
thi-ee hundred and thirty-five; total, six hundred and fifty-eight. Number 
of colored children between five and fifteen years of age, eight; number of 
white children under five years, four hundred and fifteen; number of colored 
children of same age, four. Number of children attending public schools, 
two hundred and sixty-three; number attending private schools, five 
hundred and fifty-six; number attending no school, one hundred and 
thirty-nine. The chapter of accidents for the twelve-month, was unfortun- 
ately large. On may 11th the premises of S. Payran, in East Petaluma, 
were attempted to be set on fire. On the 20fch, a conflagration occurred 
destroying the warehouses of Greening, Daly & Sroufe, and Hinshaw, while 
on September 25th the seats prepared for the visitors at the Fair ground 
gave way, precipitating several hundred ladies to the ground, of whom 
a number were seriously hurt, among them being Miss McCune, Mrs. T. H- 
White and Mrs. J. S. Van Doren. Of deaths there were those of Captain 
T. F. Baylis on the 10th September — a gentleman much esteemed for his 
sterling worth and public spirit. He was a native of Ireland but emigrated 
to Ameiica when quite young, and had been a resident — one of the very 
first — of Petaluma since 1850. The sad accident at Oakville Station, on the 
Valley Railroad on October 10th, which deprived Solomon Pierce of his 
life, wherein the city lost one of her most valued and respected citizens? 
should not now be omitted. 

In 1868, February 17th, instructions were given by the City Fathers for 
the felling of an ancient landmark in the tree which stood in Oak street, 
near Liberty, while at the same time the propriety of the city taking charge 
of the cemetery was also under discussion. On March 9th, the exclusive 
right to supply the town with water was granted to S. D. Towne for twenty- 
five years, a scheme which received the prompt and unequivocal condemna- 
tion of a large majority of the people. The election for city officers was 
called for April 20th, when citizens were also to vote to levy a tax of the 
one-half of one per cent, for clearing out the creek ; also to vote on whether 
they desire the Trustees to sell the Plaza bounded by Main, Kentucky, Mary 
and Martha streets. On April 6th, the Young America Engine Company, 
No. 3, composed of thirty-one members of Company No. 1, were admitted 
into the Fire Department. In accordance with the amended charter of 
1868, the members voted for the two of the Board who were to hold over 
for the ensuing year, the lots being cast on Lee Ellsworth and G. Warner. 
An ordinance regulating Oakhill Cemetery was passed on the :i2d, and 
Charles Blackburn appointed City Sexton; as was also another law enacted 
in relation to houses of ill-fame and other nuisances. The corporation 
officers for this year were : Board of Trustees, Lee Ellsworth, President ; 


G. WarniT, W. D. Bliss, Andrew Mills and A. P. AVhitney ; Marshal, O. V. 
Walker ; Assessor, Charles Humphries; Treasurer, F. T. Maynard; Recorder, 
Edward Cole ; City Attorney, F. D. Colton ; Clerk, D. D. Carder. May 
18th, salary of City Clerk fixed at eighty dollars and fifty cents per quarter, 
while J. C. White, Deputy Marshal, was appointed Poundmaster and William 
O'Kccfe, Night Watchman. On June 22d, the ordinance granting S. D. 
Towne the sole right to supply the city with water was repealed. July 27, 
Doctor Burnett, employed to attend upon small-pox patients at the pest 
house, was gazetted Health Officer, and, on the 12th October, a petition was 
presented to the Board, asking them " to prohibit the burial in the Oakhill 
Cemetery of all persons who die, outside the city limits, with the small-pox. 
On motion the Clerk was dii'ccted to notify the City Sexton to permit no 
person who may have died outside of the city limits to be buried in the 
cemetery, and that hereafter he allow no person to be interred in said 
cemetery without a permit in wiiting, as required by ordinance, and that 
said Sexton give notice by publication of said regulation." 

The railroad question still engrossed the public mind, till on the 9th of 
May, 18G8, the battle was fought at the polls, and victory went with the 
Petaluma route, as opposed to that by Vallejo and Napa, at which there was 
great rejoicing on the part of the residents of this city. On Januar}' 9th, 
in accordance with instructions from headquarters, the Petaluma Guard and 
City Guard were mustered out of the National Guard of California, by 
Major Ustick, Assistant Adjutant General of the State, a summary dismissal 
which caused no little surprise to all, for both companies had complied with 
the law in every particular, had their full complement of men, and held all 
prescribed drills. The companies, however, having an armory of their own, 
elected to keep up the organization, so as to be ready should necessity' call 
upon them. In the month of July, small-pox made its appearance, the first 
fatal case being that of Mrs. Thomas Tann, and the second Oliver Rand. 
The necessary precautions were at once taken by the authorities and citizens, 
as has been remarked in another place, and no serious outbreak of the epi- 
demic occurred. The earthcpiake, which committed such damage to San 
Francisco, was felt here, and though to some considerable extent, no great 
loss was sustained thereby. Grim Death, in this year, had laid his C(jld 
hand on the Hon. G. W. Reed, a much respected resident of this city. He 
was a native of Ohio, and in early life emigrated to Iowa, where he lived 
until manhood, receiving the advantages of a liberal education. In 1852 he 
cro.sscd the plains to Oregon, where he taught school for a time, then started 
for Nevada county, in this State, where he arrived in the Fall of 1858. The 
Summer of 185G he came to this county, and, soon after his arrival, was 
employed as teacher of the public school in this city. For several yeais he 
followed this occupation, and in 18G2 was chosen as one of the Representa- 
tives from this county to the State Legislature. Having turned his attention 


to the study of law, he was admitted to the bar in 1863, and up to within a 
few weeks of the time of his death, continued in the practice of his profes- 
sion. As an effective orator Mr. Reed had few, if any, equals in this county, 
and humanity and freedom ever found in him an eloquent advocate. But 
at the early age of thirty-eight, when matured manhood is supposed to be 
best fitted to grapple with the practical realities of life, he was stricken 
down by death. Evidences of prosperit}^ were not wanting now; a new 
bank building had been built by I. G. Wickersham, while A. P. Whitney 
contemplated the erection of a fireproof edifice on Main street. The Library 
Association was in a flourishing condition, it containing, according to the 
President, L. Ellsworth, a total of six hundred and thirty-three volumes 
on its shelves, and a total subscription list of four hundred and sixty-six 
dollars, besides which, business was good throughout the cit}^, and prospects 
for the future promising. 

On the 26th April, 1869, the following corporate body was elected: Board 
of Trustees, A. P. Whitney, President, W. D. Bliss, Andrew Mills, S. Con- 
rad, and William Zartman: Marshal, James H. Knowles; Assessor, Charles 
Humphries; Treasurer, F. T. Maynard; Recorder, E. Cole; Street Commis- 
sioner, J. M. Lightner ; Clerk, Frank W. Shattuck. On this date an acceptance 
to the fete held at Sacramento on the completion of the Central Pacific 
Railroad was ordered to be sent, and, on August 23d, Frank W. Shattuck 
tendered his resignation as Clerk of the Board of Trustees, an I was succeeded 
by D. D. Carder. 

In the year 1869, Articles of Incorporation of the Petaluma and Clover- 
dale Railroad were filed for the construction of a road from some point on 
the line of Marin county, by way of Petalaiua and Santa Rosa to Clover- 
dale, with a branch from some point thereof to Bloomfield, the road to be 
seventy miles in length; capital, one million, four hundred thousand dollars, 
in shaj-es of one hundred dollars each ; Directors, William Zartman, W. D. 
Bliss, H. T. Fairbanks, F. W. Lougee, and Alexander McCune; the principal 
place of business to be Petaluma. The reason for this new corporation Avas 
the non-fulfilment by another company of the terms of the charter, whereby 
a certain portion of the road was to be completed before a given date. In 
regard to the line proposed bj^ way of Napa, into the Russian River valley, a 
series of very excellent communications from the facile pen of E. S. Lippett 
appeared about this time in the Petaluma Journal and Argus, under the 
heading of " Petaluma Compared with Vallejo" as a railroad center, much to 
the disadvantage of the latter, as viewed through the eyes of the learned 
Professor. As an instance of what the resources of the district were ton 
years ago; and the eminence attained by this city as a point of shipment, we 
here present a brief statement of the number of boxes of butter and eggs, 
and the number of cheeses shipped from Petaluma to San Francisco on the 
steamers from April 1st to May 1, 1869. Number of boxes of butter and 



eggs, two thousand, seven hundred and ninety-four; number of cheeses, one 
thousand, five hundred and eighty three; boxes Limberger cheese, thirty- 
eight. Estimating the boxes of butter to contain one hundred pounds each, 
at thirty-two and one-half cents per pound ; of eggs, at one hundred dozen, at 
thirty-eight cents per dozen ; and the cheeses at an average of thirty-two 
pounds each (which is low, the range being all the way from twenty to 
eighty pounds), at fifteen cents ; and the Limbergers at about four thousand 
pounds, at twenty-seven cents per pound, we get in round numbers, one hun- 
dred and five thousand, five hundred dollars as an estimate of the total value 
of shipments of butter, cheese, and eggs during the month of April. This 
estimate was, at the time, considered low, one house asserting that their 
business alone, in this line, exceeded ten thousand dollars a month. It must 
be further remembered, that the above statement embraces shipments to San 
Francisco only, no account having been taken into consideration of home con- 
sumption; and further, that no mention whatever is made of the shipment 
of calves, chickens, geese, etc. — all immediately connected with and belong- 
ing to these branches of industry— immense quantities of which are daily 
exported ; it may be safely said, therefoi'e, that the shipments of these dur- 
ing that month exceeded fifteen thousand dollars, which would SAvell the total 
dairy and poultry shipments from this city for April to one hundred and 
twenty thousand, fiv^e hundred dollars. 

We now^ turn to the records for the year 1870. On March 2d a com- 
mittee was directed to take such steps as should be thought necessary to 
satisfy the mortgage on the City Hall property, by loan or otherwise; on the 
14th they reported that a loan could be had of Mrs, E. A. Hunter by paying 
one-and-a-quarter per cent, per month inteiest for eight months, in advance, 
amounting to one hundred and forty-eight dollars, leaving the sum of one 
thousand dollars due on the 11th day of November, 1870, as principal only, 
and that to secure Mrs. Hunter the mortgage held by the Trustees of the 
Petaluma Lodge No. .'30, I. O. O. F., must, with the policy of insurance, be 
assigned to her. On motion the same was accepted. On April 18th the 
election for the municipal officers took place with the following result: Board 
of Trustees, Simon Conrad, President, William Zartman, Lee Ellsworth.- 
Thomas Rochford and John Fritsch; Treasurer, Andrew Henry; Marshal' 
James K. Knowles; Recorder, E. Cole; Street Commissioner, A. Johnson 
Assessor, Charles Humphries; Clerk, D. D. Carder; Attorney, F. D. Colton; 
Health Officer, J. H. Crane, M. D. Monthly reports from the Recorder were 
called for on August 21st, to contain returns of the arrests made, while 
on the same date the petition of Peter Donahue asking the Board to grant 
to the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad Company the right to run 
steam cars over the lands now occupied by the railroad grade, within and 
passing through the city of Petaluma, which was granted. September 12th, 
an ordinance regulating the police department was finally adopted and stars 


with the word " Police " directed to be procured for the force. On the 26th 
Recorder Cole resigned his office and D. D. Carder was appointed in his 
stead. A proposition of Peter Donahue to supply the city with fifteen street 
lamps, gas therefor, and light them at an expense of six dollars a month 
each, as also to furnish gas for the engine houses and City Hall free to the 
corporation, was on motion accepted on the 10th October. On the 14th, 
George Pearce was appointed City Attorney, vice F. D. Colton, who had 
removed from the city. The President was also authorized to proceed to 
Santa Posa to look after the franchise asked of the Board of Supervisors 
of the county of Sonoma by Peter Donahue to build a wharf for the rail- 
road company of which he is President, at a point below Lakeville. 

The oft-recurring matters of the railroad was at last set to rest in the 
year 1870 by the success of Peter Donahue of San Francisco in obtaining 
the controlling interest in the North Pacific Railroad Company, from John 
F. Macualey & Co., the formal transfer taking place on August 2d. Two 
steamers, the "Sacramento" and "Wilson G. Hunt," were at once purchased 
to be placed on the route between the terminus and San Francisco, while ties 
were purchased and sent forward to the scene of action; by the 27th of the 
month over a hundred men were at work on the line, and additional hands 
were being daily employed. Twenty thousand ties had already been deliv- 
ered at the terminus, as well as installments of fish-plates, bolts, and spikes, 
together with a vast amount of paraphernalia in the shape of push-cars, 
switches, tools, etc. On the 29th the formal driving of the first spike occurred, 
the hammer being wielded by Simon Conrad, President of the Board of 
Trustees, in the presence of a large and enthusiastic assemblage; in a very 
few days after the first construction train made its first trip along the track, 
for a distance of two miles above the city, while the road to Santa Rosa was 
completed in October, and a passenger car at once put on the route. On the 
completion of this line, which was but a few hundred feet short of fifteen 
miles, the Board of Supervisors examined officially the part constructed, 
accepted ten miles of it, and ordered the issuance to Mr. Donahue of county 
bonds to the amount of fifty thousand dollars. On this subject we quote 
from the Journal: " But as the act under which the subsidy was voted 
provides that bonds shall be issued on the first ten miles northward from 
Petaluma, and on every subsequent five miles, of course Mr. Donahue can 
receive at this time but fifty thousand dollars, instead of seventy-five thousand. 
As the work of extending the road from this city to Lakeville is being 
pushed with all diligence, Mr. Donahue will, in a few weeks at most, receive 
a second installment of these documents, and which, by the way, we are 
told are eagerly sought after by capitalists at ninety cents. The work on 
the road from Santa Rosa to Healdsburg, it is understood, will be completed 
at an early day during the ensuing summer. The iron for the same has been 
already secured. The bonds for the ten miles of the road already accepted, as 


above stated, were issued on Wednesday last (October 19, 1870). They are 
printed upon parchment, are fifty in number, and in substance agree, that 
the county of Sonoma will pay to the order of Peter Donahue, President of 
the San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad Company, twenty years from 
date, the sum of one thousand dollars, gold coin of the United States, with 
interest at the rate of eight per cent. Each bond has attached to it twenty 
coupons, for interest payable January first of each year, and calling for 
eighty dollars each. The bonds and coupons cover a sheet of some sixteen by 
eio-hteen inches." In the meantime the extension of the road was progress- 
ing towards Lakeville and the new town of Donahue, where the company's 
wharves had been constructed and terminus established, and tickets were 
issued for an inaugural excursion from San Francisco to Santa Rosa on the 
last day of the year 1870. when the following resolutions were presented to 
Colonel Peter Donahue : " Resolved, That the people of the State of Cali- 
foi'nia are greatly indebted to our worthy fellow-citizen. Col. Peter Donahue, 
for the energy displayed by him in the completion of a first-class railroad 
from the town of Donahue to Santa Rosa, the said road now being in perfect 
order, and having been completed in four months, traversing a portion of the 
most fertile and beautiful section of our State ; and we are specially grati- 
fied in stating that this important work has been completed with white labor, 
and upon cash principles. Resolved, That we are greatly indebted for much 
of the pleasure of our trip to J. D. Hendricks, Capt. Galloway of the steamer 
" Sacramento," Mr. Gerdes, and Capt.Robert Hayley, who, by their assiduous 
attentions, have made the excursion extremely agreeable to all. Resolved, 
That it is proper, in this connection, to refer to the services of Mr. Harris, 
the Chief Engineer, Capt. Wright, the Superintendent, Mr. Wilson, who built 
the road, and W. M. Kilduff, Chief Engineer of Navigation, whose invalua- 
ble services have enabled Mr. Donahue to successfully complete this import- 
ant work." Thus was inaugurated an enterprise the importance of which 
can hardly be estimated, both as to its benefits to State and county. 
But the munificence of Peter Donahue did not rest here ; he purchased the 
gas works, and almost his first step was to offer certain lighting facilities to 
the city, while he had become interested in other important aftairs in the 
neighboring districts. 

Let us now take a retrospective glance at Petaluma. At no period in its 
history has its growth been more rapid, or of a character so indicative of 
permanence and future prosperity, as during the past three years ; and at 
no time has real estate in and near the city commanded so large a price as 
in this year of 1870. There has been nothing ephemeral or unnatural in its 
growth. It has simply kept pace with the development of the surrounding 
country, and owes nothing to speculative excitement, or expectations that 
have not been realized. The city has been peculiarly free from the specu- 


lating mania, which has at some time prevailed, to a greater or less extent 
in nearly every Californian town of any importance, and which almost 
invariably reacts disastrously, or at least unfavorably. 

Petaluma,"*Sis has been elsewhere remarked, is surrounded by an extensive 
and exceedingly fertile agricultural region, which yields nearly every variety 
of production that grows in the temperate zone, and of which it is the 
natural outlet. Its location is such that it commands a large and constantly 
increasing trade. Nearly the whole of Sonoma, a large portion of Marin 
and Mendocino, and a considerable part of Lake counties, are, and must 
ever be in a large degree tributary to it. This region is peculiarly blessed 
as a farming country, being not only susceptible of producing an almost 
endless variety of fruit and grain, and dairy products of the first quality, 
but invariably yielding good crops when a drought prevails throughout the 
State, cutting off the yield nearly everywhere else. Owing to the dews and 
fogs that are prevalent here during the Spring and Summer months, the 
blighting influence of a dry Winter is not severely felt in this region, and 
during such seasons farmers naturally reap much larger profits than at other 
times. A considerable portion of the district above indicated is heavily 
timbered, and some of the finest and most valuable kinds of woods to be 
found west of the Rocky Mountains abounds in the forests of Sonoma 
county. The wooded district is of sufiicient extent to supply with lumber 
and fuel the wants of five hundred thousand people for many years to come. 
These extensive forests must eventually prove of vast benefit to this city. 

The trade of Petaluma, already very extensive, is steadily increasing, and 
bids fair to equal, at no distant date, that of any inland town in California. 
Wholesale and retail mercantile establishments do a large and prosperous 
business, and the figures representing the aggregated yearly sales of its 
merchants would make a showing that would be quite astonishing. The 
following are among the principal products brought here for shipment to 
San Francisco and other points : Hay, grain, fruit, potatoes, hops, butter, 
cheese, eggs, wine, hogs, sheep, cattle, poultry, wool, firewood, ships' timber, 
lumber, staves, hoop-poles and charcoal. 

Extensive manufacturing establishments have not yet been inaugurated; 
but Petaluma has many natural advantages as a manufacturing town, and 
when additional transportation facilities are supplied, by means of which 
raw material, fuel, etc., can be obtained at reduced rates, these advantages 
will undoubtedly be turned to account, and a new source of wealth and 
prosperity added. Following is a list of the mechanical and manufacturing 
establishments which obtained in 1870: Tanneries, three; potteries, one; 
marble works, one; undertaker, one; sash and blind factory, one; foundry 
and machine shop, one ; flouring mills, two ; blacksmith and wagon-making 
shops, eleven; carpenter shops, six; tin shops, three; gunsmith, one; boot 
and shoe shops, ten; glove factory, one; tailor shops, four; cabinet-maker, 


one ; candy factory, one ; manufactories of ploughs, cultivators, and other 
agricultural implements, two; cooper shops, one. At this epoch there were 
seven large and commodious hotels, and three restaurants and bakeries, 
besides several boarding houses; dry goods stores, nine ; grocery stores, ten ; 
furniture stores, four; hardware stores, four ; paint and oil stores, two ; drug 
stores, two ; banks, two ; book, stationery and variety stores, live ; saddle 
and harness shops, three; clock and jewelry stores, three; millinery and 
dross-making shops, seven ; tobacco stores, four ; warehouses, twelve ; whole- 
sale liquor store, one ; photograph galleries, two ; breweries, two ; lumber 
yards, three; livery stables, seven; paint shops, four; drinking and billiard 
saloons, twenty-seven ; meat markets, four ; insurance agencies, ten ; one 
printing office, postoffice, telegraph office, and express office. The following 
represents the number of persons engaged in various professional pursuits : 
Physicians, ten; school teachers, eighteen ; music teachers, six; clergymen, 
seven ; lawyers, eight ; dentists, three ; surveyors, two. Of capitalists, 
speculators, real estate agents, etc., Petaluma has its full complement. 

Not enumerated in the above are numerous places of business, of more or 
less importance, such as form a part of every prosperous town, and which in 
the aggregate transact a large amount of business annually. Among these 
are hay and feed yards, of which there are several ; game, poultry, fruit and 
vesretable stores, etc. 

The city then had four public school buildings, in which school was main- 
tained ten months in the year, and nine teachers employed; and five private 
.schools and seminaries, giving occupation to nine teachers; there were also 
several teachers engaged exclusively in giving instruction in music, drawing, 
painting, and kindred branches. Not less than six hundred pupils attended 
the public schools at that time. Even at this day the educational facilities 
of Petaluma are not surpassed by those of any town in the State ; these 
advantages add largely to the desireableness of the city as a place of resi- 
dence for families having children to educate ; they have attracted here a 
desirable element in the population of the community, and have heretofore 
been, as it is to be hoped they will be in the future, liberally sustained. The 
public schools are controlled by a City Board of Education. 

In 1870, each of the following religious denominations had an organiza- 
tion and church building in which service was regularly held: Methodist, 
Congregational, Episcopal, Methodist South, Baptist, Roman Catholic, and 
the African Methodist Episcopal Church. The churches at the present writ- 
ing, as they were then, are in a flourishing condition financially, and the 
membership steadily increasing. Other religious societies hold occasional 
services, but have no church buildings. There were also several other socie- 
ties and organizations of less importance than named above. The 
Mutual Beneficial Association is an institution well worthy of especial men- 
tion here. It is an association organized by citizens of Petaluma in the year 


1868, for the purpose of mutual life insurance among its members. The 
practical working of the institution fully meets the expectation of its pro- 
prietors, and it is found to be a most excellent and useful organization, secur- 
ing to its members, at small expense, the benefits of a policy of life insur- 
ance. The affairs of the association are under the control of a Board of 
twelve Directors, who are elected by the members annually ; and ai'e assisted 
by a Secretary and Treasurer, chosen by the Board. The association in 
1870 numbered upwards of eleven hundred and fifty members, and is rapidly 

The city records for 1871 inform us that on March 13th directions were 
issued to draw up an ordinance prohibiting the hanging or extending of 
signs across the sidewalk, or from the buildings towards the center of the 
street, a project which became law on the 27th. The elect'on for Municipal 
officers was held on April l7th, with the following result: Board of Trustees: 
Lee Ellsworth, President, ThomasRochford, John Fritsch, Alexander McGune, 
and H. B. Hasbrouck ; Treasurer, Andrew Henry; Marshal, J. K. Knowles; 
Recorder, D. D. Carder; Street Commissioner, W. H. Hedgey; Assessor, 
Charles Humphries; Clerk, D. D. Carder. On the 24th, T. J. Graham was 
allowed until June 1st to move the Petaluma House building back to the 
street line; on the 12th, the petition of the Sonoma County Water Company, 
for the privilege of laying pipes in the street, was received ; and, on motion, 
the right to lay such within the city of Petaluma was granted said company, 
and finally passed on the following day. In July, a petition, headed by A. 
P. Whitney, for an allowance toward the construction of a bridge across the 
creek at C street, was lost on the motion to grant the prayer of the petition- 
ers. A petition was received, October 23d, from S. D. Towne, McNear & 
Bro., and others, asking the Board to allow the San Francisco and North 
Pacific Railioad Company to extend a new depot building fourteen feet into 
Hopper street, from the north line of block eight, and contiguous to block 
lying east of block eight. They were granted the privilege of occupying 
with a depot building, one hundred and twelve feet in length, of Hopper 
street, and fourteen feet in width of block eight and contiguous block on the 
east, being the center of what is known as depot block. At this time hitch- 
ing posts and bulletin boards were permitted to be erected. 

But few occurrences of any note took place in the city during the year 

1871. A new military company had been organized under the name of the 

Emmet Guard of Petaluma, while the corner-stone of the Odd Fellows* 

Hall was laid with imposing ceremonies on the 18th of July of that year. 

On the evening of November 5th, a most terrible and unjustifiable murder 

was committed in the saloon of Brown & Sroufe. The particulars are briefly 

these: Lewis Levi, a hackman, was standing in the saloon, leaning on the 

counttr, when his assailant, Benjamin Edwards, a barber on Washington 

street, entered and, without any words being exchanged, drew a large ten- 



inch revolver and commenced beating him on the head. At the first blow 
Levi's hat was knocked oif, and on the second or third his skull was fractured 
and he reeled to the floor. The work was done so quickly that those stand- 
ing in the saloon were not aware that a fight was in progress — several 
thinking it merely a friendly scuftie. Levi had been a resident of Petaluma 
for many years and bore the reputation of being a quiet, inoffensive man; 
his assailant, too, had lived in the city ever since his boyhood, and it is 
believed was incited to commit the bloody deed to appease the whim of a 
courtezan with whom he was living, she having become oftended at Levi for 
his refusing her permission to ride in his carriage. 

We have now completed the first twenty years of Petaluma's history, since 
which time nothing of very great interest has occurred to cause her to devi- 
ate from the even tenor of her prosperous way. These remarks will tliere- 
fore be brought to a conclusion by following up to the present year the 
records of the Board of Trustees, in order that a full list of the municipal 
officers and some of their doings may be preserved in a handy form. In 
1872, the election of officers took place on April loth, when were chosen: H. 
B. Hasbrouck, President, William Zartman, Thomas Rochford, C. Poehl- 
man, and A. McGuire, Boai-d of Trustees; Treasurer, Andrew Henry; Mar- 
shal, J. K. Knowles; Recorder, D. D. Carder; Street Commissioner, William 
Richardson; Assessor, Charles Humphries; Clerk, D. D. Carder. June 24th, 
it was reported to the Board that a site had been purchased for a ho.'^pital 
from W. J. Smith, and on July 29th Messrs. Rochford and Poehlman were 
appointed Water Commissioners. William Richardson, Street Commissioner, 
resigned on November 25th and was succeeded by Michael Stoddart. De- 
cember 9th, the President was authorized to appoint a special policeinau at 
the request of each church congregation in the city, who shall regularly 
qualify as such, and be on duty only during the hours of divine service of 
their respective congregations, and who shall receive no emolument from 
the funds of the corporation. At this date the question of a steam fire- 
engine was first mooted, when one was ordered to be contracted for. 

On January 27, 1873, an ordinance granting to the Citizen Gas Company 
the right to lay pipes in the city, was passed. March 24th, it was determined 
to bring suit against the county if the Board of Supervisors refuse to set 
aside sixty per cent of the amount of property road fund collected within 
Road District included in the corporate limits of Petaluma city. At the 
election held on April 21st, for the choice of a corporation, tlie following 
gentlemen were delegated to fill the municipal offices: Board of Trustees, 
Thomas Rochford, President, C. Poehlman, A. McGuire, L. Ellsworth, and 
William Zartman; Marshal, J. K. Knowles; Treasurer, Andrew Henry; 
Recoi-der, J. Cavanagh ; Assessor, C. Humphries ; Street Commissioner, 
Michael Stoddart; Clerk. D. D. Carder. On May 12th, the special commit- 
tee appointed to confer with the Board of Supervisors respecting the road 


fund claimed by the city, reported that they had withdrawn the claim of the 
city to said fund, with the understanding that it was to be expended by the 
Board of Supervisors, within the township of Petaluma, upon the petition of 
the Board of Trustees and others in any manner devised by them. On the 
same date, the consent of a majority of the Trustees was requested by and 
given to the Board of Education to purchase the MofFet property on D 
street for high school purposes. On May 12th, we note the appointment of 
E. S. Lippitt to the post of City Attorney, and, on October 27th, the San 
Francisco and North Pacific Telegraph Company were authorized to erect 
poles within the city hmits, while on petition of certain residents, presented 
November 12th, the sum of one thousand two hundred and fifty dollars was 
appropriated towards the purchase of the block of ground between D and E 
and Third and Fourth streets, for a public plaza. 

In 1874, February 24th, it was resolved to have the City Charter amended 
so as to be able to establish fire limits, and on March 23d it was decided that 
the Senator and Assemblyman in the Legislature be asked to use their 
united eftbrts towards the passage of a bill exempting all firemen within the 
county of Sonoma, either active or exempt, from the payment of the State 
poll-tax. On April 20th, the following municipal authorities were elected: 
Board of Trustees, Lee Ellsworth, President; William Zartman, H. T. Fair- 
banks, A. McGuire, and Kelly Tighe; Clerk, D. D. Carder; Marshal, James 
K. Knowles; Treasurer, Andrew Henry; Recorder, John Cavanagh ; Assessor, 
Charles Humphries; Street Commissioner, Michael Stoddart; Attorney, E. 
S. Lippitt. The ordinance establishing fire limits was passed on May 25th' 
while, on July 3d, the bonds and title deeds, presented by the officers 
of the Sonoma and Marin Agricultural Society, were accepted and 
directed to be filed in the office of the Recorder of Sonoma County ; on the 
13th, Trustee A. McGuire presented a protest against the action of the 
Board respecting the matter of the transfer of the Sonoma and Marin Agri- 
cultural Society's property to the city and the issuance of five thousand 
dollar bonds of the city of Petaluma to said society ; and requested that the 
same be recorded upon the minutes of the Board of Trustees. On August 
10th, the ordinance fixing the Recorder's salary was repealed. 

In 1875, February 8th, President Ellsworth, to whom had been referred 
the matter of the settlement of the State, county, and special road tax upon 
the Agricultural park ground, reported that the Board of Supervisors had 
remitted the county portion of said tax; that he had paid the State 
portion, as also the special road tax. On 19th of April, the following city 
officers were elected : Board of Trustees, H. T. Fairbanks, President ; Kelly 
Tighe, J. C. Wickersham, Charles Lynch, and A. McGuire ; Marshal, J. K. 
Knowles ; Treasurer, Andrew Henry ; Assessor, John P. Rodgers ; Recorder, 
John Cavanagh ; Street Commissioner, Michael Stoddart ; Clerk, D. D. 
Carder; Attorney, E. S. Lippitt. On April 26th, the following minute 


occurs : " The petition of H. Mecham and others, asking the Board of City 
Trustees to deed the Agricultural Park property back to the Sonoma and 
Marin A'^ricultural Society, read. On motion of Trustee Zartman the rule 
was suspended and the petition taken up for consideration. Trustee Zartman 
moved that the prayer of petitioners be complied with, and that the city of Peta- 
luma, by its President, execute a deed of the Agricultural Park property to 
the Directors of the Sonoma and Marin District Agricultural Society, which 
motion was seconded by Trustee Tighe. After discussion the motion was 
put by the President, and resulted in the following vote : Messrs. Ellsworth, 
Zartman and Tighe voted in favor of the motion ; Trustee Fairbanks voted 
against the motion, and desired that his protest against the act of a majority 
of the Trustees be entered upon the minutes. Trustee Zartman moved that 
the bond given in behalf of the Sonoma and Marin Agricultural Society to 
the city of Petaluma, for ten vhousand dollars, dated June 8, 1874, be can- 
celled, which motion was seconded by Trustee Tighe. The motion was put 
by the President, and resulted in the following vote ; Messrs. Ellsworth, 
Zartman and Tighe voted in favor of the motion ; Mr. Fairbanks voted 
against the action of a majority of the Trustees herein." On July 26th a 
petition to relight the city at night with gas was indefinitely postponed. 

On April 17, 1876, the annual election of city officers was held, with the 
accompanying result : Board of Trustees, J. C. Wickersham, President ; 
Charles Lynch, C. A. Walker, L. G. Nay, and H. T. Fairbanks; Clerk, D. 
D. Carder ; Marshal, Julius Blume ; Treasurer, Andrew Henry ; Recordei', 
D. D. Carder; Assessor, Charles Humphries; Attorney, E. S. Lippitt. It 
would appear that W. B. Haskell had been elected to the office of City Clerk, 
but he resigned at once, as did also Trustee Fairbanks on May 8th ; and the 
salary of the Clerk was declared to be five hundred dollars a year, with per- 
quisites. On May 22d, the ordinance relative to the tagging of dogs was 
adopted; while, on Sentember 11th, we have the accompanying minute; 
" The following resolution was offered by L. G. Nay : Whereas, The Trus- 
tees requested D. D. Carder, Clerk, to resign, and he declined to do so, I 
therefore move that the office of City Clerk be declared vacant ; the resolu- 
tion was seconded by James Armstrong, and carried unanimously." On 
this occurring, E. H. Long was put in nomination for the office, and, 
having received a majority of the votes, was declared duly elected. Novem- 
ber 27th, the petition of L G. Wickersham, President of the Sonoma and 
Marin Railroad Company, was read, asking for right of way to extend their 
road from the .south side of B. street, northerly, across and along any street, 
alley, or property of the city of Petaluma, easterly of Main and westerly of 
Hopper streets, to the northern limits of the county, was granted. The 
Board of Trustee.s, on 26th December, declared their intention to widen street, from Main to Howard, to a width of seventy feet, and that to 
effect this it w^as necessary to take certain private property, which is 


enumerated, as also certain lots, which will be benefitted by the chano-e, and 
should bear the expense of the work. 

February 12, 1877, the resignation of E. H. Long was presented and 
accepted, and W. E. Cox appointed in his stead, when the election of city 
officers was appointed to take place on the 16th. On the retirement of the 
Board then. in office, the following tribute was paid and filed: "Resolved, 
That this Board tender to Jesse C. Wickersham a vote of thanks for his 
courteous and gentlemanly bearing toward his fellow members, and his faith- 
fulness in the discharge of the duties of that position. Resolved, That we 
recognize and acknoAvledge him unbiased in all his decisions as a presiding 
officer, ever watchful of the true interests of the city, always bearing in mind 
that it had no enemies to punish, nor any friends to reward. Resolved, That 
these miutes be placed upon the Board as a testimony of respect to our retir- 
ing President." The officers for the year 1877 were: Board of Trustees, 
M. Doyle, M. Walsh, James K. Knowles, L. G. Nay, President, and C. A. 
Walker; Marshal, Julius Blume; Treasurer, Andrew Henry; Recorder, F. 
W. Shattuck; Assessor, Charles Humphries; Clerk, W. E. Cox. On June 
11th, a committee was appointed to consult with J. H. McNear on the 
matter of furnishing lots in Cypress Hill Cemetery for the burial of paupere, 
and what inducements he would offer to those havinor lots in the old ceme- 
tary to remove the bones of their friends to Cypress Hill. 

The corporation for the year 1878, consisted of: Board of Truste'es, J. M. 
Charles, J. M. Lightner, L. E. Brooke, M. Doyle, President, and M. Walsh; 
Marshal, Julius Blume; Treasurer, Andrew Henry; Recorder, R. J. Preston; 
Assessor, Charles Humphries; Clerk, W. E. Cox. A committee was 
appointed on May 27th, to confer with an engineer in the matter of laying 
out the city in a system of sewerage, while, at that time it was likewise 
ordered that the gas company furnish gas for the street lamps situated at 
the Washington street bridge, the lighting to commence on June 1st. On 
the 10th it was notified that the water company had refused to provide 
water in a trough at the junction of Main and Third streets, for the benefit 
of the public. On June loth, a Board of Health was established, and on the 
24th, Dr. J. H. Crane was elected President, with Dr. J. B. Christie as 
Secretary and Health Officer. On August 12th, a committee from the Odd 
Fellows' Library Association tendered their library to the city, the same to 
be kept up by them and run as a free library. On motion of M. Walsh 
seconded by J. M. Lightner, it was ordered that the city of Petaluma accept 
the offer of the Odd Fellows' Library Association, and establish a free 
library under the provisions of the statutes, and that the Board appoint five 
Trustees on behalf of this city to act for said library. December 23d, two 
Trustees having been absent for a longer period than ninety days, L. G. Nay 
and H. T. Fairbanks were elected to fill the vacancies caused by J. M. 
Charles and L. E. Brooke. 


In 1879, January 27th, it was directed that all officers who make arrests 
be notitied that entries be made in the Police Court Blotter, in ink ; while on 
10th February, regulations in regard to pay and fees of Police Department 
of the city were issued. On April 21st, the following officers who, at the 
present writing, still retain their posts were elected : Board of Trustees, M. 
Walsh, John Bauer, H. T. Fairbanks, President, L. G. Na}., and J. M. Light- 
ner; Marshal, Julius Blume; Treasurer, Andrew Henry; Recorder, R. J. 
Preston; Assessor, Charles Humphries; Clerk, W. E. Cox. 

Let us now draw this already too lengthy history to ar close. 

To one who has never visited the town before Petaluma presents many 
points of interest. ' Although remote from the mining regions and from the 
line of travel between the mountains and the bay, the name of Petaluma 
became familiar to the ears of California adventurers and settlers, as has 
been shoMm, nearly thirty years ago. The agricultural advantages of the 
location were discernable to the sharp-sighted even at that early day of tur- 
moil and excitement. Its growth was, however, slow until the gold fever 
had partially died out. Of late years the growth and advancement of the 
place has been steady and rapid. Petaluma now contains nearly six thou- 
sand inhabitants. The cieek is navigable for small craft up to the business 
portion of the town, and for larger steamers and sailing vessels to points 
within two or three miles of it. Railroads connecting with the San Fran- 
cisco steamers run into the city, and one extends up the valley to Siinta 
Rosa, Healdsburg and Cloverdale. These business facilities show their results 
in the city. There are many large and substantial stone and brick ware- 
houses to be seen, which serve as the depositories of grain, hay, and general 
mer(-handise. Many of the stores and other buildings are built of brick, 
while neat and attractive frame cottages and adorn the slop- 
ing hillsides on the margin of the town. Activity in mechanical branches 
of business and merchandise tells plainly that an extensive area of country 
to the north and west is furnished with supplies from this point. Aside 
from the results of enterprise and energy, the natui'al scenery of the location 
is such that the eye, or the cultivated taste of the artist is ^not required for 
an appreciation of its beauty. Located on the western-bordei' of a level val- 
ley, from two to three miles wide, a portion of the town rests upon adjoin- 
ing hills, which ascend so gradually as to be easy of access, but so high as 
to command an admirable view of the surrounding country. On the east 
of the valley the Sonoma range of mountains looms up in grandeur, its 
summit at a distance of nine or ten miles, and the nearest foot-hills at from 
two to three miles. On the south is another range of hills running nearly 
east and west, less grand and imposing than the Sonoma range, but more 
subdued and beautiful. These hills ascend so gradually that nearly their 
entire surface is susceptible of cultivation, and nurnei-ous fine farm-houses, 
surrounded by orchards and vineyards, are discernable within a mile or two 


of town. In the ^Sacramento or San Joaquin valleys the inhabitant, year 
after year, contemplates from day to day the Sierras on the east, or the coast 
range on the west, but regards them as objects remote and disconnected from 
himself and his home. The hills which surround Petaluma are ever present 
and always attractive to the eye, and the spectator must soon acquire a per- 
sonal interest in every tree, ravine, or sloping bank which adds to their 

"Day after day the mellow sun slides o'er, 

Night after night the mellow moon. The clouda 

Are laid, enchanted; soft and bare, the heavens 

Fold to their breast the dozing Earth, that lies 

In languor of deep bliss. At times, a breath, 

Remnant of gales far off, forgotten now, 

Rustles the never-fading leaves, then drojos 

Affrighted into silence. Near a slough 

Of dark, still water, in the early morn 

The shy coyotas prowl, or trooping elk 

From the close covert of the bulrush fields 

Their dewy antlers toss; nor other sight. 

Save when the falcon, poised on wheeling wings, 

His bright eye on the burrowing covey, cuts 

His arrowy plunge." 

Thus we had it in 1851 — in 1879 the change has to be seen to be properly 

Methodist Episcopal Church, Petalmna. — The Methodist Episcopal church 
was the first to organize and erect a church edifice in Petaluma. The history 
of the organization is as follows : The first Protestant services ever had in 
Sonoma county were held at Sonoma in the Fall of 1849, by the Rev. A. J. 
Heustis, a Methodist preacher from Wisconsin. In 1851 Rev. Isaac Owen 
organized that region north of the Bay of San Francisco, including Contra 
Costa, Solano, Napa, Lake, Sonoma, and Marin counties, into a circuit, and 
Rev. S. D. Simondo was placed in charge. This circuit comprised ten 
appointments, viz.: Martinez, Benicia, Suisun, Vallejo, Napa City, Harbin's, 
Kelloer^'s, Sonoma, Bodega, and Russian River, and to go once around it 
required over two hundred miles of travel. On Friday, May 2, 1851, the 
first camp-meeting ever held in California was begun about one mile from 
the town of Sonoma. 

Rev. S. D. Simonds was succeeded on this circuit by Rev. James Corwin, 
Rev. Alexander McLean, and Rev. J. R. Tansey. 

In 1853, Bodega circuit was set off from the original large territory men- 
tioned above. Bodega circuit included Petaluma, all the Bodega country, 
Russian River, Anderson and Big River valleys. Rev. A. L. S. Bateman 
was placed in charge. In February, 1854, Bodega circuit ceased to exist, 
and out of it were formed Marin mission (which included Petaluma) and the 
Russian River circuit. Rev. J. Speck was in charge of the Marin mission. 
In August, 1855, a church was organized at Petaluma and a building erected 


shortly after, which is still standing on Fourth street and is used as an 
en»Tine liouse. In 1858 Petaluma was discontinued from the circuit and 
became a station. From the organization of the church to the present time 
the pastorates have been as follows : Revs. James Hunter, two years ; W. 
J. Maclay, two years; D. A. Dryden, one year; J. McH. Caldwell, one year; 
J. W. Stump, two years; I. M. Leihy, one year; E. S. Lippitt, two years; 
Wesley Peck, one year; R. W. Williamson, two years; W. S. Turner, two 
years; J. L. Trefren, two years; A. J. Nelson, two years; George Clifford, 
three years; E. R. Dille, one year (the present pastor), which brings the 
record up to 1879. 

The church has now the largest membership, two hundred, of any Prot- 
estant place of worship in the city, while it has a Sunday School with an 
enrollment of about two hundred, and an average attendance of one hundied 
and fifty. 

The church building, on the northwest corner of Keller street and Western 
avenue, was begun in 18G5, and finished in 1874, during the pastorate of the 
Rev. A. J. Nelson. It is of brick, gothic in style of architecture, is eighty- 
five by fifty-six feet in dimensions, and thirty-five feet from floor to ceiling. 
It is handsomely finished and furnished, and is lighted with gas, by means of 
two large sun burners. It has gallery, orchestra and class-rooms. The 
building was erected at a cost of eighteen thousand dollars, and the trustees 
are William Zartman, D. G. Heald, J. H. Ranard, R. Haskins, D. S. Dickson, 
J. Harmon, J. F. Howard and H. T. Fairbanks. 

The First Baptist Church, Petaluma. — On Sabbath, the l7th day of 
July, 1853, in Bodega, Sonoma count}'-, upon a call made by Rev. A. A. 
Guernsey, the following brethren and sisters presented themselves for the 
purpose of being organized into a Baptist Church : John C. Hughes, Jane 
Hughes, Worham Easley, Elizabeth A. Easley, Ari Hopper, Susannah Hopper. 
The Church was duly organized as the First Baptist Church of Bodega. 
Rev. A. A. Guernsey was elected Pastor, and Worham Easley, Clerk. 
Articles of Faith and Practice were adopted. 

The next meeting was held August 14, 1853, when it was voted to hold 
meetings at such places as may be from time to time designated. 

The Church held its regular monthly meetings at Bodega until the second 
Saturday in October, 1853, when it was voted to adjourn, to meet in Peta- 
luma. The meetings were continued in Petaluma statedly. On the Saturday 
before the first Sabbath in November, 1854, the Church, by vote, changed 
the name from the First Baptist Church of Bodega to the First Baptist 
Church of Petaluma. John C. Hughes and Worham ' Easley had been 
elected deacons September 10, 1853, and served as such since. Several 
new members had been received since its organization, so that the constituent 
members of the First Baptist Church of Petaluma were as follows : — 
Rev. A. A. Guernsey, Pastor; John C. Hughes, Deacon; Worham Easley, 

,_yzt^ ^^-^^^^^ 


Deacon and Clerk. Members: Rev. A. A. Guernse3^ John C. Hughes, Jane 
Hughes, Worham Easley, Elizabeth A. Easley, Ari Hopper, Susannah Hopper, 
Hannah Clymer, Susannah Lindsley, Margaret Corrothers, William Conley, 
Elizabeth Conley, Sarah Heald, Flemming Spencer, Nancy C. Renarde, 
Rachael G. Randolph, Israel T. Duval, Michael Barnes, Margaret A. Corro- 
thers, Elizabeth Hootin, Mary A. Thompson. In February, 1855, a move- 
ment was set on foot to secure a suitable lot and procure funds to erect a 
meeting-house. In March, 1855, a corporation by the name of the Baptist 
Church and Society was formed, with James Hogal, William Conley and 
Mr. Mathews as Trustees, Flemming Spencer, Clerk, and Deacon Michael 
Barnes, Treasurer. During the year 1857, a chui-ch edifice, forty by sixty 
feet, was completed, with a seating capacity of about four hundred- 
The same edifice, with some improvements, remains to the present time- 
The Rev. A. A. Guernsey remained pastor until August 1, 1857, when his 
resignation was accepted. During his pastorate, one hundred and seven 
members were added to the church, including the constituent members* 
During the pastorate of Rev. A. A. Guernsey, very successful protracted 
meetings were held at the Liberty school house, and camp meetings near 
Stony Point, wdiere large accessions were made to the church by them. The 
church was without a pastor until November 14, 1859, when C. W. Rees was 
elected. He remained pastor until March 9, 1861. Seventeen members 
were received during his pastorate. Rev. H. Richardson supplied the church 
for six months from August 3, 1861. Rev. J. A. Davidson served the church 
as pastor from April 2, 18G4, to February 11, 1865. Rev. B. S. McLafferty 
was elected pastor and commenced his labors the first of January, 1866, and 
continued until January 1, 1869. This was an era of pro.sperity to the 
church. One hundred and fourteen members were added to the church. 
Rev. James D.P. Hungate served as pastoral supply from February 11,1869, 
to August 1, 1869. Rev. J. W. Johnson was pastor from October 6, 1869, to 
October, 1871. There were fifteen additions to the church during the pas- 
torate of Mr. Johnson. Rev. J. H. Ruby was supply from December 10, 
1871, for about a year. The church depended upon supplies from this date 
until 1877, and was very much reduced in membership and discouraged in 
consequence. Rev. A. Hitchcock served as pastor from January 6, 1877. to 
November 30, 1878. During the labors of Rev. A. Hitchcock, a troublesome 
debt of several hundred dollars was paid, through the indefatigable labors of 
Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock and the church. Rev. Winfield Scott commenced 
his labors as pastor March 1, 1879, and is pastor at the present time. There 
have been twenty-three additions to the church since March 1st, and the 
church is prompt in meeting all of its financial obligations. Its present 
membership is seventy. It sustains a Sunday School, and is prospering. 
It has a good church edifice, which has been recently repaired and refurnish- 
ed, and is wholly out of debt. 


Rev. Wmfield Scott was born February 2G, 1837, in Novi, Oakland county, 
Michicran. He was the son of James B. Scott, a farmer. In 1845, he 
moved with his father's family to Ovid, Seneca county. New York. He 
entered the University of Rochester, New York, in 1855, and graduated 
from this institution in the class of 1859. He graduated from the Rochester 
Theological Seminary July 11, 18G1. On the day of his graduation he was 
united in marriage to Helen L. Brown, of Spencerport, New York. Miss 
Brown was a talented, highly educated young lady, who had been teaching 
for some time in a ladies' seminary in Buffalo, New Yijrk. Soon after 
graduation he accepted the pastorate of the Second Baptist Church, Syracuse, 
New York, where he remained one year. Under the first call of President 
Lincoln for three hundred thousand troops he went to Seneca county among his 
his friends, and in seven days' time enlisted a maximum company lor the one 
hundred-and twenty -sixth regiment N. Y. V. I. Was mustered as Captain with 
his company in the United States Army, 9, 1802. His church man- 
ufactured for and presented to him a beautiful sword, with the following 
inscription wrought into the blade: "Presented by the Baptist Church, 
Syracuse, to their Pastor, Winfield Scott," which Mr. Scott carried through 
the war aud still possesess. He was severely wounded in the battle of Harper's 
Ferry, September 12, 18G2, was taken prisoner and paroled. He returned 
to his regiment January 3, 1863, and did duty on crutches for several 
mouths. He was appointed Assistant Provost Mai'shal of Abercrombie's 
Division, wiih headquarters at Centerville, Vermont, and remained until the 
Army ol" the Pot(^mac went to Gettysburg. In the battle of Gettysburg he 
was slightly wounded twice, and came out of the battle in command of his 
regiment. He commanded the one hundred and twenty-sixth regiment in 
several battles during the year 1863, and through the battles of the Wilder- 
ness, Po river, Todd's Tavern, Spotsylvania, in 1864. On the charge of 
May 12, 1864, of General Hancock's corp,s, he was struck in the breast over 
the heart, by a musket-ball, the force of which was spent on a handkerchief 
and testament in his side pocket. On the 18th of May following, while 
charging a battery he was struck by a shell and lost his right thigh. On 
account of this he was discharged at Anapolis, Maryland, in October, by 
order of the Secretary of War, special orders No. 265. He immediately 
returned to the Theological Seminary, and remained there till January 
1, 1865, when he went to Leavenworth, Kansas, as pastor of the Baptist 
Church. He remained there for six years, building a beautiful 
church edifice, at a cost of sixty-five thousand dollars, and gathered a large 
and flourishing church. He accepted the pastorate of the church in 
Denver, Colorado, January 1871, and was elected Chaplain of the Upper 
House of the Colorado Legislature in January 1871. He remained in 
Denver four years, gathering a large church and building the chapel to 
a church at a cost of sixteen thousand dollars. He came to California 


in October, 1875, aad soon after became the editor of the Evangel, 
the denominational paper of the Baptists. During the year 1877, he was 
pastor of the church of Los Angeles, California. In the Fall of 1878, was 
associate pastor with Rev. I. S. Kalloch, D. D., of the Metropolitan Temple, 
San Francisco, and by mutual agreement came to Petaluma in February, to 
take charge of the Baptist Church that had been closed for a year. He is 
noAV forty-two years of age, in the prime and strength of life, and full of 
heart, hope and good will. His wife has proven a true help-mate, a prudent 
and Avise counsellor, ever entering heartily into sympathy with him in his 
life work. He has two children living— two daughters — one aged fourteen 
and one eleven. He has buried two younger children, one in Denver and 
one in Southern California. 

The Bell in the Baptist Church at Petaluma. — The bell which hangs in 
the steeple of the Baptist church of Petaluma has a remarkable history; a 
history which will within a century make it as famous in California as the 
old Liberty Bell of Philadelphia. It is a pure metal bell manufactured by 
Hopper & Company of Boston, Mass., and weighs about eleven hundred and 
fifty pounds. It is tlie identical bell owned and used by the famous Vigilance 
Committee in the historic days of 1856. It was then rung by the Committee 
when William T. Coleman was its President. Those were days that tried 
the souls of San Francisco's best men ; and days that tried the necks of San 
Francisco's worst men. At its faithful and significant call, the watchful 
servants of the people's interest gathered for council and for war. It sounded 
in its solemn toll the death knell of many a rascal and villain. Its 
silvery tones proclaimed peace and victory to th ; uprigh. and good, and 
struck terror to the hearts of the vicious, Vn lawless and bad. In 1858 the 
citizens of Petaluma, without regard to church, raised a fund to purchase a 
bell to be placed in the Baptist church, for the benefit of the church and the 
accommodation of the town. A committee of citizens went to San Fran- 
cisco and purchased the old Vigilance Committee bell of Conroy & O'Conner, 
paying five hundred and fifty dollars therefor. It was accounted one of the 
sweetest sounding bells in the whole country. When rung, it could be 
heard with distinctness from eight to ten miles. It was used by the citizens 
for a long while as a time bell and was rung at six in the morning, twelve 
noon ' and six in the evening. During the great excitement of the war 
of the rebellion, it was rung frequently when victory crowned the armies 
of the Union. This became — as was natural — a source of annoyance to 
many who sympathized with the South, and especially those who had 
paid liberally towards its purchase. Accordingly in 1864, everything was 
made ready and early one morning the historic and annoying old bell came 
down from the steeple and was conveyed quietly by a back street to a public 
warehouse, where strict orders were given not to allow any one to take it. 
This aroused the ire of the opposing party, and preparations were made for 


its recapture. The following day about forty, among them many of the 
leading business men, went at midday and took possession of the bell, and 
hoisting above it the American flag, it was taken through the main street 
and replaced in the church again where its silvery tones rung out loud and 
long and clear. The American flag Avas placed upon the steeple above it. 
Soon after, at the midnight hour, the old bell (as one party declares) sounded 
once, and its silvery tones were forever silenced. In the morning it was 
found that it had been broken. The other party say they "reckon" that 
the continual jubilee ringing was too much for it, and so it was shamefully 
broken. Ever since, the old broken bell has thugged away in the steeple, 
reminding the old residents by its dead tones of its significant history, and 
awakening the wonder of the new-comer why such an old cracked insti- 
tution is tolerated in such an enterprising town. Arrangements are being 
made by the Pastor of the church to dispose of it or have it recast. It 
really should be kept as a souvenir in the Pioneer Society of the State, for 
about it will gather in years to come historic memories and reminiscences 
that will be priceless in history. Who will see that it is secured and pre- 
served ? 

Methodist Church, South. — This church, which is situated on the south- 
east corner of Liberty street and Western avenue, Petaluma, was the out- 
growth of the labors of Samuel Brown, who came to this city by direction 
of the Pacific Conference, commenced preaching in the Fall of 1859, and 
finally established a church under the rules and regulations of the above- 
named body. The organization was represented by about twenty-five mem- 
bers, who held their firsii services in the Baptist church and McCune's Hall 
until the present edifice was erected in the year 1860. This structure is forty 
by sixty feet, built of brick, and has a seating capacity of two hundred and 
fifty. As has been remarked, Samuel Brown was the pastor from the Fall 
of 1859; these duties he continued until 185G, when he was succeeded by Rev. 
Joseph Emory for one year; Rev. J. C. Simmonds, 1883-4-5; Rev. A. P. 
Anderson, 1866; Rev. W. F. Compton, 1867; Rev. J. Alsanson, 1868; Rev. 
Samuel Brown, 1869; Rev. George Sim, 1870; Rev. B. F.Biirris, 1871; Rev. 
— Mason, 1872; Rev. — Howell, 1873; Rev. S. W. Davis, 1874; Rev. 
J. K. P. Price, 1875-6; Rev. P. F. Page, 1877; Rev. R. F. Allen, 1878-9. 
The Church Trustees are: J. A. Pay ton, A. F. Bradley, M. H. Falkner, 
Samuel Jennison, F. W. Shattuck, J. M. Preston; Stewards: J. A. Pay ton, 
A. F. Bradley, M, H. Falkner, Samuel Jennison, Samuel Robberts, and J. 
M. Preston. The present membership of the church is seventy-eight, and the 
average attendance at Sunday-school is fifty-five, J. M. Preston being the 
Superintendent thereof. 

St. John's Episcopal Church. — The lot on which this church stands was 
purchased by I. G. Wickersham and D. D. Carder on June 9, 1858, for the 
sum of two hundred dollars, and the building was therefore immediately 


proceeded with. The church is gothic in its style of architecture, with a 
seating capacity of from three to four hundred. The interests of the parish 
of St John were first entrusted to Rev. G. B. Taylor, who after a time was 
succeeded by the Rev. Mr. Smeathrnan, the vestry being at that period com- 
posed of Messrs. Huie, Wickersham, Carder, "Weston, Sprague, Sweetland 
and Cooper. Messrs. Carder, Cooper, Sprague and Wickersham being nom- 
inated Treasurer, Secretary, and Wardens respectively. On January 29, 
1860, the church was declared ready for consecration, which was duly done 
by the Right Reverend W. Ingraham Kip, Bishop of the Diocese of Califor- 
nia, before a large congregation. On July 15, 1860, the time for which the 
Rev. Mr. Smeathrnan had been engaged having lapsed, a successor was 
desired to take his place. One was found in the person of the Rev. Mr. 
Jackson, who was inducted to the pulpit of St. John's on September 23, 1861. 
On November 10, 1863, Rev. David J. Lee became Rector of the parish: he 
resigned, April 14, 1864, when Rev. George Whipple, a brother of the dis- 
tinguished Bishop of that name, occupied the pulpit temporarily. On 
December 18, 1865, it was resolved to call the Rev. George H. Jenks to the 
parish ; he remained until January, 1874, when the pulpit was filled from 
Sunday to Sunday till August 30th of that year, when the Rev. Thomas 
Smith entered upon the duties, which he resigned on July 9, 1876, and was 
succeeded by Rev. George B. Allen, the present Rector, in the month of 
November of the same year. 

The Public Schools of Petaluma. — The people of Petaluma are noted 
for their interest in the cause of public education. Several private educa- 
tional institutions have been started at various times, with well trained 
instructors and extensive advantages, offering splendid opportunities for 
education. But the people have uniformly turned to the public institutions 
with their patronage, and for the education of their children, until now 
there is left, with the exception of the excellent school of the Sisters of 
Mercy, and of Miss Martin, which draw much of their patronage from the 
country, and average together not more than seventy or eighty pupils, none 
but the public institutions of learning. The history of these we shall essay 
to give in this short chapter. In so doing, we labor under some disadvantage 
for in one of the great fires of Petaluma were destroyed all the records of 
the Board of Education, containing the data so valuable in compiling facts 
in relation to schools. We have, however, been aided by the memory of 
some of Petaluma's citizens, in acquiring what data we are able here to 

The first public school was opened in a little wooden, one-room school- 
house, located on the site of the splendid edifice now occupied by the Gram- 
mar Department. 

Among its early teachers was A. B. Bowers, well known to all old residents 
of the county, as the Sonoma county map man. 


This small house, surrounded by a palmg fence, dusty and uneven streets, 
and unattractive grounds, could not long serve the purpose of the then 
rapidly growing town. It was enlarged several times, to meet the wants of 
the city, until in 1857 or 1858, it became patent to all that some better and 
more appropriate accommodation must be made for the constantly increas- 
inc number of pupils. At an election held for the purpose, a tax was voted 
to build a new school-house. 

Dr. Samuel Brown, George B. Williams and W. L. Van Doren were then 
trustees of the school district which included much of the adjacent country^ 
extendino- from San Antonio Creek to some distance east, west and north of 
town, and taking in the present districts of San Antonio and IVlarin, and 
portion of Bliss, Payran and Walker. 

These gentlemen concluded that the better way to construct a school 
buildino- for a growing city like Petaluma was to, in their plans, foreshadow 
some of the future wants of the department. They accordingly began the 
erection of a building which was destined to exceed in cost the amount 
voted by the people. 

The wisdom of this act has been amply attested to by the subsequent 
growth of the schools. But the people of the district at that time were not 
posvsessed of sanguine faith in the prophetic visions of the worthy Board of 
Trustees, and when Messrs. Brown, Williams and Van Doren were compelled 
to pay the additional cost of some eight or nine hundred dollars, they, with 
an illiberality that has never since marked their interest in public education 
and that leaves the only blot upon the historj'- of education in the fair city, 
refused to vote an additional appropriation to reimburse the members of the 

The regard and gratitude of the people, for this act of these early friends 
of education, have been manifested in a touching manner since. In the 
cemetery at Cypress Hill stands a marble shaft, erected to Dr. Brown, on 
which is inscribed, " The Children's Friend." This beautiful tribute to the 
worthy man whose whole life was marked with noble interest in the educa- 
tion of youth, was erected by the children themselves, by ten cent subscrip- 
tions, and it speaks more than words the feelings which the self-sacrifice of 
those gentlemen aroused in the people of the city. 

As I have said before, the increase in pupils was destined to fill even 
this building, and not many years elapsed after its erection in 1859 until 
it became too small indeed to accommodate the increase. Three one-class 
primary school buildings were erected in the suburbs of the city to accom- 
modate the primary pupils, and the city was divided into four districts for 
those who attended the primary grades. In 1870 the main brick building 
was altered from a six to a seven-class building, and in 1872 to an eight-class 

In 1873 the Board of Education purchased for a high school the handsome 


Gothic edifice erected by Prof. E. S. Lippitt on D street, for a private 
academy, in 1868, 

Teachers. — To attempt a list of teachers who have been employed in the 
schools would occupy too much space and probably be beyond our power. 
Among them were Mrs. A, A. Haskell, Mrs. J. E. Woodworth, Prof. E. S. 
Lippitt, who taught as principal for four years, Prof. Brodt, now of Oakland, 
Prof. J. W. Anderson, C. E. Button, C. H. Crowell, and J. W. McClymonds. 
To the efforts of these much of the good condition of the schools at the 
present time is due. 

Mrs. A. A. Haskell was for a long time one of the leading assistants in 
the school, and for a time Principal. 

Prof. E. S. Lippitt, now engaged in the practice of law in this city, was 
Principal from 1863 to 1867. He was succeeded by Prof. Brodt, who taught 
one year and was succeeded by Prof. J. W. Anderson, now Principal of the 
Spring Valley School in San Francisco. Prof. Anderson is a man whose 
administrative ability is excelled by no teacher in the State. He completed 
the task of systematizing the school work in the five years that he was 
Principal, 1868 to 1873. Of the fifteen teachers now engaged in the Peta- 
luma schools, ten were the pupils of Prof. Anderson during the time he was 
here, and all over the county, and in fact all over the State, do you find 
those who stepped from the school-room under his tuition into the school- 
room as instructors. C. H. Crowell succeeded him in 1873. 

In this year the High School, which up to this time had been under the 
same Principal as the grammar and primary departments, was put under a 
separate Principal. Professor C. E. Hutton was chosen by the Board to 
take charge of it. 

To Mr. Crowell's charge were assigned the grammar and primary depart- 
ments. Professor Crowell taught one year, and was succeeded by J. W. Mc- 
Clymonds, who, at the end of four months, was elected Principal of the High 
School, to succeed Dr. T. H. Rose, the successor of Professor Plutton. M. E. C. 
Munday, the present incumbent, succeeded Mr. McClymonds in November, 
1874, and has held the position for the past five years. The schools under his 
charge are divided into eight grades, the first four constituting the grammar de- 
partment, and the last four the primary department. In his department are 
thirteen teachers, M. E. C. Munday being Principal and teacher of the first 
grade. The Vice-Principal is Mrs. J. E. Woodworth ; she teaches in the 
second grade. She has been in the department to the satisfaction of every 
patron of the school for the past fourteen years. 

Miss Eliza Robinson has charge of "the third grade; Miss Marilla Canun 
of fourth grade. Miss Rosa Haskins of the fifth grade, Miss Hattie Fuller of 
the sixth grade, Miss Sallie E. Hall of the seventh grade, Miss Jennie E. 
Davis of the eighth grade — all of these being teachers in the brick school. 

In the High School building is a class composed of the overplus of grades 


of the brick school. This year it is composed of the overplus from the fifth 
and third, but next year it may be of some other grades, varying according 
to the manner in which the variou.? grades fill up yearly. It is presided over 
by Miss J. E. Anderson, daughter of Professor J. W. Anderson, the former 

There are also three primary schools already mentioned, situated in the 
suburbs of the city for the accommodation of the small primary pupils. One 
in East Petaluma is taught by Miss Helen Singley ; one on F street, by Miss 
Carrie Hammond ; and one on the hill in the north-west part of the city by 
Miss Libbie Colvin. 

On D street is a school provided in accordance with the provisions of the 
law for the. separate instruction of colored children, presided over by Miss 
Louisa M. Dixon, also colored. 

We take the followincr from the annual report of the Principal of the 
grammar and primary departments for the year ending June, 1879: Whole 
number pupils enrolled, seven hundred and twenty-eight; average number 
pupils belonging, five hundred and sixteen and six-tenths ; average daily 
attendance, four hundred and eighty-five and three-tenths; percentage of 
attendance, ninety-five ; whole number of tardiness, one thousand, five hun- 
dred and seventy-six ; whole number of days absence, four thousand, eight 
hundred and sixty-eight. 

The High School. — The High School was opened as a separate school in 
1873, with Professor C. E. Hutton as principal. Professor Hutton remained 
in charge for one year, and then resigned to take a position as cashier of the 
Healdsburg Bank. He was succeeded by Dr. T. H. Rose, who taught but 
four months and resigned. J. W. McClymonds, who had been principal of 
the gi'ammar department for four months, succeeded Dr. Rose, and continued 
as principal until he resigned in June, 1877, to engage in the dry goods 
business. Professor Hutton again took charge, and is the present incumbent, 
with his wife as assistant. Since the first year the school has required the 
labor of two teachers. We take the following from Pi-ofessor Hutton's annual 
report for the school year ending June, 1879: whole number of pupils enroll- 
ed, seventy-four; average number of pupils belonging, fifty-eight and eight- 
tenths; average daily attendance, fifty seven and seven-tenths; per cent of 
attendance, ninety-eight and one-tenth. Pupils enter this school on a 
certificate of graduation from the Grammar School. The course embraces 
the usual academic work, and is the connecting link between the grammar 
schools and the university. It embraces all the studies necessary to fit one 
for any of the colleges of the university. 

School Buildings. — These have been alluded to in this article in brief. 
The High School building is situated on D street. It is of Gothic architecture, 
containing two class-rooma on the first floor, two on the second, and a com- 
modious though unfinished hall on the third. 

■ %'^ .Ui! 

W ^'^^ \h r i ill* 


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The one on the corner of B and Fifth streets, and occupied by the Gram- 
mar School, is of brick, two stories in height, and contains eight class-rooms, 
with accommodation for fifty in each room. 

The Primary school-houses already mentioned are one-class houses, with 
accommodation for sixty pupils each, and are three in number. 

All the rooms, except the three last mentioned, are provided with patent 
single seats and desks. The school grounds of the Grammar and High 
Schools are divided into separate grounds for boys and girls, and each of 
these into a front and back yard, the front yard being handsomely orna- 
mented with trees, flowers, shrubbery, and grass plots, the pride of citizens 
teachers and pupils. 

The value of school property, according to an approximate estimate, is as 
follows: High School property, fifteen thousand dollars; Grammar School 
property, forty thousand dollars ; outside property, eight thousand dollars ; 
total valuation, sixty-three thousand dollars. The cost of maintainino- the 
schools is about thirteen thousand dollars per annum, assuming ten thousand 
and five hundred dollars for teachers' salaries, three hundred and sixty 
dollars for janitors, and the balance for incidentals, improvements, etc. The 
revenue for their support is derived from the State and county apportion- 
ments, and from a special city tax of from three thousand dollars to four 
thousand dollars annually. 

Up to 1870, the management of property, election of teachers, etc., were in 
the hands of a Board of Trustees, in accordance with the present plan of 
country school management. In 1870 a special act was passed, restricting 
the district limits within the city limits, and providing for the election of a 
Board of Education of five members, who hold office for two years, two of 
them being elected one year and three the next. 

The present Board is Messrs. James Singley, G. W. Edelman, W. H, Dalton, 
N. M. Hedges, and F. T. Maynard The Secretary and ex-officio City Super- 
intendent of Schools, being Mr. Maynard. Messrs. Maynard, Singley and 
Hedges have been re-elected for so many successive terms that they have 
become regarded as fixtures. 

Messrs. Edelman and Dalton have been members for two successive terms. 
These gentlemen having bet n selected in the first place for their educational 
interest, their successive re-election has contributed probably more than any 
other one cause to the present unexcelled condition of the schools- The 
schools rank among the best in the State. They constitute one of Petalu- 
ma's highest recommendations as a place of residence, and are always pointed 
out to strangers as the pride of the city by its citizens. 

The progress in education throughout the State, whereby the public 
school system has been raised, step by step, from the old "deestrict skewl" 
system of earlier days, to keep pace with a progressive State, has been the 
liistory of progress in the schools of this city. 



Unfortunately, we believe, an experiment, which has been tried before in 
other States and found wanting, is to take the place of our harmonious and 
complete system. Whether the schools of this city are to suffer or not 
depends much upon the people of the city, and judging from the support 
which thev have always accorded so cheerfully to their schools, we are led to 
believe that they may survive the shock. 

Besides the public schools, mention has been made of the private institu- 
tions conducted by the Sisters of Mercy and Miss Martin. Miss Martin's 
school is conducted much upon the same plan as that of the public schools. 
She has about twenty pupils, with three or four boarders. Her instruction 
is very thorough and systematic. 

The Convent school was founded several years ago. It has about sixty 
pupils of every grade, and is well conducted in every department. The edu- 
cation is not sectarian, unless such is the choice of its patrons. It also accom- 
modates boarders in addition to the regular day scholars, and is supported 
by tuition. The grounds are well improved, and are an ornament to the city. 

St. Vincent's Academy, Petahima. — This institution was established in 
July, 18G7, by two members of the Order of Charity, founded in Fiance by 
Vincent de Paul, in the early part of the seventeenth century. The begin- 
ning was a small day-school, consisting of some twenty or thirty pupils 
occupying two small class-rooms in what had been the private residence of 
Judge Southard. Application to admit boarders soon became so urgent as 
to necessitate the building of extra accommodation, which was accomplished 
in 1869. From time to time improvements were made which enabled the 
Sisters, in the present flourishing condition of the Academy, to accommoilate 
about one hundred boarders. The plan of the interior -building exhibits 
much economy and good taste, embodied with excellent judgment. The 
middle story, on which is the front entrance, comprises halls, parlor, chapel, 
music-rooms, four class-rooms, library and clothes-rooms. The upper story 
contains three large dormitories, infirmary, community-room, the latter used 
by the Sisters, whose present number is seven. The entire lower story is 
devoted to the use of the children, containing study-hall, refectories, bath- 
rooms, wash-room and' kitchen. Last to mention, but not least, ai-e the 
spacious play grounds, which command a beautiful view of the surrounding 
country. Different games are furnished in order that the time of reci eation 
may be occupied in relaxing the minds and giving proper exei-cise to the 
physical constitutions of the pupils. 

Secret Societies, Associations, etc.— Petaluma is second to no other 
city in the State of California in the condition of its Lodges, save, perhaps, 
with the single exception of San Francisco. The Masonic Order, as well as 
that of the Odd Fellows, is in a most flourishing condition, while the benefits 
which they confer are dispensed with a due regard to the lessons inculcated 
bv the several Orders. 


Petaluma Chapter. No. 22, R. A. M. — This Chapter was organized under 
dispensation and granted a charter, the members applying for such beino- 
Thomas L. Barnes, Philip R. Thompson, L. E. Brooks, M. R. Evans, William 
Burnett, P. W. Randle, S. Powell, Job Cash, William Ross, and others. The 
first holders of office were: High Priest, Thomas L. Barnes; King, Philip R 
Thompson ; Scribe, L. E. Brooks. Since its first inauguration the member- 
ship has considerably increased, there being now fift}; -seven on the roll, while 
the following are the holders of office for the current term: High Priest, 
James Singley; King, William B. Haskell; Scribe, Alexander Lackey; 
Treasut-er, Conrad Poehlman; Secretary, Josiah H. Crane; Captain of Host, 
Marcus D. Goshen; Principal Sojourner, John W. McClymonds; Royal Arch 
Captain, Thomas R. Jacobs; Master of Third Yail, N. W. Scudder; Master 
of Second Vail, Joseph A. Wiswell; Master of First Vail, William R. Veale; 
Guard, William S. Keays. The Chapter meets on the first and third Monday 
in each month. 

Arcturus Lodge, No. 180, F. A. M. — This Lodge was organized on October 
11th, 1866, and a charter granted by the Grand Lodge of California to Right 
Worshipful Master, C. Simmons; Senior Warden, Simon Conrad; and Junior 
Warden, Benjamin F. Tuttle, who held office under dispensation. The 
Lodge now has a roll of seventy-five members and the office-bearers for the 
current year are: Right Worshipful Master, M. D. Goshen; Senior Warden, 
J. W. McClymonds; Junior Warden, T. R. Jacobs; Treasurer, W. B. Haskell; 
Secretary, J. H. Crane; Senior Deacon, W. R. Veale; Junior Deacon, A. R, 
Doughty; Marshal, N. W. Scudder; Stewards, Alexander Lackey and Charles 
E. Polk; Tyler, William S. Keays. The Lolge meets on Thursday on or 
before full moon. 

Relief Encampment, No. 29, I. 0. 0. i^.— Was instituted July 11, 1868, 
the charter members beinof David Sullivan, G. Warren, B. Bowman, J. S. 
Cutter, L. Ellsworth, James K. Knowles, William Zartman, Moses Korn. 
The first officers of the Encampment were : G.Warren, C. P.; J. S. Cutter, H. 
P.; L. Ellsworth, S. W.; B. Bowen, Scribe; William Zartman, Treasurer; 
David Sullivan, J. W. There are at present fifty-four members in good 
standing, while the present officers are: G. W. Edelman, C. P. ; J. B. Fulraer, 
H. P.; S. J. Hopkins, S. W.; W. H. Zartman, Scribe; L. Ellsworth, Treas- 
urer; Charles Young, J. W. The institution is in a prosperous condition. ' 

Petaluma Lodge, No. 30, L. 0. 0. F. — This Lodge was instituted on Sep- 
tember 30, 1854, with the following charter members: Daniel McLaren, S. 
C. Hayden, S. M. Martin, Thomas M. Murray, E. S. McMurray, Stephen 
Payran, Charles Purvine, William Ayers. The original officers were : Dan- 
iel McLaren, N. G.; S. C. Hayden, V. G.; S. M. Martin, R. S.; William 
Ayers, Treasurer. The present membership of the lodge is one hundred and 
eighty-eight, while the office holders for the current year are: J. B. 


Christie, N. G ; J. B. Fulraer, V. G. ; W. H. Zartrnan, R. S. ; L. Ellsworth, 
Treasurer; F. E. McNear, P. S. The institution is in a flourishing condition, 
and has a fine hall on the principal thoroughfare of the city. 

Petaluvia Lodge No. 161, I. 0. G. T. — This Lodge is the result of the con- 
solidations of the Lodges Star of the West, No. 880, and Starlight, No. 161, 
which was effected February 3, 1879. The number of charter members, 
was thirty-five, and the officers under that grant: William C. Ordway, W. 
C. T.; Clara Wright, W. V. T.; J. S. Fillmore, Chaplain; Ella Gale, W. S.; 
A. G. Twist, W. A. S.; L. D. Gale, W. F. S.; Mrs. C. A. Ten Eyck, W. T.; 
Gordon Cameron, W. M. ; Jennie Cameron, W. D. M. ; Dollie Schlosser, W. 
L G.; Aleck Connolly, W. O. G.; Sadie Wright, W. R. S.; Ella Benjamin, 
W. L. S. ; J. B. Schlosser, P. W. C. T. ; H. H. Jessup, L. D. The Lodge is 
in a flourishing condition, and has a membership of sixty. The oflice- 
holders for the current term are: A. G. Twist, W. C. T.; Ella Gale, W. V. 
T,; W. C. Ordway, W. S.; Dollie Schlosser, W. A. S.; L. D. Gale, W. F. S.; 
F. S. Johnson, W. T.; Annie Eustice, W. M., J. W. Congdon, W. D. M.; 
Jennie Hughes, W. I. G.; John Off'utt, W. O. G.; Mary Frazier, W. C; 
Minnie Aiken, W. R. S.; Alice Gale, W. L. S.; M. E. Congdon, P. M. C. T.; 
H. H. Jessup, L. D. The order meets in the building of the I. O. O. F. on 
every Monday evening. 

Beneficial Associations. — The importance of beneficial assurance to society 
everywhere; the solidity it imparts to all domestic institutions; the protec- 
tion it affords to the labors and recreations of existence; the comforts it 
brings to the sacred fireside of home; the relief it pours out so abundantly 
upon the bereaved and suffering ; the countless benefits it scatters along the 
pathway of life; the blessings it reserves for a future of sorrow — all these 
are now more truly perceived and more warmly appreciated than ever they 
were before. People are beginning to understand, and understand in earnest, 
that their best endeavors are conserved in these wise and benevolent institu- 
tions. Great confidence is reposed in, in all these directions. The hopes of 
parent and child, lover and sweetheart, husband and wife, brother and sister, 
old and young, the widowed and orphaned — all are gathered up in their 
keeping. As population, intelligence and refinement advance, beneficial 
associations must become a more essential part of the social fabi-ic. Beneficial 
associations are more efficacious in their operations — as regards the moral and 
domestic comfort of the people, and in their tendency to diminish taxation 
by reducing pauperisn\ and the possibility of crime — than the legislation of 
our wisest statesmen, and if universally adopted would be a national 

Mutual Relief Association of Peialuma. — The Mutual Relief Association 
of Petaluma is incorporated under an Act passed April 22, 1850, entitled 
' An Act for Incorporating Religious, Social, Beneficial and Literary Associa- 


tions," and reincorporated under the Act passed March 23, 1874, entitled 
'• An Act Relating to Mutual, Beneficial and Relief Associations." 

The latter Act was passed especially for the protection of this and similar 
societies, and to guard them against the encroachment of the life insurance 
companies and the life insurance laws. These statutes are very strict in 
their requirements, especially in regard to the funds. They cannot be 
applied in any other manner than that set forth in the Act of incorporation. 
If they should wrongfully be diverted from their proper use, they can be 
reclaimed at any time within six years, upon the complaint of any member 
of the association filed in the District Court. 

The original officers were : Col. J. A. Harding, W. K. Davis, E. Newburgh 
C Railsback, F. W. Shattuck, Simon Conrad, Capt. J. Snow, James Harvey, 
Thomas Rochford, J. Cavanagh, L. F. Carpenter, G. R. Codding. 

This class of mutual associations originated with the Episcopal clergy, for 
the protection of their families. Other denominations, as also the Masons 
and Odd Fellows, soon adopted the same plan. It gave such general satis- 
faction, accomplishing its designs with such a certainty and at such a trifling 
expense, that it was not long before it was adopted by the large manufac- 
turers and their thousands of operatives, as the cheapest and best plan for 
protection against the frequent demands of the needy, whose legal protectors 
had died in their service, and to place their widows and orphans above want. 
In this manner it has steadily and rapidly grown in favor throughout the East- 
ern States for more than a quarter of a century. Realizing these facts, the 
citizens of San Francisco formed an association confining its membership to 
that city. Some citizens of Petaluma aj)plied to become members, and having 
been denied, by reason of its restrictions, they determined to organize an asso- 
ciation in Petaluma. A meeting was accordingly called by a number of 
its leading citizens. The result was the incorporating of a society in the 
spirit of the above, and, notwithstanding it has brought out the strongest 
opposition of the several life insurance companies, misrepresenting the asso- 
ciation in the most subtle manner, through thousands of publications, and 
with the aid of hundreds of their paid agents, still the Mutual Relief Asso- 
ciation has steadily increased in numbers and influence until it is known 
throughout the land ; and it has the satisfaction of having relieved widows 
and orphans to the amount of over sixty thousand dollars. This it has done 
with an expense so slight to each member that it was not heeded, as they 
frequently remark that they are glad of an opportunity to contribute occa- 
sionally to the needy and afflicted, especially when they know that the 
money goes direct into their hands. The association stands a guardian, ever 
ready to respond in like manner to the future call of its members, which now 
number over fifteen hundred. 

The object of -the association is to secure pacuniary aid of two thousand 
dollars to the families or dependents of deceasad members. This is accom- 


plished in the most perfect and substantial manner, as has been substantiated 
within the last few years by this and kindred societies ; and that, too, with 
an expense so light that it has proved not to be a burden upon its members, 
which not only increases its popularity, but brings it within reach of those 
most needing its protection and aid. Any person, male or female, may 
become a member of this association if in good health, and over eighteen 
and under fifty years of age. Each member pays, according to age, four to 
ten dollars annually, and one dollar on the death of any member. On proof 
of the death of a member of the association, his family or the person he 
has appointed, receives immediately from the association, two thousand 
dollars, or a like proportion to the number of members, if not filled All 
surplus shall be loaned on good and sufficient security (on real estate) to 
form a " permanent reserve fund," the interest on which annually reverts to 
members in the form of an abatement of assessments. In case of death, they 
send a notice to each member. They have agents in each town to receive 
the assessments, and save members the trouble of sending direct to the 
Secretary. The a.ssociation, as well as its funds, is under the control of a 
Board of twelve Directors, who are elected annually by the members of the 
association, and is also incorporated under the Beneficiary Act of the State 
which Act does not allow any funds to be used for purposes other than set 
forth in the rules and regulations, while the Secretary and Treasurer are 
required to give heavy bonds for the faithful performance of their duties. 
The officers and directors of the association receive no compensation what- 
ever for their services, except the Secretary, who is simply paid for keeping 
the books of the association. All members will be allowed the same interest 
on money standing to their credit that the funds of the association draw> 
and can deposit such amounts as they may desire as advance payinents. The 
association is designed to save money, not to spend it. None will feel poorer 
for belonging to it, while many will bless the day that their father, mother, 
husband or brother joined it. The annual payments are: For those under 
thirty years, when they join the association, four dollars; over thirty and 
under thirty-five, five dollars; over thirty-five and under forty, six dollars; 
over forty and under forty-five, eight dollars; over forty-five and under 
fifty, ten dollars. These payments are not raised above the first payment 
made when joining. If a member prefers, he may make the following full 
payments in advance, and not be required to make any further annual pay- 
ments : For those under thirty years at time of joining, thirty dollars; over 
thirty and under thirty-five, thirty-five dollars; over thirty-five and under 
forty, forty dollars; over forty and under forty-five, forty-five dollars; over 
forty-five and under fifty, fifty dollars. 

The ninth annual meeting of the Mutual Relief Association of Petaluma 
was held at the office of the association on the evening of the 8th of July, 
1879, at 8 o'clock, pursuant to a notice published in the Standard. After 


receiving the reports of the Secretary and Treasurer, the meeting took action 
upon proposed changes in the by-laws presented to them by the Directors. 
Each section proposed to be amended was acted upon separately, and was 
passed as amended by the Board, with nearly a unanimous vote. 

The meeting, after disposing of the by-laws proceeded to the election of 
Directors to serve for the ensuing year, which resulted in the choice of L. F. 
Carpenter, Ed. Newburgh, E. S. Lippitt, F. W. Shattuck, John Cavanagh, 
Isaac Bernhard, D. W. C Putnam and F. E. McNear, of the old Board, and 
A. H. Drees, Kelly Tighe, W. L. Van Doren and Wm. Camm, new members. 
G. R. Codding, Secretary. After which the meeting adjourned, with a 
unanimous feeling among themselves that the association is not only the 
largest as to the members, but the strongest financially of any one in the 

Sonoma and Marin Mutual Beneficial Association. — The subject of life 
insurance is one of the great problems that the nineteenth century has 
attempted to solve. It is a pleasing idea this preparing in life for the wel- 
fare of the loved ones who must be left behind after our death, and it is for 
this avowed purpose that men have joined themselves to associations, formed 
in different ways and under different laws, each agreeing to pay certain 
sums in life so that after death certain sums may be paid to surviving heirs. 
But one great fault with old style life insurance companies was, that the 
expenses ate up the income derived from the insured. High-priced officials 
must be employed, palatial offices must be furnished, all at the expense of 
the insured. At last the crash came. In the last few years it is safe to say 
that hundreds of the so-called life insurance companies have been obliged to 
close their doors, and the country been filled with thousands who have 
been swindled out of money they could ill afford to lose. It was at" this 
juncture that mutual protective and beneficial associations came into notice, 
and the different secret societies, express and railroad employees, and even 
members of churches, formed themselves into associations, agreeing to pay a 
certain sum upon the death of each and every member. These associations 
gave such general satisfaction, accomplishing its designs with such a cer- 
tainty and at such trifling expense, that it was not long before it was adopted 
by the large manufacturers and their operatives, as the cheapest and best 
plan for protection against the frequent demands of the needy, and to place 
their widows and orphans above want. Realizing these facts, the citizens of 
San Francisco formed an association, confining its membership to this city. 
Some citizens of Petaluma applied to become members, and having been 
denied, by reason of its restrictions, they determined to organize an associa- 
tion in Petaluma. The result was the incorporation of a society in the spirit 
of the above, on October 1, 1868, under the name of the Sonoma and Marin 
Mutual Beneficial Association, and it has steadily increased in numbers and 
influence until it is known throughout the land, and it has the satisfaction 


of knowing that it has relieved widows and orphans to the amount of over 
two hundred and sixty thousand dollars. This it has done with an expense 
so slight to each member that it was not heeded. The association stands as 
guardian, ever ready to respond in like manner to the future call of its mem- 
bers, which now number nearly two thousand. The assets of the Sonoma 
and Marin Mutual Beneficial Association were on the 1st of October, 1878, 
fifty-eight thousand, five hundi'ed and fifty-one dollars and forty-six cents. 
The dividends paid up to that time amounted to twenty-eight thousand, 
six hundred and ninety-one dollars and ninety-seven cents, and the benehts 
paid, to two hundred and ninety-four thousand eight hundred and seventy- 
one dollars. This is a remarkably good showing, and reveals the fact that 
the affairs of the company have been most excellently managed, and the 
interests of the members most carefully guarded. The Directors of the asso- 
ciation are H. T. Fairbanks, Dr. J. S. Shepherd, Wm. H. Dalton, Conrad 
Poehlman, L. G. Nay, N. M. Hedges, C. P. Hatch, J. A. Wiswell, Dr. J. H. 
Crane, William Zartman, Daniel Brown, C. Blackburn. The office of this 
company is located in the building, and any information regarding the Asso- 
ciation may be obtained by addressing the Secretary, M. H. Falkner, 

Library Association. — The public library in Petaluma, containing about 
two thousand well-selected volumes, was organized under the auspices of the 
Independent Order of Odd Fellows of Petaluma, in January, 18G7, the first 
officers being: T. F. Baylis, President; L. Ellsworth, Vice President; Dr. J. H. 
Crane, Secretary; William Zartman, Treasurer. In October, 1878, the insti- 
tution was turned over to the city and organized as a public library. The 
rooms of the association are well managed and furnished, and are conveni- 
ently situated on Main street, near the corner of English street. The present 
officers are: Lee Ellsworth, President; M. E. C. Munday, Vice-President; 
John P. Rodgers, Secretary; Mrs. Lackie, Librarian. 

Petaluma Teiii'perance Reform Club. — On Wednesday evening, February 
19, 1879, Doctor D. Banks McKenzie of Boston, Massachusetts, addressed the 
citizens of Petaluma and vicinity on the subject of temperance. At the close 
of his address the audience extended him an invitation to remain a week, at 
least, and speak every evening in the theater. Dr. McKenzie having accept- 
ted, the meetings were so held ; total abstinence pledges were prepared, and 
there were received during the week over four hundred signatures of men, 
besides about three hundred ladies and children. Many of the ladies had 
already become members of the Woman's Temperance Union. 

During the meetings the interest strongly and steadily increased, while at 
those held later the audiences filled the theater to its utmost capacity, even 
to standing room. 

A collection was taken up on each evening, and after paying expenses of 
the meetings, a balance of twenty-three dollars and seventy cents remaining 


ry>\jt^ ^^/z^ti^Cv-t^o 


was donated to the Home for the Care of Inebriates at Needham. Massachu- 
setts, of which the doctor is superintendent. On the evening of February 
26th, a special collection was made for the Home, realizing the sum of nine- 
ty-one dollars and thirty cents, making a total for that purpose of one hun- 
dred and fifteen dollars, which sum was placed at Doctor McKenzie's disposal 
for the purpose named. 

On Tuesday evening, February 25th, a Temperance Reform Club was 
formed wiCli one hundred and sixty-three men enrolled; on the following 
day the membership was increased to two hundred and two, and on March 
1st the Club numbered two hundred and thirty. The meeting of the 25th 
February being opened with prayer by the Rev. R. F. Allen, the following 
officers were named and elected to serve for the first quarter, viz.: President, 
Frank W. Shattuck; First Vice-President, James Davidson; Second, Aleck 
Conley; Third, E. G. Hopkins; Fourth, Andrew Spotsvvood, Fifth, Charles 
Humphries; Treasurer, John S. Van Doren; Secretary, O. T. Baldwin; Assist- 
ant Secretary, Charles E. Singley; Financial Secretary, L. D. Gale; Marshal, 
William M. Brown. After the foregoing officers had been chosen, t'lere 
followed remarks from Dr. D. Banks McKenzie, Rev. G. B. Allen and others, 
while the executive committee consisting of the officers of the club were 
instructed to consider the feasibility and propriety of a torch-light procession 
on the evening of the 27th, in lieu of which a ratification meeting was held. 
On February 26th, the subjoined committees were appointed, viz.: Committee 
of Vigilance, Messrs. William M. Brown, Chairman, Albert Averil, Frank 
Adel, J. J. Barnes, George W. Brush, John Lawlor, James Edwards, Walter 
Frost, Orris Elmore, G. P. Hall, John Norsworthy. Hall Committee, Messrs. 
George P. McNear, J. L. Winans, W. D. McLaren; Mesdames John S. Van 
Doren, A. P. Whitney, G. R. Codding. Finance Committee, Messrs. L. D. 
Gale, B. Haskell, J. W. Harris, Samuel Martin. Committee on Entertain- 
ment, A. J. Show, Scott Bowles, C. O. Perkins, P. H. Lawlor, C. S. Farquar; 
Mesdames John A. McNear, H. P. Brainard; Misses A. R. Congdon, A. Has- 
brouck, Clara Wright. Visiting Committee, A. F. Killam, Thomas R. Jacobs, 
John Johnson; Mesdames Miller, Lackie and A. A. Peary. 

At the ratification held on the 27th of the same month, addresses were 
delivered by W. B. Haskell, E. G. Hopkins, John Ross, H. M. Webber, R. H. 
Duncan, E. S. Lippitt, and the Rev. W. S. Scott, who opened the meeting 
with prayer, while before separating Mr. Haskell, on behalf of the members, 
presented Doctor McKenzie with a valuable and elegant California saddle of 
Petaluma manufacture, which was received by him with feeling and timely 

In connection with the institution are a well stocked reading-room and a 
Free Labor Bureau, while social conforts are to be had with extreme facility 
at reasonable rates. Lectures are frequently given in connection therewith^ 
while addresses bearing on the vice of intemperance and other topics are of 
frequent occurrence. 


The present officers are: President, Frank W. Shattuck; Vice-Presidents, 
B. Haskell, John Ross, R. H. Duncan, P. Lawlor, John J. Barnes ; Treasurer, 
John S. Van Doren ; Secretary, O. T. Baldwin; Financial Secretary, L. D, 
Gale; Assistant Secretary, E. R. Healey ; Marshal, W. M. Brown. The regular 
meetings of the club are held every Saturday evening, while the regular 
business meetings are held on each Wednesday. 

Washington Hall Association. — This company was incorporated February 
22, 1870, the first officers being: Lee Ellsworth, President; Phillip Cowen. 
Secretary; C. P. Hatch, Treasurer. It consists of a theatre, stage, side and 
end galleries, auditorium and basement of the following dimensions: Stage, 
twenty -four feet; two dressing rooms under the stage, and one on each side 
of the first entrance, fourteen by twenty feet; the whole is lighted by one 
hundred and forty burners, the gas being generated by a pneumatic gas 
machine. The building, which was opened on September 7, 1879, includes 
an auditorium fifty-six by sixty- six feet while its entire dimensions are sixty 
by one hundred feet, erected at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars. The 
present officers are L. Ellsworth, President; L. Bauer, Secretary, and C. P. 
Hatch, Treasurer. 

Cypress Hill Cemetery. — To the northward of the city of Petaluma, on an 
eminence commanding a beautiful prospect of the fertile valleys and bold 
mountains, is situated this handsome cemetery. Just outside the limits of 
the busy mart of trade, just beyond the sounds of its hum and whirr, almost 
beside the workers of to-day in th*^ city of the living, lie the workers of yes- 
terday, gone forever to rest in the quiet, sacred, silent city. How beautiful 
the site which has been chosen for this silent city ! If man must die, if " of 
dust thou art and to dust thou shalt return " is the fiat of the Almighty, 
how pleasant it is to know that our ashes will pass to the mother earth in 
such a lovely spot as this! This cemetery is the result of the private 
enterprise of one of Petaluma's most prominent citizens , John A. McNear. 
Previous to 1866, there had not been any very suitable place for a cemetery 
provided for by the citizens of Petaluma, but in that year Mr. McNear put 
into execution a project for providing for that pressing necessity. Accordingly 
the present site of Cypress Hill was chosen and burial lots laid out. Thou- 
sands of trees were planted and miles of road made, and other work done of 
great expense, to make it as attractive and well adapted as possible for a 
cemetery. It was not long before the enterprise began to be appreciated, 
and soon family lots were taken and handsome walls placed around them, and 
other improvements made. Finally elegant marble and granite shafts began 
to rear their heads in honor of the departed dead. One visiting it to-day 
finds a stately avenue leading up to it, begirt with evergreen trees. Pass- 
ing through the gate he finds the lots arranged in regular order, with 
avenues passing through them. Tributes to the dearly loved dead are reared 
on every side, extending from the costly monument to the modest headstone. 


Beneath them all are on a level, no matter what their earthly station. 
Prominent among the most beautiful of the monuments, stands the one 
erected sacred to the memory of the wife and children of Mr. McNear. It 
stands on the very apex of the knoll, and is surrounded by a beautiful lot of 
goodly proportions. But nobler far than shaft of marble or granite, and far 
more enduring is the monument Mr. McNear has erected for himself in thus 
preparing at his own expense such a fitting and beautiful resting place for 
the beloved dead of Petaluma. 

The Sonoma and Marin District Agricultural Society. — The first organi- 
zation of the society was made under the name of the Sonoma Agricultural 
and Mechanics' Society, on April 12, 1859. Pursuant to a call made by 
publication a large number of subscribers to the Sonoma County Fair met 
at the Masonic Hall, Healdsburg, on Thursday evening, March 24, 1859, to 
devise the necessary ways and means of carrying out the enterprise. A 
temporary organization being deemed advisable, Hon. W. P. Ewing was 
called to the chair, and stated the object of the meeting. James B. Boggs 
appointed Secretary. A committee of two from each township was 
was appointed to solicit further subscriptions. A committee of five was 
appointed to report permanent organization and rules and regulations, to 
report at a future meeting. Meeting then adjourned to April 12, 1859, at 
which time the society was duly organized, with the following officers : 
President, Washington P. Ewing, and nine Vice-Presidents; Secretary, J. B. 
Boggs; Corresponding Secretary, G. W. Granniss; Treasurer, Lindsay Carson; 
and a Board of nine Directors, consisting of Col. A. Haraszthy, Major J. 
Singley, C. J. Robinson, Josiah Morin, G. P. BriiiiitJeld, J. N. Bailhache, Julio 
Carillo, J. W. Wilbur, and D. D. Phillips. The first fair was held at Healds- 
burg. At the election of officers for the next year, J. Q. Shirly was elected 
President, and P. G. Wickersham, Secretary. At a meeting of the society held 
March 8, 1860, on motion of Mr. Weston, a committee of five was appointed to 
confer with agricultural societies of the counties of Marin, Mendocino, Napa and 
Solano, and in case no society exist in those counties, then with some of the 
prominent agriculturists and stock-raisers therein, upon the subject of estab- 
lishing a District Agricultural Society, to be known as the Sonoma and Napa 
District Society. H. L. Weston, I. G. Wickersham, Joseph O'Farrell, J. S. Rob- 
berson and Rod Matheson were appointed said committee. The second fair was 
held at Petaluma, on the grounds of Uriah Edwards, and for it premium lists 
were prepared under the direction of Mr. Wickersham. Col. Haraszthy made 
the opening address. Petaluma Band gave the music for the occasion, at the 
price of four hundred dollars. The records of the society for that year are 
very full and complete, made by the Secretary, S. D. Towns, who had been 
elected to fill the place of Mr. Boggs. E. Latapie was the Marshal of the 
week. The bar was let for thirty-five dollars. Among the other exhibitions 


of the week was a trial of fire engines. The premiums consisted of cash and 
silver plate. Races were held one day at the old race track. 

At the election held at the close of the fair, Dr. John Hendley was elected 
President ; Wingtield Wright, Vice-President ; W. H. Crowell, Secretary, and 
J. H. Holmes, Treasurer, and it was resolved to hold the next fair at Santa 
Rosa. Thereafter the fair was held at different points, until 1867, when the 
society was reorganized, with J. R. Rose, President, and Phillip Cowen, Sec- 
retary. That year the north portion of the present grounds were purchased 
from Gates, and the pavilion was ei-ected, and a large part of the cattle stalls 
and horse stalls constructed, and the society, under its present management, 
held its first fair ; J. P. Clark was Marshal ; N. C. Stafford, superintendent 
of the pavilion, and M. Doyle, superintendent of the stock grounds. To 
make the purchase of permanent grounds about two hundred and fifty life 
memberships were sold at the price of twenty-five dollars per share, with 
privilege of free admission to all subsequent fairs and right to exhibit. The 
old race track, about two miles from the city, was still used for all races. 
The second annual election of the present society was held on the second Sat- 
urday of May, 1868. The counties of Sonoma, Marin, Mendocino and Lake 
constituted the district at this time. J. R. Rose was re-elected President; 
Andrew Mills, Vice-President, and Phil. Cowen, Secretary, with nine 
Directors. The fair for 1868 was held at the new grounds, September 21st to 
25th, inclusive. George Pearce made the opening address, and E. S. Lippitt 
the annual address. J. P. Clark acted as Marshal, and F. W. Lougee and 
M. Doyle as superintendents of pavilion and stock grounds. This year, for 
the first time, the society conferred diplomas for meritorious exhibits. The 
society showed by its exhibition this year a steady growth. The interest 
was greater than ever, the exhibits larger and more creditable. 

At the annual election, in May, 1869, J. R. Rose was unanimously elected 
President; A. Mills, Vice-President; P. Conin, Secretary; I. G. Wickersham, 
Treasurer; with the same number of Directors. The fair this year was 
held September 27th to October 1st. N. L. Allen acted as Marshal, D. W. 0. 

Putnam was Superintendent of Pavilion, and Rochford, superintendent 

of stock grounds. The fair was very creditable, and the society felt the 
need of more room. A committee was appointed to secure more ample 
grounds for the Fair and race-track. 

On the 8th of January, 1870, they reported that they could buy the 
Liberty race ground, on the Bloomfield road, at six thousand dollars ; land of 
Mr. Long for eighty-five dollars per acre, and at Gill's place for forty dollars 
per acre. 

On the 15th of January, I. G. Wickersham presented a petition to send 
to the Legislature to solicit State aid, and a meeting of life members was 
called to meet April 2, 1870, to select new grounds for the fair. The result 
of the action of the meeting was to buy grounds adjacent to the old fair 


grounds, and upon them construct a half-mile race track, grand stand, and 
other conveniences for a permanent fair ground. 

The new board of officers were elected in December, 1870, and consisted 
of E. Denman, President; Lee Ellsworth and H. Mecham, Vice-Presidents; J. 
Grover, Secretary; and Wm. Hill, Treasurer. 

Society during this year duly incorporated, and J. R. Rose, to whom the 
several parcels of land of the fair ground had been deeded, as trustee for 
the society, deeded them to the society. A committee, of E. Denman and 
C. Tempel, was also appointed to make arrangements to pay the large 
indebtedness of the society. 

The Fair for 1871 was held September 25th to 30tb, and was well 
attended. The third stage of the society's existence had now commenced. 
The receipts were largely in excess of former years, amounting to three 
thousand three hundred and seventy dollars. 

The annual meeting for 1871 was adjourned until January 6, 1872, when 
an election of officers was had, with the following result : President, Lee 
Ellsworth; E. Denman and J. R. Rose, Vice-Presidents; Frank Lougee, 
Treasurer; and J. Grover, Secretary. 

The great expense of the new purchase and grand stand, and construction 
of race track, had been met by the generous action of the public-spirited 
citizens of the city of Petaluma and county, who assumed the liabilities by 
their joint note, amounting to about twelve thousand dollars. About forty 
signed the note. This amount was afterward paid by them, as the note 
became due, except five thousand dollars, which was paid by the city of 
Petaluma. The payment of this debt by these men relieved the society 
from a great burden. 

The Society's fair for 1872 was held September 9th to 14th, inclusive. 
B. Haskel was superintendent of pavilion. The receipts of the Society 
this year were larger than any preceding year, amounting to five thousau 1 
eight hundred and forty-one dollars, besides the sum of two thousand dollars 
appropriated by the State. 

At the annual election held December 7, 1872, the retiring President, L. 
EUsworth, made a report to the society of their progress, from its reorgan- 
ization in 1867 to date, by which it appeared that the total receipts of the 
society had amounted to twenty-nine thousand six hundred and thirty-three 
dollars, and that the society had expended, for grounds, pavilion, grand 
stand and premiums, the sum of forty thousand seven hundred and fifty-one 
dollars, leaving an indebtedness of eleven thousand one hundred and 
eighteen dollars, secured as heretofore stated. 

The following officers were elected for ensuing year : President, E. Den- 
man; Vice-Presidents, L. Ellsworth, Wm. Zartman; Secretary, E. S. Lippitt; 
Treasurer, Robert Seavey. 

The fair for 1873, was held October 6th to 11th, inclusive, Capt. Watson 


acting as Marshal. Rev. G. B. Taylor delivered the annual address. The 
receipts for the year were six thousand two hundred dollars, besides two 
thousand dollars received from the State, most of which was expended in 
enlarging the accommodations for stock and enlargement of the grand stand. 

The annual meeting for 1873 was held on December 7th, and the following 
officers were elected to serve for the ensuing year: President, J. R. Rose; 
Vice-Presidents, Lee Ellsworth and H. Mecham; Secretary, E. S. Lippitt; 
Treasurer, A. J. Pierce ; Directors, A. Morse and Robert Seavey. 

The fair for the year 1874 was held September 14th to 19th, inclusive. 
D. W. C. Putnam was elected superintendent of pavilion, and Judge Shafter 
delivered the annual address. The fair was largely attended. 

At the annual meeting in 1874 the following officers were elected to serve 
for the ensuing year: President, J. R. Rose; Vice-Presidents, H. Mecham> 
G. D. Green; Secretary, E. S. Lippitt; Treasurer, A. Morse; Directors, P. J. 
Shafter and Robert Crane. The district was enlarged now by taking in 
Napa and Solano counties, and exhibitors restricted to the district. 

At the fair held in 1875 Prof. Fitzgerald, State Superintendent of Public 
Schools, delivered the annual address. This year the pavilion was enlarged 
by the addition of agricultural and horticultural'halls. The receipts amounted 
to five thousand six hundred and fourteen dollars. 

At the annual election in 1875, the following officers were elected for the 
ensuing year : President, L. Ellsworth ; Vice-Presidents, A. P. Whitney and 
P. J. Shafter; Secretary, E. S. Lippitt; Treasurer, A.; Directors, 
Robert Crane and H. Mecham. Mr. Ellsworth having resigned, H. Mecham 
was afterward elected by the Board of Directors to fill his place. 

The Fair for 1876 was held from October 9th to 14th, and was in extent 
and quality greatly in excess of any heretofore held. The display of stock 
was the finest exhibited at any. of the fairs of the State, and the depart- 
ments of agriculture and horticulture were greatly in advance of former 
fairs. Major Armstrong acted as Marshal. Judge Shafter delivered the 
annual address. 

At the annual meeting held December 2, 1876, the following officers were 
elected: President, H. Mecham; Vice-Presidents, A. P. Whitney, P. J. Shafter; 
Secretary, E. S. Lippitt; Treasurer, A. Morse ; Directors,- G. D. Green, Robert 
Crane. By action of the society the District was enlarged to take in the 
counties west of the Sacramento and north of the bay, including Humboldt 
and Yolo. The fair for 1877 was held September 24-29. M. D. Boruck 
delivered the annual address, James Armstronof acting: as Marshal. The 
receipts were the largest ever had by the Society, amounting to seven 
thousand five hundred and seventy-seven dollars. The Pavilion was enlarged 
by extending the west wing forty feet. A large number of stalls for horses and 
stock were built and the whole grounds thoroughly overhauled and repaired, 
which not only absorbed the large receipts but entailed a debt of one thousand 


three hundred and eighty-five dollars. At the annual election this year, 
1877, the old Board of officers were re-elected and the time of fair fixed for 
September 21st to 28th inclusive. During this year the grounds had been 
greatly adorned by the planting of trees. An art gallery was built twenty- 
five feet wide by eighty feet long and other permanent improvements of the 
grounds and buildings. 

The fair held in 1878 was the largest and most interesting of the whole 
series. The receipts amounted to seven thousand six hundred and sixty-five 
dollars. The expenditures, eight thousand four hundred and thirty-six 
dollars. Leaving a small debt subsisting against the society. 

The Legislature at the session of 1877-8 enacted a new law in regard to 
agricultural societies making the President and two Directors to be chosen 
each year and the Treasurer and Secretary to be other than members of the 
Board. At the last election held December, 1878, the following Board of 
Directors was elected: President, A P. Whitney; E. Denman and R. Crane, 
Directors for one year ; J. McM. Shaf ter and H. Mechara, for two years ; A. 
Morse and E,. Seavey, for three years. F. W. Lougee was by the Board 
elected Treasurer and W. E. Cox Secretary. 

During the last year the same enterprising spirit has been exhibited by 
the Board — new gates to the Park have been built and a new ticket office 
and Treasurer's office. The grand stand was enlarged one half its former 
dimensions. New trees planted and new stalls erected. The last fair was 
equal to any that preceded it. J. P. Clark was Marshal of the week • 
D. W. C. Putnam, Superintendent of the Pavilion. E. S. Lippitt delivered 
the annual address. It will thus be seen that the old friends of the Society 
are still its earnest supporters. 

One of the most attractive features of the fair for the last tliree years 
has been the award of premiums offered by Judge J. McM. Shafter to 
young ladies for best bread, cakes, salads, baked beans and soups. These 
prizes of beautiful silver ware and the finest Sevres ware, amounting to 
several hundreds of dollars, have called forth a lively competition and in 
connection with the annual address to the young ladies by the honored giver 
has proved one of the pleasantest and most attractive features of the annual 
fair. His generosity does not diminish; " may his shadow never be less. " 

We have thus given the history of the society down to the present time. 
The successful reorganization of the Society was largely due to the untiring 
efforts of its first president, J. E,. Rose, Esq. The gross receipts for the last 
twelve years has been about ninety thousand dollars, of which sum about 
forty thousand dollars has been expended in premiums. The balance has 
been expended in purchase of grounds, erection of buildings and the current 
expenses of annual fairs. The Society has been the means of creating a 
greater interest in farming and farm products and has made the District 
unsurpassed by any in the State in the number and quality of its thorough- 


bred cattle and horses. Under its present management, the Society now- 
free from debt enters upon a continued and wider sphere of usefulness- 
The election of the following officers December 6, 1879: A. P. Whitney, 
President; Ptobert Crane and E. Denman, Directors, argues well for its 
increasing usefulness and success. 

Fetalavia Fire Department.- — ^The first fire company in Petaluma was 
oro-anized Wednesday, June 10, 1857, with the following officers: President, 
H. L. Weston; Secretary, E. B. Cooper; Treasurer, William Hill; Foreman, 
William Van Houten; First Assistant, M. Woods; Trustees: W^. L. Ander- 
son, George Andrews, M. Weil. The engine and hose-cart was purchased of 
Knickerbocker Company, No. Five, of San Francisco, and w^as quite a 
feature in the Fourth of July procession, twenty-two years ago. It is a 
Smith machine, and at present is housed in the house of Company No. One. 
Followino- is a list of the forty-five charter members: H. L. Weston, M. 
Woods, J. B. Southard, V. D. Lambert, Frank Bray, George Mower, C. I. 
Robinson, H. D. Ley, J. Warshawski, John F. Murphy, M. Weil, M. Lehman, 
John S. Van Doren, W. W. Churchill, S. Wiley, Edmund Buckley, WilUam 
Van Houten, E. B. Cooper, James H. Knowles, Charles Fann, George W. 
Andrews, J.